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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | March 21, 2019


Study in mice examines impact of reused cooking oil on breast cancer progression
New study in mice by University of Illinois researchers finds that the compounds in thermally abused cooking oils may trigger genetic, biochemical changes that hasten the progression of late-stage breast cancer, promoting tumor cells' growth and proliferation.
The Lancet Psychiatry: Childhood trauma may affect brain structure, predisposing adults to recurring major depressive disorder
Early life trauma may affect the structure of the brain in a way that makes clinical depression more likely to be severe and recurrent, according to a two-year observational study of 110 patients published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.
Kicking neural network automation into high gear
Algorithm designs optimized machine-learning models up to 200 times faster than traditional methods.
Mount Sinai researchers call for diversity in the next generation of personalized medicine
Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai reveal that genomic data extracted from population biobanks across the globe contain much less ethnic diversity than desirable.
High-fructose corn syrup boosts intestinal tumor growth in mice
Consuming a daily modest amount of high-fructose corn syrup -- the equivalent of people drinking about 12 ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage daily -- accelerates the growth of intestinal tumors in mouse models of the disease, independently of obesity.
How team sports change a child's brain
Adult depression has long been associated with shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays an important role in memory and response to stress.
Immigrant women more likely to be overweight during pregnancy
A new study in the Journal of Public Health finds that women in Norway from immigrant backgrounds are more likely to be overweight during pregnancy.
Calling time on 'statistical significance' in science research
Scientists should stop using the term 'statistically significant' in their research, urges this editorial in a special issue of The American Statistician published today.
Sports involvement linked to fewer depressive symptoms in children
Participation in team sports is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in children, whereas non-sport activities have no association with symptoms, according to a study in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, published by Elsevier.
Discovery may lead to precision-based strategy for triple negative breast cancer
A researcher in the Vera Bradley Foundation Center for Breast Cancer Research at the Indiana University School of Medicine, working in collaboration with researchers from the University of Maryland, recently reported several important findings related to triple negative breast cancer and its future treatment in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
New membrane class shown to regenerate tissue and bone, viable solution for periodontitis
Periodontitis affects nearly half of Americans ages 30 and older, and in its advanced stages, it could lead to early tooth loss or worse.
Otago discovery paves way for precision medicine in future
University of Otago scientists have discovered a way to view the immune cell 'landscape' of bowel cancer tumours, paving the way towards more individualised medicine and treatment for many other diseases in future.
Natural plant defense genes provide clues to safener protection in grain sorghum
Weeds often emerge at the same time as vulnerable crop seedlings and sneak between plants as crops grow.
Stricter US state gun laws linked to safer high schools
Adopting stricter state gun laws is linked to a safer school experience for students, finds research published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
How 'sleeper cell' cancer stem cells are maintained in chronic myelogenous leukemia
Even when chronic myelogenous leukemia is in remission, 'sleeper cell,' quiescent leukemic stem cells are maintained in microenvironments in the bone marrow.
Examining ball pits as a playground for pathogenic germs
Beware the ball pit. Ball pits used in children's physical therapy -- similar to those made popular by restaurants catering to families -- may contribute to germ transmission between patients, according to new research published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, published by Elsevier.
Immunotherapy of precancerous skin lesions may prevent squamous cell carcinoma
A treatment previously shown to clear the precancerous skin lesions called actinic keratosis now appears to reduce the chance that the treated skin will develop squamous cell carcinomas, the second most common form of skin cancer.
Brain region discovered that only processes spoken, not written words
Patients in a new Northwestern Medicine study were able to comprehend words that were written but not said aloud.
Mount Sinai and IBM researchers uncover key to greater efficacy in cancer treatment
Researchers from Mount Sinai and IBM reveal that the number of mitochondria in a cell is, in great part, associated with how the cancer responds to drug therapy.
New mechanism identified for influenza-induced bacterial superinfections
Researchers have described a new mechanism by which influenza A viruses (IAV) alter the host immune system and make them more or less susceptible to often deadly co-occurring bacterial infections.
Data sharing by popular health apps is 'routine', research finds
Researchers call for greater regulation and transparency as analysis of medicines-related apps found most directly shared user data -- including sensitive health data -- with third parties, posing an unprecedented privacy risk.
Golden ball in a golden cage
Researchers have synthesized a tiny structure from 32 gold atoms.
Childhood adversity linked to higher out-of-pocket health care costs in adulthood
A study has found that out-of-pocket health care spending and medical debt are substantially higher when adults have a history of adverse childhood experiences.
Antibodies stabilize plaque in arteries
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found that type IgG antibodies play an unexpected role in atherosclerosis.
