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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | March 13, 2019


National survey of emergency dept management of self-harm highlights successes, room for improvement
In a study published March 13 in JAMA Psychiatry, researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital describe the results of a national survey to evaluate how frequently evidence-based management practices are used in EDs when treating patients who present for self-harm.
Cardiorespiratory fitness of farmed Atlantic salmon unaffected by virus
The respiratory systems of Atlantic salmon function normally even when carrying large loads of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), new University of British Columbia research has found.
New method to assess platelet health could help ER doctors
UW researchers have created a novel system that can measure platelet function within two minutes and can help doctors determine which trauma patients might need a blood transfusion upon being admitted to a hospital.
Could internet activity provide accurate in plant and animal conservation?
More than a quarter of the species in their dataset showed seasonal interest.
Report examines origins and nature of 'math anxiety'
A report out today examines the factors that influence 'math anxiety' among primary and secondary school students, showing that teachers and parents may inadvertently play a role in a child's development of the condition, and that girls tend to be more affected than boys.
Stress hormones promote breast cancer metastasis
Scientists from the University of Basel and the University Hospital of Basel have deciphered the molecular mechanisms linking breast cancer metastasis with increased stress hormones.
Testing the symmetry of space-time by means of atomic clocks
According to Einstein the speed of light is always the same.
The Lancet: Global study highlights role of democracy in improving adult health
Democratic rule, enforced by regular free and fair elections, appears to make an important contribution to adult health by increasing government spending on health and potentially reducing deaths from several non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and transport injuries.
Mentally tiring work may increase diabetes risk in women
Women who find their jobs mentally tiring are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the European Journal of Endocrinology.
Interdisciplinary education helps hospital patients better understand their medications
Patients understanding their medications and taking them as instructed are important parts of improving the care and outcomes of heart attack patients, as well as potentially reducing avoidable readmissions, according to research presented at the ACC Quality Summit in New Orleans.
Understanding global trauma systems -- OTA International looks at current status, future needs
National trauma systems play a critical role in improving survival and reducing disability from musculoskeletal and other injuries.
Research finds simple urine test allows for rapid diagnosis of preeclampsia
About one in 20 women develop preeclampsia during pregnancy, which can be life-threatening to both moms and babies.
Blunting pain's emotional component
Pain researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Democracy linked to global health gains in low-, middle-income countries
A new study led by Stanford Medicine and the Council on Foreign Relations suggests that a better way to measure the role of democracy in public health is to examine the causes of adult mortality, such as noncommunicable diseases, HIV, cardiovascular disease and transportation injuries.
Scientists find new approach that shows promise for treating cystic fibrosis
Researchers say a widely-used antifungal drug may hold promise for treating people with cystic fibrosis, a life-threatening genetic disorder that causes serious damage to the lungs.
Infants' advances in speech processing play role in language-cognition link
A new Northwestern University study provides the first evidence that infants' increasingly precise perceptual tuning to the sounds of their native language sets constraints on the range of human languages they will link to cognition.
X-ray analysis of carbon nanostructures helps material design
Nanostructures made of carbon are extremely versatile: they can absorb ions in batteries and supercapacitors, store gases, and desalinate water.
NIH study reveals differences in brain activity in children with anhedonia
Researchers have identified changes in brain connectivity and brain activity during rest and reward anticipation in children with anhedonia, a condition where people lose interest and pleasure in activities they used to enjoy.
Potential cystic fibrosis treatment uses 'molecular prosthetic' for missing lung protein
An approved drug normally used to treat fungal infections could also do the job of a protein channel that is missing or dysfunctional in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, operating as a prosthesis on the molecular scale, says new research from the University of Illinois and the University of Iowa.
SPIE journal reports advances in use of 3D models in assessing coronary artery disease
In an article published in SPIE's Journal of Medical Imaging (JMI), researchers announce critical advances in the use of 3D-printed coronary phantoms with diagnostic software, further developing a non-invasive diagnostic method for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) risk assessment.
Tiny 'blinkers' enable simultaneous imaging of multiple biomolecules
In everyday life, blinking lights can send signals -- for example, that a car is going to turn.
Mount Sinai researchers discover serotonin can regulate gene expression inside neurons
Findings could fundamentally change how scientists interpret the biological activities of serotonin.
