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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 01, 2019


Novel sleep index, wakefulness may predict if patients able to breathe on their own
Critically ill patients are more likely to be successfully weaned from a mechanical ventilator, or breathing machine, if they have higher levels of wakefulness and both their right and left brains experience the same depth of sleep, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Tool reveals molecular causes of disease, including infant cancer
Demonstrating a new tool with a broad ability to reveal molecular causes and markers of diseases, a Princeton University-led team has found connections between four genes and a rare cancer affecting babies and young children.
Tree rings tell climate stories that technology can't
A new study in Nature Communications by scientists from the Harvard Forest, Columbia University, ETH Zürich, and elsewhere shows how information revealed by a new method of analyzing tree rings matches the story told by more high-tech equipment over the short-term.
Researchers search for solutions to 'invisible threat' that affects cancer care workers
A study from the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center sought to improve nurses' handling of chemotherapy by delivering an educational intervention with quarterly reminders and tailored messages.
Researchers develop techniques to track the activity of a potent cancer gene
Researchers at the National Cancer Institute use novel tools to reveal that cancer gene MYC causes global changes in gene activation, with subtle differences between individual cells.
New research from Arctic: Thawing permafrost peatlands may add to atmospheric CO2 burden
A new study led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland and the University of Montreal, in cooperation with researchers from various Nordic research institutions, finds that peatlands may strengthen the permafrost-carbon feedback by adding to the atmospheric CO2 burden post-thaw.
New research area: How protein structures change due to normal forces
Proteins made in our cells are folded into specific shapes so they can fulfill their functions.
Python hearts reveal mechanisms relevant to human heart health and disease
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder study fast-growing python hearts, which could provide insights to aid those with diseased heart growth.
Major genetic study confirms that many genes contribute to risk for Tourette's syndrome
A meta-analysis of multiple studies into the genetic background of Tourette's syndrome (TS) -- a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic involuntary motor and vocal tics -- finds that variants in hundreds of genes, working in combination, contribute to the development of the syndrome and suggests that Tourette's is part of a continuous spectrum of tic disorders, ranging from mild, sometimes transient tics to severe cases that can include psychiatric symptoms.
A new technique allows researchers to focus the action of drugs via infrared light
A scientific team led by the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona manages to efficiently activate molecules located inside cell tissues using two-photon excitation of with infrared light lasers.
Machine learning expands to help predict and characterize earthquakes
In a focus section published in the journal Seismological Research Letters, researchers describe how they are using machine learning methods to hone predictions of seismic activity, identify earthquake centers, characterize different types of seismic waves and distinguish seismic activity from other kinds of ground 'noise.'
Spider silk could be used as robotic muscle
Researchers at MIT and other universities have found that spider silk produces a strong twisting motion when exposed to humidity, and may be usable for future artificial muscles or actuators.
Breast milk microbiome contains yeast and fungi: Do these benefit the infant?
Investigators have now shown that the breast milk microbiome contains fungi.
Scientists produce colorless reservoir of platinum metal-like single atoms in liquid
Researchers at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Delaware have reported a way to produce a colorless liquid reservoir of metal-like discrete platinum atoms.
Balloons the number 1 marine debris risk of mortality for seabirds
A new IMAS and CSIRO collaborative study has found that balloons are the highest-risk plastic debris item for seabirds -- 32 times more likely to kill than ingesting hard plastics.
Research shows link between rise of European populism and vaccine hesitancy
There is a significant association between the rise of populism across Europe and the level of mistrust around vaccines, according to a study by Queen Mary University of London.
New X-ray measurement approach could improve CT scanners
A new measurement approach proposed by NIST scientists could lead to a better way to calibrate computed tomography (CT) scanners, potentially streamlining patient treatment by improving communication among doctors.
Koala-spotting drones proves a flying success
QUT researchers have developed an innovative method for detecting koala populations using drones and infrared imaging that is more reliable and less invasive than traditional animal population monitoring techniques.
Bioluminescence sensors make new approaches to drug discovery possible
Canadian and Brazilian researchers describe the use of 13 molecular tools for measuring different intracellular signaling pathways and evaluating the action mechanisms of new drugs.
Supercomputing enables sound prediction model for controlling noise
Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems.
NYUAD researchers achieve solid state thermochemiluminescence with crystals
Researchers from NYU Abu Dhabi's Chemistry Program have developed macroscopic organic crystals that emit light when heated, a process referred to as thermochemiluminescence that was previously reported only in solution.
Researchers discover clues to brain differences between males and females
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have discovered a mechanism for how androgens -- male sex steroids -- sculpt brain development.
Study examines how sensitivity to emotions changes across the lifespan
Why do we become more positive as we grow older?
How hair dye works (video)
Whether you need a disguise to run from the law or are just trying to emulate *NSYNC-era frosted tips, you may need some chemical assistance to put the hue in your do.
Organic electronics: Scientists develop a high-performance unipolar n-type thin-film transistor
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report a unipolar n-type transistor with a world-leading electron mobility performance of up to 7.16 cm2 V-1 s-1.
High-fat diet and age alter microflora and cause inflammation in heart failure
Growing older and a high-fat diet enriched with omega 6 fatty acids are major contributors to health risks ranging from diabetes to heart failure.
A highly sensitive new blood test can detect rare cancer proteins
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University developed a new blood test that can identify proteins-of-interest down to the sub-femtomolar range with minimal errors.
