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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | March 19, 2019


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Discovery of a crucial immune reaction when solid food is introduced that prevents inflammatory disorders
In newborn infants, gut microbiota is first conditioned by breast milk components.
Health insurance associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease among aging immigrants
Aging immigrants' risk for cardiovascular disease may be heightened by their lack of health insurance, particularly among those who recently arrived in the United States, finds a study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.
Nature hits rewind
The study of evolution is revealing new complexities, showing how the traits most beneficial to the fitness of individual plants and animals are not always the ones we see in nature.
Underwater surveys in Emerald Bay reveal the nature and activity of Lake Tahoe faults
Emerald Bay, California, a beautiful location on the southwestern shore of Lake Tahoe, is surrounded by rugged landscape, including rocky cliffs and remnants of mountain glaciers.
Fountain of youth for heart health may lie in the gut
As our collection of resident gut bacteria changes with age, it increasingly produces harmful metabolites that damage veins and blood vessels, driving disease, a new study suggests
Prescribing healthy food in Medicare/Medicaid is cost effective, could improve health
A team of researchers modeled the health and economic effects of healthy food prescriptions in Medicare and Medicaid.
Many pet owners keen to have vegan pets, University of Guelph study finds
A growing number of pet owners is interested in feeding their pets plant-based diets.
Former inmates need social supports to maintain mental health, Rutgers study says
Men released from prison who receive social, community and spiritual support have better mental health, according to a study by researchers at Rutgers School of Public Health.
Androgen receptor, treatment target for prostate cancer, imports into mitochondria
Androgens stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. Many drugs to target that cancer focus on stopping androgen biosynthesis or blocking the androgen receptor, or AR.
Meal kits and recipe tastings increase healthy food selections among food pantry clients
Food pantry clients are more likely to select nutrient dense products when they are arranged with all ingredients needed to make a meal.
People choose healthy and sustainable lunches if given the green light
People are likely to choose healthier and more sustainable canteen meals if they are labelled with a traffic light system, according to research from Queen Mary University of London.
Heading towards a tsunami of light
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation.
Meditation enhances social-emotional learning in middle school students
Middle school students practicing meditation as part of a school Quiet Time program had significant improvements in social-emotional competencies and psychological distress, according to a new study published in Education.
Superbugs have colonized the International Space Station -- but there's a silver lining
Researchers have taken another small step towards deep space exploration, by testing a new silver- and ruthenium-based antimicrobial coating aboard the International Space Station (ISS).
SwRI-led team discovers surprisingly old surface on near-Earth asteroid
A Southwest Research Institute-led team has discovered that the surface geology on asteroid Bennu is older than expected.
Food safety: Dung beetles and soil bacteria reduce risk of human pathogens
Food safety regulations increasingly pressure growers to remove hedgerows, ponds and other natural habitats from farms to keep out pathogen-carrying wildlife and livestock.
Study suggests why some young adults may be more likely to engage in unsafe sex
Findings may contribute to improved education and preventive efforts to help control the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
First Anatolian farmers were local hunter-gatherers that adopted agriculture
An international team has analyzed eight prehistoric individuals, including the first genome-wide data from a 15,000-year-old Anatolian hunter-gatherer, and found that the first Anatolian farmers were direct descendants of local hunter-gatherers.
OSIRIS-REx spies on the weird, wild gravity of an asteroid
Research led by the University of Colorado Boulder is revealing the Alice in Wonderland-like physics that govern gravity near the surface of the asteroid Bennu.
A nutty solution for improving brain health
Long-term, high nut consumption could be the key to better cognitive health in older people according to new research from the University of South Australia.
Chicago's Large Lot Program sowing change in inner-city communities
Chicago's Large Lot Program is promoting positive change in inner-city neighborhoods by enabling residents to buy and repurpose vacant lots that attracted crime and other problems, a new study by University of Illinois researchers and the USDA Forest Service.
Drug used to control cholesterol found effective against cancer-associated cachexia
Experiments with mice suggest that treatment with atorvastatin can attenuate adipose tissue remodeling, leading to rapid weight loss and muscle atrophy.