Researchers explore link between metal exposure and Parkinson's symptoms
A new study from an Iowa State University biomedical researcher describes the biological process that causes Parkinson's-like symptoms to develop following exposure to the metal manganese.
Defects help nanomaterial soak up more pollutant in less time
Cleaning pollutants from water with a defective filter sounds like a non-starter, but a recent study by chemical engineers at Rice University found that the right-sized defects helped a molecular sieve soak up more perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in less time.
Rice U. study highlights danger of vitamin B12 deficiency
Using roundworms, one of Earth's simplest animals, Rice University bioscientists have found the first direct link between a diet containing too little vitamin B12 and an increased risk of infection by two potentially deadly pathogens.
Virtual time-lapse photos can capture ultrafast phenomena
EPFL scientists have developed a new image-processing method that can capture extremely rapid phenomena using any type of camera.
Trust more important than ecology to gain local support for conservation
Trust, transparency, communication, and fairness in the planning and management of conservation projects may be more important for gaining long-term local support than emphasizing ecological effectiveness, UBC-led research has discovered.
Scientists delineate pathway that helps us make antibodies
Our bodies are continuously concocting specific antibodies to thwart invaders like a virus or even pollen, and scientists have new information about how the essential production gets fired up and keeps up.
Preclinical data shows combination immunotherapy could stop liver cancer growth
New preclinical data from University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center offers proof-of-principle for a combination immunotherapy that suppresses tumor growth in the liver.
NIH supports international moratorium on clinical application of germline editing
Today, leading scientists and ethicists from seven countries have called for an international moratorium on the use of genetic editing to modify the human germline for clinical purposes.
Therapy could improve and prolong sight in those suffering vision loss
Ganglion cells in the eye generate noise as the light-sensitive photoreceptors die in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.
Reports of corruption increase in Nigeria after film and text campaign
A star-studded Nigerian movie about corruption -- and a subsequent text-messaging campaign to combat government graft -- led a record number of citizens in Nigeria to report acts of corruption, according to a study in the journal Science Advances.
Mobilizing the lymphatic system may help combat obesity-induced metabolic syndrome
Recently, investigators have been exploring whether they can engage the lymphatic system to help regulate obesity-induced inflammation of fat (adipose) tissue and restore systemic metabolic fitness.
'Inactive' ingredients may not be, study finds
MIT and Brigham and Women's Hospital researchers have found that nearly all pills and capsules contain some inactive ingredients that can cause allergic reactions or food intolerances in certain patients.
Machine learning tracks moving cells
Scientists can now study the migration of label-free cells at unprecedented resolution, a feat with applications across biology, disease research, and drug development.
Astronomers discover 83 supermassive black holes in the early universe
Astronomers from Japan, Taiwan and Princeton University have discovered 83 quasars powered by supermassive black holes that were formed when the universe was only 5 percent of its current age.
Study examines use of video-assisted surgery for known, suspected lung cancer in VA
A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resection is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove part of a lung in patients with known or suspected lung cancer. This study used Veterans Affairs data for about 11,000 veterans who had lung resections from 2002 to 2015 to examine adoption of the procedure.
Research shines light on preventing infection after miscarriage
New international guidelines on how to provide treatment for women having miscarriage surgery are needed after a large-scale international trial led by the University of Birmingham.
Having great-grandparents, cousins with Alzheimer's linked to higher risk
Having a parent with Alzheimer's disease has been known to raise a person's risk of developing the disease, but new research suggests that having second- and third-degree relatives who have had Alzheimer's may also increase risk.
Physicists reverse time using quantum computer
Researchers from the Russia teamed up with colleagues from the US and Switzerland and returned the state of a quantum computer a fraction of a second into the past.
'Virtual focus groups' uncover clues to rural and urban HPV vaccination disparities
Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center and Dartmouth College have harnessed the power of social media to understand differences in attitudes and behaviors about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among hundreds of thousands of parents living in rural and urban areas.
Coastal ecosystems suffer from upriver hydroelectric dams
Researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and UC Riverside found that inland river dams can have highly destructive effects on the stability and productivity of coastline and estuarine habitats, which provide protection from storms, commercial fishery habitats, and belowground carbon storage.
Powering devices -- with a desk lamp?
Batteries power most of our devices, and even some cars.