Magnetoresistive sensors for near future innovative development
Excluding the information recording and reading technology, in the next 15-20 years, the hypersensitive sensors operating under the magnetoresistive principle will be applied in an extensive number of innovative areas.
Child and adolescent anxiety could be linked to later alcohol problems
New research led by the University of Bristol has found some evidence that children and adolescents with higher levels of anxiety may be at greater risk of developing alcohol problems.
Excess hormones could cause a condition that can lead to blindness in women, study finds
Research has found that increased levels of hormones including testosterone could cause a brain condition that can lead to blindness in women.
New evidence links lifespan extension to metabolic regulation of immune system
Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have uncovered a new mechanism of lifespan extension that links caloric restriction with immune system regulation.
Dynamic hydrogel used to make 'soft robot' components and LEGO-like building blocks
A new type of hydrogel material developed by Brown University researchers could soon make assembling complex microfluidic or soft robotic devices as simple as putting together a LEGO set.
Elevation shapes species survival in changing habitats
Luke Frishkoff, University of Texas at Arlington assistant professor of biology, explores how human land use expedites biodiversity loss in a paper recently published in Nature Ecology & Evolution.
Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack
Rice University scientists build a model to predict how long, on average, it takes to eradicate a bacterial infection with antibiotics.
Neglected diseases continue to require attention despite progress
Few novel drugs have been developed to treat neglected diseases in recent decades, Brazilian researchers warn.
To stoke creativity, crank out ideas and then step away
There is an effective formula for unlocking employees' creative potential, according to new research from the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin and the Gies College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
A new treasure trove of Cambrian secrets unearthed
Researchers have discovered an early Cambrian fossil assemblage located along the bank of the Danshui River in China.
Unequal pain relief at home for dying patients
Pain relief and end of life care is not being provided equally to people with advanced progressive diseases who were at home during their last three months of life, according to a study of 43,000 people who died across England.
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Trevor move into Gulf of Carpentaria
Tropical Cyclone Trevor has crossed Queensland, Australia's Cape York Peninsula and re-emerged into the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Girls need more positive experiences of ball skills
Children have high perceptions of motor skills. Some gender differences were identified: girls better in locomotor skills, boys have higher perception and actual skills in ball skills.
Research develops top tips to foster better relationships between scientists and business
University researchers and industry practitioners have developed lists of 'top tips' for businesses and academics to foster better relationships that could potentially benefit all parties.
Study points to new strategy for boosting immunotherapy effectiveness in advanced colorectal cancer
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center revealed the common oncogene KRAS as a possible explanation for why many patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy.
Geophysics: A surprising, cascading earthquake
The Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand in 2016 caused widespread damage.
Open-source solution: Researchers 3D-print system for optical cardiography
Researchers from the George Washington University and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have developed a solution for multiparametric optical mapping of the heart's electrical activity.
Asian-Americans do better at university, but face barriers in the workplace
Asian-Americans graduate from university at far higher rates than white Americans, but despite this are no more likely to hold professional or managerial jobs, according to a new study.
Many recovering from addiction have chronic health problems, diminished quality of life
A study from the Massachusetts General Hospital Recovery Research Institute shows that more than a third of individuals who consider themselves in recovery from an alcohol or other substance use disorder continue to suffer from chronic physical disease.
In a new quantum simulator, light behaves like a magnet
Physicists at EPFL propose a new 'quantum simulator': a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems.
First reputation-based blockchain guarantees security against 51 percent attacks
Researchers at the University of Luxembourg are part of an international team that has proposed the first blockchain system to guarantee proper performance even when more than 51 percent of the system's computing power is controlled by an attacker.
Study examines calcium intake, age-related macular degeneration progression risk
This study looked at the association of calcium intake (dietary and supplementation) with the risk and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness.
Sleep and ageing: Two sides of one coin?
Oxford University researchers have discovered a brain process common to sleep and ageing in research that could pave the way for new treatments for insomnia.
Avoidance or responsible moral choices -- what is your supervisor like?
It is important to understand and prevent unethical behavior in working life.
Alpine tundra releases long-frozen CO2 to the atmosphere, exacerbating climate warming
Thawing permafrost in high-altitude mountain ecosystems may be a stealthy, underexplored contributor to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions.
Making solar cells is like buttering bread
Formamidinium lead iodide is a very good material for photovoltaic cells, but getting the correct and stable crystal structure is a challenge.
Inert nitrogen forced to react with itself
Direct coupling of two molecules of nitrogen: chemists from Würzburg and Frankfurt have achieved what was thought to be impossible.
