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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | March 29, 2019


New plant breeding technologies for food security
An international team, including researchers from the University of Göttingen, argues in a perspective article recently published in ''Science'' that new plant breeding technologies can contribute significantly to food security and sustainable development.
Quantum physics and origami for the ultimate get-well card
The bizarre optical properties of tiny metal particles -- smaller than light waves -- can be captured on paper to detect even a single target molecule in a test sample.
Gastrointestinal complaints in children could signal future mental health problem
Columbia University researchers are among the first to link disruption of a child's gastrointestinal microbiome triggered by early-life adversity -- such as parental separation -- with activity in the regions of the brain associated with emotional health.
Clinical trial finds therapy to be well-tolerated in patients with aggressive brain tumour
A phase I clinical trial that set out to assess the safety of a new combination therapy for a type of aggressive brain tumour has found the treatment to be well tolerated in patients.
Chronic kidney disease of undetermined causes, described originally in Central America and Sri Lanka
Chronic kidney disease of undetermined causes (CKDu), initially reported among agricultural communities in Central America and Sri Lanka, is also present in India, particularly in Southern rural areas, and could be common in other tropical and subtropical rural settings.
Two new genes discovered in the developmental defects of canine enamel
In addition to humans, hereditary disorders of enamel development occur in dogs, greatly impacting their dental health and wellbeing.
Uterine artery embolization can be considered for well controlled symptomatic leiomyomas
A new study published in the April 2019 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) investigates the safety of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic leiomyomas in patients with various autoimmune diseases.
Quantum optical cooling of nanoparticles
One important requirement to see quantum effects is to remove all thermal energy from the particle motion, i.e. to cool it as close as possible to absolute zero temperature.
Kicking goals for kids with autism
Ahead of World Autism Awareness Day on April 2, researchers from the University of South Australia are turning autism interventions on their head with a stand-out sports program that's training coaches how to best achieve results for students with autism.
Satellite finds Tropical Cyclone Joaninha slammed by wind shear
One day makes a big difference when you're a tropical cyclone.
Major step towards individual cancer immunotherapy
Medicine has great hopes for personalised cancer immunotherapy. The idea is to have a vaccine prompt the immune system to fight a tumour.
CU Anschutz study reveals exercise is more critical than diet to maintain weight loss
The study showed successful weight-loss maintainers rely on physical activity to remain in energy balance (rather than chronic restriction of dietary intake) to avoid weight regain.
Pain, pain go away: new tools improve students' experience of school-based vaccines
Researchers at the University of Toronto and The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) have teamed up with educators, public health practitioners and grade seven students in Ontario to develop and implement a new approach to delivering school-based vaccines that improves student experience.
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk that your baby will become obese
Using discarded foreskins from circumcisions, researchers were able to identify a potential cellular mechanism that connects a mother's smoking while pregnant with an increased risk of offspring obesity later in life
Cancer researchers highlight clinical potential of liquid biopsy using droplet digital PCR technology at the 2019 AACR Annual Meeting
Research studies supporting the clinical utility of droplet digital PCR powered liquid biopsy will be presented during this year's AACR Annual Meeting.
McSteen lab finds a new gene essential for making ears of corn
The new research, which appears in the journal Molecular Plant, extends the growing biological understanding of how different parts of corn plants develop, which is important information for a crop that is a mainstay of the global food supply.
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may play opposite roles in childhood asthma
Dietary intake of two fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6, may have opposite effects on the severity of asthma in children and may also play opposite roles in modifying their response to indoor air pollution, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Supercomputers help supercharge protein assembly
Using proteins derived from jellyfish, scientists assembled a complex sixteen protein structure composed of two stacked octamers by supercharging alone.
Low-loss, all-fiber system for strong and efficient coupling between distant atoms
Scientists developed a coupled-cavities quantum electrodynamics (QED) system, in which two nanofiber cavity-QED systems are coherently connected by a meter-long, low-loss optical fiber.
Changes in public perception of e-cigarettes, cigarettes
An analysis of data from two nationally representative surveys reports a greater proportion of US adults perceived electronic cigarettes to be as, or more, harmful than cigarettes and a decreasing proportion of US adults perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes.
First-confirmed occurrence of a lambeosaurine dinosaur found on Alaska's North Slope
Paleontologists from Hokkaido University in Japan, in cooperation with paleontologists from the Perot Museum of Nature and Science in Dallas, Texas, have discovered the first-confirmed occurrence of a lambeosaurine (crested 'duck-billed' dinosaur) from the Arctic -- part of the skull of a lambeosaurine dinosaur from the Liscomb Bonebed (71-68 Ma) found on Alaska's North Slope.