Race, gender and age affect who writes majority opinions for state supreme courts
FINDINGS: Female justices are more likely to be assigned to write an opinion in general, but they are less likely to be selected to write the opinion if a case is considered complex.
Later abortion increased in Texas after House Bill 2
A new study by the Texas Policy Evaluation Project (TxPEP) finds that the number of second-trimester abortions in Texas increased 13 percent after the implementation of the restrictive abortion law known as House Bill 2 (HB 2), even as the total number of abortions declined by 18 percent.
How marine snow cools the planet
Researchers at the University of Sydney have mapped out how carbonate formations formed from 'marine snow' have helped regulate Earth's temperature over 120 million years.
Study: Free fatty acids appear to rewire cells to promote obesity-related breast cancer
Free fatty acids in the blood are linked with higher rates of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer in obese postmenopausal women, according to a new study led by food science and human nutrition professor Zeynep Madak-Erdogan at the University of Illinois.
Hepatitis B vaccination in preadolescents lowered the disease incidence rate in Catalonia
Introducing hepatitis B vaccine in preadolescents meant a decline in the disease incidence rate by 52 percent according to a study in which the University of Barcelona took part.
Understanding and controlling the molecule that made the universe
Trihydrogen, or H3+, is acknowledged by scientists as the molecule that made the universe.
Special effects: How a movie could reduce corruption
A film and texting campaign can increase anticorruption reports from citizens, study shows.
The power of gratitude in the workplace
The study shows that being thanked more often at work predicted better sleep, fewer headaches and healthier eating, because it improved nurses' work satisfaction.
How the heart sends an SOS signal to bone marrow cells after a heart attack
Exosomes are key to the SOS signal that the heart muscle sends out after a heart attack.
Antibody-drug conjugate shows efficacy against cell surface protein in neuroblastoma
Physician-scientists in the Cancer Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have developed a preclinical, potent therapy attached to an antibody that targets a surface protein expressed in most childhood neuroblastomas, effectively killing cancer cells.
What do gardens bring to urban ecosystems?
Twin Cities research moves urban agriculture forward.
Discovery of how organs form helps researchers to develop future diabetes treatments
In a new study, researchers at the University of Copenhagen show that the development of a certain type of immature stem cells -- also known as progenitor cells -- depends on the quantity of a special protein and interaction with other cells in the body.
Bat flight model can inspire smarter, nimbler drones
Engineers at the University of British Columbia have captured the full complexity of bat flight in a three-dimensional computer model for the first time, potentially inspiring the future design of better drones and other aerial vehicles.
Cardiovascular disease in China
This study analyzed data from the Global Burden of Disease Study to look at the rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China along with death and disability from CVD from 1990 to 2016.
ZEB1 throttles therapeutic target, protecting KRAS-mutant lung cancer
A cellular identity switch protects a cancer-promoting genetic pathway from targeted therapy, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center today reported in Science Translational Medicine.
Determining what binds to mucus
The human body is full of mucus. This viscous goo isn't just a nuisance that gets coughed up or sneezed out -- it can bind to drugs, toxins or microbes, potentially impacting human health.
Prehistoric Britons rack up food miles for feasts near Stonehenge
Archaeologists have unearthed evidence of the earliest large-scale celebrations in Britain - with people and animals traveling hundreds of miles for prehistoric feasting rituals.
On-the-spot genome analysis
By fine-tuning how algorithms carve up DNA data, Garvan researchers have made it possible to do genomic analysis on a smartphone.
New cell subtypes classified in mouse brain
An international team has created a new way to classify neurons in the mouse brain.
Quasar jets confuse orbital telescope
Astrophysicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI RAS), and NASA have found an error in the coordinates of active galactic nuclei measured by the Gaia space telescope, and helped correct it.
The media shape public opinion about surrogacy and homosexuality
The media play a key role in informing society and at the same time an important role in shaping perceptions and judgements about social issues, particularly concerning issues on which there is insufficient knowledge and/or a lack of experience.
Drug that prevents lung problems in older preemies also lowers costs
A drug given to nearly 10 percent of all pregnant women to prevent severe respiratory ailments in preterm babies also reduces healthcare costs, according to a new study by Columbia researchers.
NASA infrared imagery reveals powerful Tropical Cyclone Idai at Mozambique's coast
NASA's Terra satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Cyclone Idai approaching the coast of Mozambique.
