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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | April 16, 2019


Common sleep myths compromise good sleep and health
People often say they can get by on five or fewer hours of sleep, that snoring is harmless, and that having a drink helps you to fall asleep.
Deep space X-ray burst gives astronomers new signal to detect neutron star mergers
An international team of astronomers has discovered a new way to spot when collisions occur in distant galaxies between two neutron stars -- incredibly dense, city-sized celestial bodies that possess the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe.
C-Path, CDISC develop therapeutic area standard to foster meaningful research for HIV
The Critical Path Institute (C-Path) and CDISC are pleased to announce the release of a global Therapeutic Area Standard that specifies how to structure commonly collected data and outcome measurements in clinical trials for HIV.
Fast and selective optical heating for functional nanomagnetic metamaterials
In a recent article published in Nanoscale, researchers from the Nanomagnetism group at nanoGUNE demonstrate the use of hybrid magnetic-plasmonic elements to facilitate contactless and selective temperature control in magnetic functional metamaterials.
What is effect of workplace wellness program on employee health, job performance, economics?
Employees of a large multistate warehouse retail company working in locations with a workplace wellness program reported some better health behaviors after 18 months than coworkers in locations without wellness programming.
Up in arms: Insect-inspired arm technology aims to improve drones
Insect-inspired arm technology from Purdue University aims to improve drones to handle larger payloads.
Large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study of asthma identifies novel associations
A large, multi-ethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) of asthma identified novel associations with potential relevance for asthma susceptibility in older adults of diverse racial backgrounds.
This oral appliance could help you (and your partner) sleep better
Researchers measured a novel treatment for sleep apnea developed at Hiroshima University Hospital with positive results.
Healthy hearts need two proteins working together
Two proteins that bind to stress hormones work together to maintain a healthy heart in mice, according to scientists at the National Institutes of Health and their collaborators.
Tree dens play a critical role in panda lifestyle
In a paper recently published in the journal Biological Conservation, an international team of conservationists highlights the importance of tree dens as a choice for pandas raising infants in native habitats.
A novel data-compression technique for faster computer programs
A novel technique developed by MIT researchers rethinks hardware data compression to free up more memory used by computers and mobile devices, allowing them to run faster and perform more tasks simultaneously.
Climate change threatens endangered sparrows
A new study in The Condor: Ornithological Applications finds that some sparrow species will go extinct within the century due to climate change.
Female farmers and extension workers should lead in reducing gender inequality in agriculture
Julien Lamontagne-Godwin, lead author of a new paper, published in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Education, says a network of 'trained and knowledge-rich female lead 'contact'' farmers' could be trialled to understand its potential role in improving the dissemination of agricultural information to women in farm households.
The fluid that feeds tumor cells
MIT biologists have found that the nutrient composition of the interstitial fluid that normally surrounds pancreatic tumors is different from that of the culture medium normally used to grow cancer cells.
Study finds white sharks flee feeding areas when orcas present
New research from Monterey Bay Aquarium and partner institutions published in Nature Scientific Reports challenges the notion that great white sharks are the most formidable predators in the ocean.
When it comes to learning, what's better: The carrot or the stick?
Does the potential to win or lose money influence the confidence one has in one's own decisions?
Diabetic drug shown to reduce the risk of heart disease in non-diabetic patients
Metformin could reverse the harmful thickening of heart muscle that leads to cardiovascular disease, according to researchers at the University of Dundee.
Additional routine ultrasounds benefit mothers and babies, and could be cost saving, study finds
Offering universal late pregnancy ultrasounds at 36 weeks' gestation eliminates undiagnosed breech presentation of babies, lowers the rate of emergency caesarean sections, and improves the health of mothers and babies.
Despite transition period, maximal running shoes may still increase risk of injury
A six-week transition period did not help wearers adjust to ''maximal'' running shoes, indicating that increased impact forces and loading rates caused by the shoe design do not change over time.
Simple test can indicate prolonged symptoms following pediatric sports-related concussion
Researchers from Children's Hospital Colorado and the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora, Colorado, have found that abnormal performance on the Romberg balance test can indicate that children and adolescents will experience prolonged symptoms following sports-related concussion.
At last, acknowledging royal women's political power
Across the globe in a variety of societies, royal women found ways to advance the issues they cared about and advocate for the people important to them as detailed in a recent paper published in the Journal of Archaeological Research.
'PRO-cision Medicine' aims to turn patient-reported outcome ratings into personalized care
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important target for efforts to improve healthcare -- focusing on the most important problems and outcomes identified by patients themselves.
Scientists 'reverse engineer' brain cancer cells to find new targets for treatment
Glioblastoma is one of the most devastating forms of cancer, with few existing treatment options.
Large federal program aimed at providing better health care underfunds primary care
Despite a mandate to help patients make better-informed health care decisions, a ten-year research program established under the Affordable Care Act has funded a relatively small number of studies that examine primary care, the setting where the majority of patients in the US receive treatment.
FIU scientists discover new arsenic-based broad-spectrum antibiotic
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health threats of our time.
Powerful particles and tugging tides may affect extraterrestrial life
Two new studies by UA space scientists, one on high-energy particles and the other on tidal forces, may bring into question the habitability of TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets.
Every third housing estate resident feels trapped
Involuntary staying, a type of housing trap, is a common experience among people living on housing estates, since around one in three residents feel that they are trapped in their current residential arrangements.
Astronomers discover third planet in the Kepler-47 circumbinary system
The SDSU-led research has been published in the Astronomical Journal.
Honey, I ate the kids: The sweet side of filial cannibalism
Why do some animals eat or abandon their offspring? According to researchers at the University of Tennessee and the University of Oxford, these might actually be forms of parental care.