The Lancet Psychiatry: Daily use and high potency cannabis linked to higher rates of psychosis
Daily cannabis use, especially of high potency cannabis, is strongly linked to the risk of developing psychosis, according to a case-control study from 11 sites across Europe, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Economic growth linked to reduction in stunting and thinness, but rise in overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents
The first study to evaluate the effect of economic growth on malnutrition in all its forms has found that, while stunting and thinness have ameliorated in recent years, a four-fold increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents occurred in China between 1995 and 2014, with around one in five children and adolescents now either overweight or obese.
Floodplain forests under threat
Researchers at the University of Freiburg warn of the effects of summer drought and competition for ground water.
A study analyzes pre-installed software on Android devices and its privacy risks for users
A study that encompasses 82,000 pre-installed apps in more than 1,700 devices manufactured by 214 brands, reveals the existence of a complex ecosystem of manufacturers, mobile operators, app developers and providers, with a wide network of relationships between them.
Simple blood test could determine preterm birth rate in low-resource countries
A study funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation shows blood test and mathematical model can accurately identify preterm babies without ultrasound.
The rise and fall of Ziggy star formation and the rich dust from ancient stars
Researchers have detected a radio signal from abundant interstellar dust in MACS0416_Y1, a galaxy 13.2 billion light-years away in the constellation Eridanus.
How hot spots of genetic variation evolved in human DNA
New research investigates hot spots of genetic variation within the human genome, examining the sections of our DNA that are most likely to differ significantly from one person to another.
Tiny song bird makes record migration, U of G study proves
The bird's trek between its breeding grounds in the central and western boreal forest of North America and its winter home in the Amazon Basin is one of the longest songbird migrations recorded.
Milk or no milk? Study fills long-time knowledge gap on babies with genetic disorder
A new study co-authored by a Washington State University researcher finally brings clarity to parents of children with Duarte galactosemia, a milder variant of a genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to process a milk sugar known as galactose.
Older people less anxious, more active and less likely to fall in retirement communities
A new report shows older people benefit from improved physical and mental health in retirement communities, resulting in cost savings to the NHS.
Are there Zika reservoirs in the Americas?
A researcher at Washington University in St. Louis travels the Americas, collecting feces from nonhuman primates to determine the risk of Zika reservoirs.
Revealing the rules behind virus scaffold construction
Professor Danielle Tullman-Ercek's insights into virus shell self-assembly could impact future drug delivery and therapeutic strategies.
Study explaining side effects of statins finds drug can have unexpected benefits
By suppressing the activity of key cellular receptors called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their interacting partners called G proteins, statins have the potential to alter various bodily functions controlled by this important pathway, according to researchers at The University of Toledo.
From foam to bone: Plant cellulose can pave the way for healthy bone implants
Researchers from the University of British Columbia and McMaster University have developed what could be the bone implant material of the future: an airy, foamlike substance from plant cellulose that can be injected into the body and provide scaffolding for the growth of new bone.
Researchers develop new method to detect cancerous DNA in lung cancer patients' blood
A new method of determining the sequence of molecules in DNA can be used to accurately detect small fragments of cancerous genetic material in blood samples from lung cancer patients, according to new research in Annals of Oncology.
Go for a run or eat chocolate: A choice dictated by the cannabinoid receptors
A study by Inserm and CNRS researchers published on March 7, 2019 in JCI Insight reveals that the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors play an essential role in the choice between running and eating chocolatey food.
Stillbirths more likely if diabetes in pregnancy not diagnosed
Women who develop diabetes in pregnancy but are not diagnosed are much more likely to experience stillbirth than women without the condition, according to new research.
Deep brain stimulation provides sustained relief for severe depression
Patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant depression can benefit not only acutely but also the long-term from deep brain stimulation, as researchers from the Medical Center -- University of Freiburg and their colleagues from the University Hospital Bonn demonstrate in a current study.
Every hour 30 people are diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in the European Region
New ECDC/WHO Tuberculosis surveillance data for Europe show that despite an overall decline in numbers of people suffering from TB, the disease remains a major public health challenge in the Region.