Found: the missing ingredient to grow blood vessels
Researchers have discovered an ingredient vital for proper blood vessel formation that explains why numerous promising treatments have failed.
Avocado seed extract shows promise as anti-inflammatory compound
An extract from the seeds of avocados exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in a laboratory study, according to Penn State researchers, and it represents a potential source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds that could be developed as a functional food ingredient or pharmaceuticals.
Critical materials: Researchers eye huge supply of rare-earth elements from mining waste
Researchers have examined a method to extract rare-earth elements from mining waste that could provide the world with a reliable supply of the valuable materials.
Largest carbon dioxide sink in renewable forests
Forests are the filters of our Earth: they clean the air, remove dust particles, and produce oxygen.
Changes in rat size reveal habitat of 'Hobbit' hominin
A study of rat body sizes shifting over time gives a glimpse into the habitat of the mysterious hominin Homo floresiensis -- nicknamed the 'Hobbit' due to its diminutive stature.
Inactive ingredients in pills and capsules may cause allergic, adverse reactions
The majority of oral medications available to consumers contain ingredients that can affect sensitive individuals.
Reducing the burden of tuberculosis treatment
A research team led by MIT has developed a device that can lodge in the stomach and deliver antibiotics to treat tuberculosis, which they hope will make it easier to cure more patients and reduce health care costs.
Drug-delivering device streamlines tuberculosis treatment in pigs
Scientists have created a retrievable, wire-like device that safely resides in the stomach and releases large dosages of drugs over several weeks.
Researchers create nano-bot to probe inside human cells
U of T Engineering researchers have built a set of magnetic 'tweezers' that can position a nano-scale bead inside a human cell with unprecedented precision.
Blood test to diagnose heart attacks is flawed, warn researchers
The blood test used to diagnose a heart attack (acute myocardial infarction) in patients admitted to hospital can be misleading, warn researchers in a study published by The BMJ today.
Like rats, you brain may contain 'time cells' that help form long-term memories
A new U of T study represents an important step in understanding the mystery behind how the brain encodes time when long-term memories are formed.
Inside a tumor: Purple bacteria visualize 'big eaters'
A team of scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, the Juelich Research Center, the Technical University of Munich and the Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf has shown that harmless purple bacteria (Rhodobacter) are capable of visualizing heterogeneity in tumors.
Breaking down bedbugs
It might seem like a crazy idea for landlords to tell potential tenants about past bedbug infestations, new research suggests it will pay off in the long run.
Researchers: Pesticides influence ground-nesting bee development and longevity
Results from a new study suggest that bees might be exposed to pesticides in more ways than we thought, and it could impact their development significantly.
Report: Despite being skilled producers, Danish farmers face poorer conditions than their European counterparts
AGRICULTURE Danish farmers are good at exploiting their productive potential, but higher production costs make it difficult for them to compete with other EU nations.
Neural networks predict planet mass
To find out how planets form astrophysicists run complicated and time consuming computer calculations.
Looking back and forward: A decadelong quest for a transformative transistor
Transistors have been miniaturized for the past 50 years, but we've reached the point where they can't continue to be scaled any further.
New technology accelerates the science of deceleration
While it's not a case of reinventing the wheel, researchers are looking at ways to improve standard braking equipment on trains and cars.
Drexel Report: Low-income and minority youth with autism face worse outcomes than peers
Autism occurs in children from all backgrounds. But the impacts of autism are not felt equally across all groups.
Tunas, sharks and ships at sea
Researchers combine maps of marine predator habitats with satellite tracks of fishing fleets to identify regions where they overlap -- a step toward more effective wildlife management on the high seas.
Physicists proposed fast method for printing nanolasers from rerovskites
International research team developed a new method of synthesizing miniature light sources.
Hungry moose more tolerant of wolves' presence
Research in western Wyoming shows that close proximity of wolves does cause moose to move, but not enough to drive them from their preferred habitats -- especially late in the winter.
Climate change could devastate painted turtles, according to new study
Climate change could contribute to the demographic collapse of the painted turtle, a species that has temperature-dependent sex determination.
The Lancet: Mosquito-killing drug reduced malaria episodes by a fifth among children, according to randomised trial
Childhood malaria episodes could be reduced by 20 percent -- from 2.49 to 2 cases per child -- during malaria transmission season if the whole population were given a drug called ivermectin every three weeks, according to the first randomised trial of its kind including 2,700 people including 590 children from eight villages in Burkina Faso, published in The Lancet.