Bacteria in urine doesn't always indicate infection
Doctors should think carefully before testing patients for a urinary tract infection (UTI) to avoid over-diagnosis and unnecessary antibiotic treatment, according to updated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
New light into the recent evolution of the African rift valley
Continental rift valleys are huge fractures on the surface of the Earth that break continental plates with the eventual development of new oceans.
Blue Brain solves a century-old neuroscience problem
In a front-cover paper published in Cerebral Cortex, EPFL's Blue Brain Project, a Swiss Brain Research Initiative, explains how the shapes of neurons can be classified using mathematical methods from the field of algebraic topology.
How measurable is online advertising?
Researchers from Northwestern University and Facebook in March published new research in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science that sheds light on whether common approaches for online advertising measurement are as reliable and accurate as the 'gold standard' of large-scale, randomized experiments.
NIH study finds no evidence that calcium increases risk of AMD
Eating a calcium-rich diet or taking calcium supplements does not appear to increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to the findings of a study by scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI).
New research shows people with PAD could have an omega-3 deficiency
New research published in the March 18 edition of Lipids showed that people who have peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a lower Omega-3 Index compared to those who don't have the disease.
Researchers discover hidden differences between pathology of CTE and Alzheimer's disease
An international team of scientists at Indiana University School of Medicine, University of Kansas and the U.K.
Gift card incentives connected to healthier outcomes in employee wellness programs
Previous research shows that when choosing between different incentive options, employees prefer cash rewards.
Females live longer when they have help raising offspring
Female birds age more slowly and live longer when they have help raising their offspring, according to new research from the University of Sheffield.
True-meaning wearable displays: Self-powered, washable and wearable
When we think about clothes, they are usually formed with textiles and have to be both wearable and washable for daily use; however, smart clothing has had a problem with its power sources and moisture permeability, which causes the devices to malfunction.
Eating breakfast with parents is associated with positive body image for teenagers
A new study from the University of Missouri says consistently eating breakfast as a family might promote positive body image for children and adolescents.
Cryptosporidium parasite detected in Minnesota groundwater
When consumed in contaminated water, the microscopic parasite Cryptosporidium can cause symptoms of stomach cramps, diarrhea and fever.
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Veronica affecting Australia's Pilbara Coast
Visible imagery from NASA's Terra satellite showed Tropical Cyclone Veronica skirting the Pilbara coast of Western Australia.
When more women make decisions, the environment wins
When more women are involved in group decisions about land management, the group conserves more - particularly when offered financial incentives to do so, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study published this week in Nature Climate Change.
Affordable Care Act delivers significant benefits for women
According to a new study appearing in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, the rate of health insurance coverage and access to affordable acute and preventive care services improved for women after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
Half-a-billion-year-old fossil reveals the origins of comb jellies
One of the ocean's little known carnivores has been allocated a new place in the evolutionary tree of life after scientists discovered its unmistakable resemblance with other sea-floor dwelling creatures.
Concerns regarding proposed changes to EPA's causality framework
In this Policy Forum, Gretchen Goldman and Francesca Dominici raise concerns over recent developments at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that 'stand to quietly upend the time-tested and scientifically backed process the agency relies on to protect the public from ambient air pollution.'
Bacteria and immunity in cervix may be key to predicting premature births
Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation, and the related complications, are the largest contributors to infant death in the United States and worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.
High-fructose corn syrup enhances tumor growth in a mouse model of intestinal cancer
In a new study, researchers have found that consumption of high-fructose corn syrup can enhance tumor growth in mice that are genetically predisposed to develop intestinal cancer.
Small vessel disease MRI marker linked to worse cognitive health in older adults
Seemingly harmless fluid-filled spaces around the cerebral small vessels, commonly seen on brain MRIs in older adults, are now thought to be associated with more compromised cognitive skills, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study published in Neurology.
Hundreds of bubble streams link biology, seismology off Washington's coast
The first survey of methane vent sites off Washington's coast finds 1,778 bubble columns, with most located along a north-south band that is in line with a geologic fault.
Topical immunotherapy keeps skin cancer risk at bay
A combination of two topical creams already shown to clear precancerous skin lesions from sun-damaged skin also lowers the risk that patients will later develop squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
New technique could help regrow tissue lost to periodontal disease
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about half of all Americans will have periodontal disease at some point in their lives.
Study gives new perspective on production of blood cells and immune cells
A new study provides a thorough accounting of blood cell production from hematopoietic stem cells.
Study shows first evidence bacterial-induced apoptosis in algae
A new study by UAlberta biologists shows the first evidence of apoptosis, or programmed cell death in algae.