NASA mission reveals asteroid has big surprises
A NASA spacecraft that will return a sample of a near-Earth asteroid named Bennu to Earth in 2023 made the first-ever close-up observations of particle plumes erupting from an asteroid's surface.
Researchers find cost-effective method for hydrogen fuel production process
U of A researchers have identified an inexpensive way to boost the efficiency of a process used to create hydrogen, a clean, renewable fuel.
Speeding the development of fusion power to create unlimited energy on Earth
A detailed examination of the challenges and tradeoffs in the development of a compact fusion facility with high-temperature superconducting magnets.
Rabbits like to eat plants with lots of DNA
Rabbits prefer to eat plants with plenty of DNA, according to a new study by Queen Mary University of London and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Discovery of parasitic arsenic cycle may offer glimpse of life in future, warmer oceans
A newly discovered parasitic cycle, in which ocean bacteria keep phytoplankton on an energy-sapping treadmill of nutrient detoxification, may offer a preview of what further ocean warming will bring.
Human diet changes influenced consonant prevalence distribution in languages
Labiodental sounds, such as F and V, have been known to be rarely met in hunter-gatherer languages.
Making xylitol and cellulose nanofibers from paper paste
The ecological bio-production of xylitol and cellulose nanofibers from material produced by the paper industry has been achieved by a Japanese research team.
New technique for in-cell distance determination
Researchers from the University of Konstanz, Bielefeld University and ETH Zurich demonstrate for the first time that the pulsed EPR technique RIDME (relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement) can be used for in-cell distance determination in biomacromolecules.
Even low doses of synthetic cannabinoids can impair cognitive performance
A new study shows that inhaled doses of as little as 2 mg of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 can significantly impair critical thinking and memory, slow reaction times, and increase confusion and dissociation.
Initial results from Hayabusa2's visit to the Ryugu Asteroid, shaped Like a 'spinning top'
A trio of papers in this issue presents the initial results from the Japanese Hayabusa2 mission to the near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu.
Video and film portals that incorporate real-time comments from their audiences
This technology allows watching videos of various kinds and posting comments that are superimposed on the video, collaboratively.
Healthy food prescriptions could save lives and money
Healthy food prescriptions through Medicare and Medicaid could generate substantial health gains and be highly cost-effective, according to a study published March 19 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Yujin Lee and Dariush Mozaffarian of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, Massachusetts, United States and colleagues.
When development and conservation clash in the Serengeti
New or upgraded roads in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem around Serengeti National Park will not reduce growing pressure on the ecosystem, a study shows.
New class of drugs could treat ovarian cancer
A team of researchers across the University of Manchester have shown that a new class of drugs are able to stop ovarian cancer cells growing.
Fishing for fun, not food: Study takes stock of recreational fishing impacts
A new paper by an international team of researchers argues that decision-makers and fishing organizations must recognize the growing role of recreational fishing and the potential pressures it places on fish stocks.
New model IDs primate species with potential to spread Zika in the Americas
In the Americas, primate species likely to harbor Zika -- and potentially transmit the virus -- are common, abundant, and often live near people.
Study finds natural selection favors cheaters
Natural selection predicts that mutualisms -- interactions between members of different species that benefit both parties -- should fall apart.
Bright skies for plant-based jet fuels
With an estimated daily fuel demand of more than 5 million barrels per day, the global aviation sector is incredibly energy-intensive and almost entirely reliant on petroleum-based fuels.
Carbon monoxide detectors could warn of extraterrestrial life
A UC Riverside-led team used computer models of chemistry in the biosphere and atmosphere to identify two intriguing scenarios in which carbon monoxide readily accumulates in the atmospheres of living planets.
Study shows pressure induces unusually high electrical conductivity in polyiodide
A study into the effects of high mechanical pressure on the polyiodide TEAI showed that it brings unusually high electrical conductivity starting from insulating state, suggesting that the material may be useful as a switchable semiconductor.
Measuring differences in brain chemicals in people with mild memory problems
Using strong and targeted but noninvasive magnets at specific sites in the brains of people with and without mild learning and memory problems, Johns Hopkins researchers report they were able to detect differences in the concentrations of brain chemicals that transmit messages between neurons.