ALMA observes the formation sites of solar-system-like planets
Researchers have spotted the formation sites of planets around a young star resembling our sun.
Molecular patterns could better predict breast cancer recurrence
The genetic and molecular make-up of individual breast tumours holds clues to how a woman's disease could progress, including the likelihood of it coming back after treatment, and in what time frame, according to a Cancer Research UK-funded study published in Nature.
Hematopoietic stem cells: Making blood thicker than water
An Osaka University-led team revealed that Ragnase-1 is a key regulator of the self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
Tracking urban gentrification, one building at a time
A new deep-mapping computer model can detect visual changes to individual properties, allowing researchers to more rapidly track gentrification within neighborhoods and cities, according to a study published March 13, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Lazar Ilic, Michael Sawada, and Amaury Zarzelli of the University of Ottawa, Canada.
The day the world burned
When UC Santa Barbara geology professor emeritus James Kennett and colleagues set out years ago to examine signs of a major cosmic impact that occurred toward the end of the Pleistocene epoch, little did they know just how far-reaching the projected climatic effect would be.
It's not your fault -- Your brain is self-centered
You're in the middle of a conversation and suddenly turn away because you heard your name.
Measuring the success of East African protected areas
East Africa (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) contains 1,776 protected areas (including 186 'strict' protected areas) covering more than 27 percent of its terrestrial area.
Families and schools may play key roles in promoting adolescent self-confidence
Self-confidence is critical for teens as they prepare for the challenges of adulthood, and both families and schools may together play a vital role in boosting adolescents' confidence even in the face of difficulties with family, according to researchers.
WVU researchers investigate the impact of the statewide opioid crisis on teachers
Researchers at West Virginia University have evaluated the impact of the opioid crisis in classrooms across the Mountain State through a survey of 2,205 teachers in 49 counties.
New evidence proves the work of UN agencies is effective
Academics led by Professor Lucie Cluver at Oxford University have shown how key services in lower and middle-income countries can contribute to multiple sustainable development goals (SDGs), even for the highest-risk children and adolescents.
New study shows human impact erodes chimpanzee behavioral diversity
A research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research investigated whether chimpanzee behavioral diversity is reduced when there is high human impact on their habitats.
New cholesterol-lowering drug could help patients unable to take statins
A new class of oral cholesterol-lowering drug could help patients unable to take statins due to side effects.
Dramatic shifts in first-time opioid prescriptions bring hope, concern
Analysis shows the monthly rate of first-time opioid prescriptions dropped by more than half between 2012 and 2017.
Big stats, human stories change attitudes about global issues
New research from Cornell University sheds light on the types of statistical and narrative evidence that are most effective at persuading people to pay attention to global issues.
Researchers uncover new clues to surviving extinction
'Great Dying' extinction survivors appear to have shared many of the same ecological roles as their predecessors, with one catch -- there was a surge in the number of individuals with more modern traits.
Protected areas could help large herbivores bounce back after war
Large herbivore populations can substantially recover after war-induced declines, given that protected area management is provided, according to a study published March 13 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Marc Stalmans of Gorongosa National Park in Mozambique, and colleagues.
Early-life exposure to microbiota restricts colon cancer later in life, study finds
Exposure to microbiota, or microorganisms such as bacteria, in the early stages of life plays a crucial role in establishing optimal conditions in the intestine that inhibit the development of colon cancer in adulthood, according to a study led by Georgia State University.
Thanks to pig remains, scientists uncover extensive human mobility to sites near Stonehenge
A mutli-isotope analysis of pigs remains found around henge complexes near Stonehenge has revealed the large extent and scale of movements of human communities in Britain during the Late Neolithic.
Strontium isotope maps are disturbed by agricultural lime
Strontium isotopes are frequently used in archaeological studies to establish the provenance and migration history of prehistoric people and artifacts.
Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa not on track for under-5 mortality reduction goal
The relatively slow pace of neonatal and under-5 mortality reduction could prevent most countries in sub-Saharan Africa from achieving targets set in Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG-3) by 2030, according to a study published March 12 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Iván Mejía-Guevara of Stanford University, USA and colleagues.

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