Researchers restore fertility in non-human primate model of childhood cancer survivorship
In a first, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the Magee-Womens Research Institute have reported in a non-human primate model that immature testicular tissue can be cryopreserved, and later be used to restore fertility to the same animal.
Study links perimenopause to accelerated fat mass gains, lean mass losses
A UCLA-led study confirms what women approaching menopause have long suspected: menopause does make fat go up.
Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria
Superbugs, also known as Gram-negative bacteria, are causing a global health crisis.
New brain research challenges our understanding of sleep
An international study headed by researchers from Aarhus University has for the first time uncovered the large-scale brain patterns and networks in the brain which control sleep, providing knowledge which in the future may can in the long term help the many Danes large proportion of people who experience problems sleeping.
Researchers point to a common cause in sudden death syndromes
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) are syndromes that share many medical similarities but whose physiological causes are poorly understood.
Tropical Cyclone Savannah dissipating in Suomi NPP satellite imagery
Tropical Cyclone Savannah appeared as a wispy area of low pressure on imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite.
NIST researchers boost intensity of nanowire LEDs
Nanowire gurus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have made ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that, thanks to a special type of shell, produce five times higher light intensity than do comparable LEDs based on a simpler shell design.
Scientists propose a new benchmark skill for decadal prediction of terrestrial water storage
Scientists find that incorporating the current decadal climate prediction would significantly improve decadal prediction skill of terrestrial water storage over global major river basins.
New microscope captures large groups of neurons in living animals
Researchers have developed a microscope specifically for imaging large groups of interacting cells in their natural environments.
Western bias in human genetic studies is 'both scientifically damaging and unfair'
Despite efforts to include diversity in research, people of European ancestry continue to be vastly overrepresented and ethnically diverse populations largely excluded from human genomics research, according to the authors of a commentary published March 21 in a special issue of the journal Cell on human genetics.
Low-cost and energy efficient recording of biodiversity soundscapes
An international team of researchers has built a new sensor network that can monitor two crucial activities, namely biodiversity, or the variety of life, in a particular habitat or ecosystem, and identification of possible illegal activities such as logging or poaching in protected areas.
Delusions may stem from sticky beliefs, study finds
Delusions are one of the most common symptoms of psychosis, but little is known about what causes them.
Revealing the plant genes that shaped our world
The creation of new library of mutants of the single-celled photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enabled a Carnegie- and Princeton University-led team of plant scientists to identify more than 300 genes that are potentially required for photosynthesis.
Medicine and personal care products may lead to new pollutants in waterways
When you flush the toilet, you probably don't think about the traces of the medicine and personal care products in your body that are winding up in sewage treatment plants, streams, rivers, lakes, bays and the ocean.
Imaging method reveals long-lived patterns in cells of the eye
Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) form unique patterns that can be used to track changes in this important layer of tissue in the back of the eye, researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have found.
Study shows alarming increases of firearm deaths in US school-age children
From 1999 to 2017, 38,942 US children ages 5 to 18 years old were killed by firearms, averaging more than 2,000 deaths a year.
Highlighting social identity and peer group norms can increase water conservation
New research suggests that targeted use of behavioural 'nudges' can encourage people to conserve water.
Analyzing a Facebook-fueled anti-vaccination attack: 'It's not all about autism'
Pitt scientists find a viral anti-vaccination Facebook campaign wasn't 'all about autism,' but instead centered on four distinct themes.
Collaboration aims to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in clinical trials
Spencer Hoover, vice president and executive director of the Henry Ford Cancer Institute, is co-author of a manuscript published in the Journal of Oncology Practice aimed at establishing best practices to promote diversity in clinical trials.
High-fructose corn syrup promotes colon tumor growth in mice
Consuming the equivalent of one can of soda per day caused mice predisposed to colon cancer to develop larger tumors, according to a study by Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian investigators.
Pathogenic, drug-resistant bacteria found in wastewater treatment plants
Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a global public health threat causing serious illness and even death.
Prenatal allergies prompt sexual changes in offspring
A single allergic reaction during pregnancy prompts sexual-development changes in the brains of offspring that last a lifetime, new research suggests.
Energy stealthily hitches ride in global trade
Fulfilling the world's growing energy needs summons images of oil pipelines, electric wires and truckloads of coal.
World's smallest bears' facial expressions throw doubt on human superiority
The world's smallest bears can exactly mimic another bear's facial expressions, casting doubt on humans and other primates' supremacy at this subtle form of communication.
The evolution of brain tumors
Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center found in a recent study that only three different genetic alterations drive the early development of malignant glioblastomas.
Getting help with the kids slows down ageing in female birds
Seychelles warblers live and breed in family groups on the tiny island of Cousin.