Inflammation inhibitor blocks neurodevelopmental disorders in mouse model
Work published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that an enzyme inhibitor developed by Professor Bruce Hammock and colleagues at UC Davis reduced inflammation in the brains of mice born to mothers with maternal immune activation.
Levitating objects with light
Specially designed materials enable objects of different sizes to be levitated and manipulated with light, thanks to new research from Caltech scientists.
SwRI-led team identifies water-bearing minerals on asteroid Bennu
A Southwest Research Institute-led team discovered evidence of abundant water-bearing minerals on the surface of the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu.
Computer program developed to find 'leakage' in quantum computers
A new computer program that spots when information in a quantum computer is escaping to unwanted states will give users of this promising technology the ability to check its reliability without any technical knowledge for the first time.
Trigger warnings do little to reduce people's distress, research shows
Trigger warnings that alert people to potentially sensitive content are increasingly popular, especially on college campuses, but research suggests that they have minimal impact on how people actually respond to content.
Breast density assessment varies greatly by screening method and race
Fewer women are assigned to a dense breast category when evaluated with advanced mammographic screening technologies compared to standard digital mammography, according to a new study.
Hayabusa2 probes asteroid for secrets
The first data received from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft in orbit of asteroid Ryugu helps space scientists explore conditions in the early solar system.
New report discusses role of polyphenols, found in coffee, in reducing CVD risk
A new report from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) titled 'Coffee, polyphenols and cardiovascular disease' highlights the potential role of polyphenols -- which are found in coffee, cocoa and wine, as well as other plant-based foods -- in reducing the risk of CVD.
Medical marijuana laws linked to health and labor supply benefits in older adults
A study that examined older Americans' well-being before and after medical marijuana laws were passed in their state found reductions in reported pain and increased hours worked.
3D mammography significantly reduces breast biopsy rates
The use of digital breast tomosynthesis, also known as 3D mammography, may significantly reduce the number of women who undergo breast biopsy for a non-cancerous lesion following an abnormal mammogram, according to a new study.
How attention helps the brain perceive an object
The ability of the brain to ignore extraneous visual information is critical to how we work and function, but the processes governing perception and attention are not fully understood.
Uncovering the superconducting phosphine: P2H4 and P4H6
Phosphine (PH3), a typical hydrogen-rich hydride, has attracted a great deal of research interest because of its superconducting transition at high pressure.
Scientists revealed how probiotics influence human gut bacteria
A group of researchers from ITMO University and Knomics company studied how gut microbiota of 150 volunteers changed after a month of regular consumption of yogurt fortified with probiotics.
Sleep problems during pregnancy affect glucose, may increase risk of childhood obesity
The study found that mild sleep apnea changed sugar levels during pregnancy and was connected to infant growth patterns related to increased risk of obesity.
HSE researchers teach neural networks to determine crowd emotions
Scholars from the Higher School of Economics have developed an algorithm that detects emotions in a group of people on a low-quality video.
New Labour's policies reduced geographical inequalities in infant mortality rates
Efforts by the Labour government to reduce inequalities between the most deprived areas of England and the rest of the country had a positive impact on infant mortality rates, suggests research by the Universities of Newcastle, Leeds, York, and Liverpool published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
Scientists study fish to learn how to adapt to the impacts of climate change
Freshwater biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide, and nature-based solutions which increase the resilience of ecological communities are becoming increasingly important in helping communities prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change.
Mitigating the loss of satellite data by using CubeSat remote sensing technology
Scientists provide a possible cost-saving approach to temporarily mitigate data gap problems if anything goes wrong in space or during the launch.
Epigenetic protein could be new therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia
British researchers have discovered that an epigenetic protein called EZH2 delays the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but then switches sides once the disease is established to help maintain tumor growth.
Where does chronic pain begin? Scientists close in on its origins
A new study published March 19, 2019 in Brain has produced evidence of the source of chronic pain in humans, revealing several new targets for pain treatment.
Precision oncology insights revealed for colorectal cancer
Findings published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology could help define strategies to more effectively treat colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States.