More humans always mean fewer African carnivores, right? Nope
African carnivores face numerous threats from humans. So, it's a fair assumption that the presence of more humans automatically equates to decreases across the board for carnivores.
High-fat diet causes thickening of arteries down to the cellular level
Researchers at the University of Illinois show that the membranes of cells surrounding arteries get stiffer and thicker in response to a high fat diet, due to both LDLs and oxidized LDLs.
Scientists rejuvenate stem cells in the aging brain of mice
Scientists from the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg and from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) have been able to rejuvenate stem cells in the brain of aging mice.
Blood test developed to predict spontaneous preterm birth
Results from a multicenter study show that five circulating microparticle proteins found in first-trimester blood samples may provide important clues about risk of spontaneous preterm birth.
An abundance of beneficial mutations
Despite its key importance, the genetic architecture of adaptive processes remains largely unresolved.
Traumatic brain injury and kids: New treatment guidelines issued
To help promote the highest standards of care, and improve the overall rates of survival and recovery following TBI, a panel of pediatric critical care, neurosurgery and other pediatric experts today issued the third edition of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Severe TBI.
Cell editors correct genetic errors
Almost all land plants employ an army of editors who correct errors in their genetic information.
Considerably reduced toxicant levels in heated tobacco prototype compared to cigarettes
New research conducted by Imperial Brands suggests that toxicants of notable public health interest are substantially reduced in the aerosol from our heated tobacco product (HTP) prototype, compared to smoke from a standard reference cigarette.
Frailty may be a new screening criterion for fitness for an operation
Frailty is linked to more complications after an operation among adults of all ages, according to researchers of a large new study.
The sneaky way estrogen drives brain metastasis in non-estrogen-dependent breast cancers
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows that while estrogen doesn't directly affect triple-negative breast cancer cells, it can affect surrounding brain cells in ways that promote cancer cell migration and invasiveness
Tracking firefighters in burning buildings
McMaster researchers, working with partners at other universities, have created a motion-powered, fireproof sensor that can track the movements of firefighters, steelworkers, miners and others who work in high-risk environments where they cannot always be seen.
How the humble marigold outsmarts a devastating tomato pest
Researchers from Newcastle University's School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, carried out a study to prove what gardeners around the world have known for generations -- marigolds repel tomato whiteflies.
Embryos' signaling proteins go with the flow
Protein signaling in the rapidly differentiating cells of embryos is far more complex than previously thought, as pathways take cues from many other players.
Bacteria in frog skin may help fight fungal infections in humans
Scientists at the Smithsonian and INDICASAT in Panama explored the compounds produced by frog skin bacteria as potential novel antifungal sources for the benefit of humans and amphibians.
Gene transcription machinery constrains DNA movements, study suggests
Researchers in Japan have discovered that the DNA inside human cells moves around less when its genes are active.
Paleontology: Diversification after mass extinction
A team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich paleontologist Adriana López-Arbarello has identified three hitherto unknown fossil fish species in the Swiss Alps, which provide new insights into the diversification of the genus Eosemionotus.
An inner ear protein speaks volumes about how sound is converted to a brain signal
Researchers at Rockefeller University characterized a molecular spring attached to the membrane of inner ear cells that converts bending forces created by a sound wave to electrical signals that the brain can interpret.
Scientists discover how surfaces may have helped early life on Earth begin
Researchers at the University of Oslo find that when lipids land on a surface they form tiny cell-like containers without external input, and that large organic molecules similar in size to DNA's building blocks can spontaneously enter these protocells while they grow.
Cells use sugars to communicate at the molecular level
Research from the University of Pennsylvania reveals how cells communicate at the molecular level.
Sex and aggression in mice controlled by cold-sensor in brain
Researchers at the University of Illinois College of Medicine find that TRPM8, long ago identified as a cold-temperature sensor, regulates aggressive and hypersexual behavior in response to testosterone.
BFU scientists learned how to manage the properties of amorphous microwires
Amorphous ferromagnetic microwires are thin glass coated wires used to manufacture magnetic safety tags and in medicine.
Towards a blood test for early-stage liver disease
One in four people in Western and Asian societies develop a build-up of fat in the liver as a result of an unhealthy diet.
Detailed new primate brain atlas could lead to disease insights
An international project based in Japan and co-led by CSHL Professor Partha Mitra has mapped connections in the marmoset brain at an unprecedented level of detail.
New device mimics beating heart with tiny pieces of heart tissue
Researchers at Imperial College London created a bioreactor to allow heart tissue to experience mechanical forces in sync with the beats, like it would in the body, to study the mechanics of healthy and diseased hearts.
What causes that peak? Answering a long-standing question for covalent liquids
Researchers at the University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science have demonstrated a link between local structural ordering and scattering pattern features for tetrahedral liquids.
New research opens door to more efficient chemical processes across spectrum of industries
Chemical processes that are more efficient and less expensive may be coming to industries ranging from battery manufacturing to detergent production thanks to work that advances the use of metal oxides as catalysts.
Ducks offer researchers a unique opportunity to study human touch
If it walks like a duck (or a goose or a swan), it can find food in mud without seeing or smelling it.
Two genes explain variation in color and behavior in the wall lizard
How are reptiles capable of generating such a diversity of bright colors?
New chemical probes advance search for new antibiotics
Researchers at Indiana University have invented a new method to observe bacterial build cell walls in real time that could contribute to the search for new antibacterial drugs.

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