Research implicates causative genes in osteoporosis, suggesting new targets for future therapy
Scientists have harnessed powerful data analysis tools and three-dimensional studies of genomic geography to implicate new risk genes for osteoporosis, the chronic bone-weakening condition that affects millions of people.
C-sections are seen as breastfeeding barrier in US, but not in other global communities
Amanda Veile, an assistant professor of anthropology at Purdue University, and her team report that indigenous mothers in farming communities in Yucatán, Mexico, breastfeed for about 1.5 months longer following cesarean deliveries than they do following vaginal deliveries.
New drug combination shows promise for common pediatric brain tumor
A new combination treatment aimed at resistant and recurrent low-grade gliomas slowed tumor growth and killed tumor cells in laboratory and mouse models.
How spin dances with dipole
The key physical property of multiferroic materials is the existence of a coupling between magnetism and polarization.
Study identifies possible causes of and protectors against premature birth
Seven types of bacteria and certain immune factors in a woman's vagina and cervix may be responsible for increasing the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) or protect against it, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
First of its kind statistics on pregnant women in US prisons
In what is believed to be a first-of-its-kind systematic look at pregnancy frequency and outcomes among imprisoned US women, researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine say almost 1,400 pregnant women were admitted to 22 US state and all federal prisons in a recent year.
Antiepileptics increase the risk of pneumonia among persons with Alzheimer's disease
People with Alzheimer's disease using antiepileptic drugs have twice the risk of pneumonia compared to non-users, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
Artificial chemical DNA switch helps understand epigenetic mechanisms
Researchers from the Czech Academy of Sciences and Charles University constructed an artificial chemical DNA switch and made the first step towards artificial epigenetics -- targeted switching on and off of genes.
Using more-specific 'genetic scissors' may avoid problems associated with gene editing
A study from researchers in Italy suggests that there could be a way to bypass barriers to making CRISPR gene-editing treatments a viable option.
Naltrexone implant helps HIV patients with opioid dependence prevent relapse
A new study, published this month in Lancet HIV by Penn Medicine researchers, shows that a naltrexone implant placed under the skin was more effective at helping HIV-positive patients with an opioid addiction reduce relapse and have better HIV-related outcomes compared to the oral drug.
Breakthrough in acidic water electrolysis via ruthenium-based catalysts
Prof. Wu Yuen's team successfully prepared a kind of catalyst which is able to significantly accelerate oxygen evolution reaction, which help human get one step further in pursuing applicable hydrogen fuel.
Heroines of the periodic table (video)
In 1871, Dimitri Mendeleev's periodic table was presented to the world, but missing many of the 118 elements leaving place-holders for those yet to be discovered.
Protecting homes with netting window screens can reduce malaria parasite infection
Protecting houses against mosquitoes with netting window screens can suppress malaria vector populations and dramatically reduce human parasite infection prevalence.
Ancient birds out of the egg running
Using their own laser imaging technology, Dr Michael Pittman from the Department of Earth Sciences at The University of Hong Kong and Thomas G Kaye from the Foundation for Scientific Advancement in the USA determined the lifestyle of a special hatchling bird by revealing the previously unknown feathering preserved in the fossil specimen found in the ~125 million-year-old Early Cretaceous fossil beds of Los Hoyas, Spain.
African-Americans more likely to be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, Rutgers study finds
African-Americans with severe depression are more likely to be misdiagnosed as having schizophrenia, according to a new Rutgers study.
Semiconductor: A new contender for scalable quantum computing
Recent advances of quantum computing has attracted global attention for its prospective applications in business and industry.
Study finds cells maintain a complete molecular 'memory' of their embryonic origins
In research that casts cells as curators of their own history, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have discovered that adult tissues retain a memory, inscribed on their DNA, of the embryonic cells from which they arose.
Physicists reveal why matter dominates universe
Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University have confirmed that matter and antimatter decay differently for elementary particles containing charmed quarks.
Study highlights power of play
Through simple games and day-to-day tasks, parents can help their children learn self-regulation, a skill considered essential for success, a University of Otago, New Zealand, study has found.
Want to increase staff loyalty? You'll need to be seen as important, new research suggests
Offering praise and having a good working relationship isn't always enough to engender loyalty from staff -- employees also need to feel that the relationship with their boss is important, according to new research.
Plant scraps are the key ingredient in cheap, sustainable jet fuel
Scientists in China have developed a process for converting plant waste from agriculture and timber harvesting into high-density aviation fuel.
Organic semiconductors: One transistor for all purposes
In mobiles, fridges, planes - transistors are everywhere. But they often operate only within a restricted current range.

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