Electron accelerators reveal the radical secrets of antioxidants
An Osaka University professor has demonstrated for the first time the value of linear particle accelerators for the generation of free radicals inside biological samples.
Across North America and the Atlantic, an enormous migration journey for a tiny songbird
Blackpoll warblers that breed in western North America may migrate up to 12,400 miles roundtrip each year, some crossing the entire North American continent before making a nonstop trans-ocean flight of up to four days to South America.
Dalian Coherent Light Source reveals hydroxyl super rotors from water photochemistry
Scientists at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently revealed hydroxyl super rotors from water photochemistry by using the Dalian Coherent Light Source.
Undernutrition during pregnancy changes lung-specific gene expression
Higher rates of lung disease in children born to moms who were undernourished during pregnancy could be explained by epigenetic changes in a number of lung-specific genes.
Measuring impact of drought on groundwater resources from space
A team of Arizona State University scientists has been using the latest space technology, combined with ground measurements, to assess the health of one of the nation's most important sources of underground water, a large aquifer system located in California's San Joaquin Valley.
New material will allow abandoning bone marrow transplantation
Scientists from the National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS' developed nanomaterial, which will be able to restore the internal structure of bones damaged due to osteoporosis and osteomyelitis.
Ejecting flagella could help microbes save energy during nutrient depletion
In favorable conditions, many bacteria propel themselves to food sources and other sites of interest using whip-like molecular propellers known as flagella.
It's no Fortnite, but it's helping stroke survivors move again
Severely impaired stroke survivors are regaining function in their arms after sometimes decades of immobility, thanks to a new video game-led training device invented by Northwestern Medicine scientists.
Smarter drug release thanks to control over encapsulation
Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology and Utrecht University have discovered the parameters that govern the encapsulation of drugs.
Emotionally attuned managers are better at judging workgroup effectiveness: study
Experts from NYU, Exeter, Harvard and other institutions show for first time that -- even on the fly -- a manager who can read emotions in others well can better evaluate a working group's performance.
Astronomers find 'cannonball pulsar' speeding through space
VLA image shows the trail of a speeding pulsar pointing directly back at the center of the debris shell from the supernova that created it.
'Insectageddon' is 'alarmist by bad design': Scientists point out the study's major flaws
Amidst worldwide talks about 'Insectageddon': the extinction of 40 percent of the world's insects, according to a recent scientific review, a response was published in the open-access journal Rethinking Ecology.
NASA's Fermi Satellite clocks 'cannonball' pulsar speeding through space
Astronomers have found a runaway pulsar hurtling through space at nearly 2.5 million miles an hour -- so fast it could travel the distance between Earth and the Moon in just 6 minutes.
Diattenuation imaging -- a promising imaging technique for brain research
A new imaging method provides structural information about brain tissue that was previously difficult to access.
Different bacteria use same cell surface molecule to invade tissue and promote infection
A new study identifies a single molecule as a key entry point used by two types of dangerous bacteria to break through cellular barriers and cause disease.
Study shows IPCC is underselling climate change
A new study has revealed that the language used by the global climate change watchdog, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is overly conservative - and therefore the threats are much greater than the Panel's reports suggest.
A new first: Scientists mimic nature's self-affinity using computer simulations
For the first time, researchers have simulated the process of surface roughness creation.
Experiments with roundworms suggest alternatives for the treatment of schizophrenia
Researchers used C. elegans as an animal model to investigate the importance of certain human genes for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Starving bacteria can eject their tails to save energy and stay alive
When nutrients are dangerously low, a group of bacteria have been found to take the drastic measure of getting rid of their tails.
Woolly stars need catastrophes to live
The endangered Santa Ana Woolly Star depends on catastrophic floods.
Mathematicians reveal secret to human sperm's swimming prowess
Researchers, from the universities of York and Oxford, have discovered that a reinforcing outer-layer which coats the tails of human sperm is what gives them the strength to make the powerful rhythmic strokes needed to break through the cervical mucus barrier.
Even low levels of leisure time physical activity lowers risk of death
Even low-level physical activities, such as walking or gardening, are associated with a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer or any cause finds a large observational study published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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