Amazon rainforest could become US-China trade war casualty, experts warn
Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest could accelerate as a result of the US-China trade war, University of Edinburgh researchers have warned.
66-million-year-old deathbed linked to dinosaur-killing meteor
Paleontologists have found a fossil site in North Dakota that contains animals and plants killed and buried within an hour of the meteor impact that killed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.
Smoking and pre-eclampsia may cause fertility problems for offspring, study suggests
Low levels of oxygen in the womb -- which can be caused by smoking or conditions such as preeclampsia -- may cause problems with fertility later in life, a study carried out in rats suggests.
New study models the proposed reintroduction of the Eurasian lynx to Scotland
Experts have used an innovative approach to model the proposed reintroduction of the Eurasian lynx to Scotland.
Illinois professor contributes to improved care for NICU babies
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Professor Naresh Shanbhag is part of a team, led by former Illinois professor John Rogers, working to replace the wires used to monitor babies in the NICU with a patch that would allow parents to hold their little one while it's being monitored.
Can a protein in cord blood predict risk of death, cerebral palsy in preterm infants?
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have found that some preterm babies born without haptoglobin, a protein in blood cells, have higher odds of brain bleeding, cerebral palsy and death.
Fluorescence discovered in tiny Brazilian frogs
An international team of researchers led by NYU Abu Dhabi Postdoctoral Associate Sandra Goutte was studying the acoustic communications of these miniature frogs.
Call for unis and others to consider women juggling research/childcare
Offering financial aid to cover childcare costs for female academics attending conferences is one of the suggestions offered by QUT researchers who surveyed Australian women on how caring for children has affected their careers.
Engineering for high-speed devices
A research team from the University of Delaware has developed cutting-edge technology for photonics devices that could enable faster communications between phones and computers.
Doctors more likely to prescribe preventive therapy if prompted by EMR
Penn Medicine study shows technology tied to patient records pushing doctors toward a new therapy was more effective than just peer education.
Air quality to remain a problem in India despite pollution control policies
According to an independent study released today by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the Council on Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW), more than 674 million Indian citizens are likely to breathe air with high concentrations of PM2.5 in 2030, even if India were to comply with its existing pollution control policies and regulations.
Contrast-enhanced MRI provides useful findings in discordant core biopsy management
An essential part of breast intervention is the process of assessing concordance between imaging findings and core biopsy results.
Genomic analysis offers roadmap for diagnosis and treatment of a high-risk leukemia
Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a high-risk cancer with a dismal prognosis, uncertain genetic basis and controversy surrounding the diagnosis.
New way of optical visualization of nano objects proposed
High-resolution optical microscopy methods promise breakthroughs in materials science, biology, and medicine.
The mystery of touch and how we feel about it
The mechanism of tactile sensation has not yet been solved though it is the basic sense of humans.
Live cell imaging: 'Green Glifons' for real-time monitoring of glucose metabolism
A collaborative study between Tokyo Tech and the University of Tokyo reports a series of green fluorescent protein-based glucose indicators that will aid investigations of energy metabolism in living cells.
Scientists develop way to perform supercomputer simulations of the heart on cellphones
You can now perform supercomputer simulations of the heart's electrophysiology in real time on desktop computers and even cellphones.
Odd reaction creates a stir in the lab
Rice University chemists show how PTFE - aka Teflon - in standard lab stir bars affects a chemical reaction used to reduce nanotubes, skewing the results.
Study finds white sharks with high levels of mercury, arsenic and lead in their blood
Researchers found high concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and lead, in blood samples obtained from Great white sharks in South Africa.
Smoking and mortality in Asia
In this analysis of data from 20 studies conducted in China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and India with more than 1 million participants, deaths associated with smoking continued to increase among men in Asia grouped by the years in which they were born.
Research into tropical eye worm yields new tests to assess safety of anti-filarial drugs
Researchers at the LSTM's Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, and University of Buea, Cameroon have developed new models of the tropical eye worm, Loa loa for the development of new drugs against filariasis.
A new accurate computational method designed to enhance drug target stability
Scientists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), and the University of Southern California (USC) have developed a new computational method for the design of thermally stable G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) that are of great help in creating new drugs.
Researchers discovered a new targetable vulnerability in breast cancer cells
Researchers at the University of Helsinki and Karolinska Institutet have discovered new molecular mechanisms of breast cancer cell signaling that contribute to aggressive behavior of cancer cells.
Study highlights need to increase diversity within genetic data sets
Polygenic scores developed by studying Europeans do a better job at predicting disease risk for people of European ancestry than for those of other ancestries.
UC researchers find ancient Maya farms in Mexican wetlands
Archaeologists with the University of Cincinnati used the latest technology to find evidence suggesting ancient Maya people grew surplus crops to support an active trade with neighbors up and down the Yucatan Peninsula.
New methodology enable solid state lighting to measure and self-adjust based on conditions
An article published in the SPIE journal Optical Engineering, 'Arbitrary spectral matching using multi-LED lighting systems,' marks a substantial advance in lighting science and technology.
Researchers discover two, rare genes associated with Alzheimer's disease
Researchers have identified two, extremely rare genetic variants linked to Alzheimer disease (AD) for the first time.
Movement toward a poop test for liver cirrhosis
In a study of people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and their twins and other close relatives, UC San Diego researchers were able to diagnose liver cirrhosis simply by analyzing a person's stool microbes.
Hubble spots flock of cosmic ducks
This star-studded image shows us a portion of Messier 11, an open star cluster in the southern constellation of Scutum (the Shield).
Lumbar spine MRI reports are too difficult for patients to understand
As increasing numbers of patients gain online access to their radiology reports, a new study published in the April 2019 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) assesses how thoroughly patients understand these complex documents.
Patient factors contribute to imaging follow-up rates
A new study published in the April 2019 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) considers several potential factors that might have led to disparities in follow-up imaging rates among patients with indeterminate initial abdominal imaging findings.
Making waves: Researchers shed light on how cilia work
An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the McKelvey School of Engineering and the School of Medicine have found the most efficient length for cilia, the tiny hair-like structures designed to sweep out the body's fluids, cells and microbes to stay healthy.
Just add heat to open this tiny box
Researchers have designed two types of nano-sized building blocks that can automatically connect into cubes and scramble back into individual components based on the temperature of their environment.
Omega-3 fatty acids tied to fewer childhood asthma symptoms
A six-month study of children from Baltimore City by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers has added to evidence that having more omega-3 fatty acids in the diet results in fewer asthma symptoms triggered by indoor air pollution.
Stunning discovery offers glimpse of minutes following 'dinosaur-killer' Chicxulub impact
At a site called Tanis in North Dakota's Hell Creek Formation, a team of paleontologists whose headquarters are at the University of Kansas unearthed a motherlode of exquisitely preserved animal and fish fossils that were killed suddenly in events triggered by the Chicxulub impact.
Binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances to Baikal seal PPARα
The present study assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the Baikal seal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and compared them with those of human PPARα.
A new model to trial preventative treatments for schizophrenia
Neuroscientists at The University of Queensland have developed a new animal model of schizophrenia that will enable researchers around the world to better understand the disease and develop new treatments.
Sweeping census provides new population estimate for western chimpanzees
A sweeping new census published in the journal Environmental Research Letters estimates 52,800 western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) live in eight countries in western Africa, with most of them found outside of protected areas, some of which are threatened by intense development pressures.
How do species adapt to their surroundings?
Several fish species can change sex as needed. Other species adapt to their surroundings by living long lives -- or by living shorter lives and having lots of offspring.
UTA biologist shows new insights into chromosome evolution, venom regulation in snakes
In a new paper, a team of biologists addressed genomic questions by generating and analyzing the first most complete chromosome-level genome for a snake -- the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis).
Poor lung function in shorter people linked to increased risk of heart disease
Results from a study led by researchers from Queen Mary University of London has found that an association between shorter stature and higher risk of heart disease is mainly attributed to our lungs.
April Fools hoax stories could offer clues to help identify 'fake news'
Academic experts in natural language processing from Lancaster University who are interested in deception have compared the language used within written April Fools hoaxes and fake news stories.
Origin of Scandinavian wolves clarified
There are no signs that hybrids of dog and wolf have contributed to the Scandinavian wolf population -- a matter that has been discussed, especially in Norway.
Over a million UK businesses see Brexit as major obstacle to success
The number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that view Brexit as a major obstacle to success has increased significantly since the referendum, according to research published in the journal Regional Studies by Ross Brown and John Wilson from the Centre for Responsible Banking & Finance at the University of St Andrews and Jose Liñares-Zegarra, University of Essex.
People can survive organ failure, a review explores how
Although organ failure can be fatal, your kidneys, heart, and liver are prepared for this catastrophe.
Hollow structures in 3D
Freiburg researchers succeed in printing channel structures in glass.
First total-body PET/CT studies show potential for better, faster, lower-dose images
The first human case studies from the first total-body PET/CT scanner show enhanced image quality, reduced scan time, a longer time window to perform the scan, reduced dose and total-body dynamic imaging, among other benefits and possibilities.
When cash is your enemy
People often experience psychological pain when they part from cash, which may make it more difficult to invest cash than dematerialized money to increase savings for the future.

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