Solar evaporator offers a fresh route to fresh water
Researchers at the University of Maryland's A. James Clark School of Engineering have demonstrated a successful prototype of one critical component for affordable small-scale desalination: an inexpensive solar evaporator, made of wood.
Oxytocin could help treat alcohol use disorder
The neuropeptide oxytocin blocks enhanced drinking in alcohol-dependent rats, according to a study published April 16 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology led by Drs.
JAMA Pediatrics editorial: New lead testing recommendations inconclusive, but do not mean screening
An NYU pediatrician and researcher writes in JAMA Pediatrics that new recommendations on testing children for lead are inconclusive, but do not mean that we should abandon screening children for elevated lead levels.
New role for innate immune sensor: Suppressing liver cancer
UT Southwestern researchers have found that a protein in the body's innate immune system that responds to gut microbes can suppress the most common type of liver cancer.
Study suggests college students end up in vicious cycle of substance abuse, poor academics, stress
One negative behavior such as substance abuse or heavy alcohol drinking can lead college students toward a vicious cycle of poor lifestyle choices, lack of sleep, mental distress and low grades, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
The pressure to prescribe: Antibiotic stewardship in the outpatient setting
Outpatient healthcare providers inappropriately prescribed antibiotics to 40 percent of patients in a major Veterans Affairs healthcare system, a higher figure than in previous studies examining outpatient antibiotic use, according to a new study appearing in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology published by Elsevier.
Mindful body awareness training during treatment for drug addiction helps prevent relapse
A novel type of body awareness training helps women recover from drug addiction, according to new research from the University of Washington.
How inland waters 'breathe' carbon -- and what it means for global systems
A new Yale study reveals important insights into the factors that influence the release of greenhouse gases from rivers and streams, including a key relationship between storm events, ecology, and topography in moderating this release.
USPSTF recommendation statement on screening for elevated blood lead levels in children, pregnant women
This recommendation from the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updates its 2006 statement regarding screening for elevated blood lead levels in children and pregnant women.
Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation shows promise for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Bioelectronic medicine scientists at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research collaborated with counterparts from Academic Medical Center at University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands to carry out a series of pilot clinical studies to assess the effect of a novel bioelectronic stimulation.
New study proves for the first time that intestinal bacteria grow in pregnant women
In a new study, published in Cell Reports, researchers at the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine of Bar-Ilan University found that progesterone regulates the microbial composition during pregnancy in a way that may facilitate appropriate transmission of beneficial species to the newborn.
Workplace wellness programs may help people change certain behaviors but do little to improve overall
First major multisite randomized controlled trial of a workplace wellness program shows mixed results at 18 months.
Additional routine ultrasounds benefit mothers and babies and could be cost-saving
Offering universal late pregnancy ultrasounds at 36 weeks would benefit mothers and babies and could be cost saving.
New algorithm allows for faster, animal-free chemical toxicity testing
The use of animals to test the toxicity of chemicals may one day become outdated thanks to a low-cost, high-speed algorithm developed by researchers at Rutgers and other universities.
Lower approval rates evidence of discrimination for same-sex borrowers
Mortgage lenders are less likely to approve loans for same-sex couples.
The scientists are developing a technology for water purification by electric discharges
The environment around us is becoming increasingly polluted. This includes one of our most precious natural resources -- water.
Challenging the conventional wisdom about the Canadian electorate
According to a new study appearing in the journal Heliyon, published by Elsevier, positional issues play a greater role in Canadian electoral politics than previously assumed.
Smart antioxidant-containing polymer responds to body chemistry, environment
Oxidants found within living organisms are byproducts of metabolism and are essential to wound-healing and immunity.
Mass drug administrations can grant population protection against malaria
Researchers have provided the first evidence that mass drug administration (MDA) can grant community-level protection against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria.
Magic mouthwash effective treatment for mouth sore pain caused by radiation therapy
'Magic mouthwash,' an oral rinse containing diphenhydramine, lidocaine and antacids, significantly reduced pain from oral mucositis, mouth sores, in patients receiving radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck when compared to plaecbo.
Can multiple carnivores coexist in cities?
A new citizen science study shows how urbanization may affect interactions between carnivores in small suburban forest patches, using camera trap images from Raleigh, N.C., and Washington, D.C.
A thorough characterization of structural variants in human genomes
Human genomes vary quite a bit from individual to individual.
CubeSats prove their worth for scientific missions
Only a few years ago, the astronomy and heliophysics communities were skeptical about whether CubeSats could reliably obtain scientific data.
NASA study verifies global warming trends
A new study by researchers from NASA has verified the accuracy of recent global warming figures.
Team measures puncture performance of viper fangs
A team that studies how biological structures such as cactus spines and mantis shrimp appendages puncture living tissue has turned its attention to viper fangs.
'Lovely' and 'scientific' -- Medical student evaluations differ by gender and minority status
In the largest analysis to date of narrative medical school evaluations, researchers at UC San Francisco and Brown University have found significant differences in how female and underrepresented minority medical students are described.
Why comic-style information is better at preparing patients for cardiac catheterization
Before undergoing surgery, patients must be fully informed about what the procedure entails.
Study finds natural variation in sex ratios at birth and sex ratio inflation in 12 countries
An international team of researchers, led by UMass Amherst biostatistician Leontine Alkema and her former Ph.D. student Fengqing Chao, developed a new estimation method for assessing natural variations in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) for all countries in the world.
Corals in the Red Sea offer long-term view of the south Asian summer monsoon
When it comes to understanding future climate, the south Asian summer monsoon offers a paradox.
RIT researcher collaborates with UR to develop new form of laser for sound
The optical laser has grown to a $10 billion global technology market since it was invented in 1960, and has led to Nobel prizes for Art Ashkin for developing optical tweezing and Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland for work with pulsed lasers.
AI performs as well as experienced radiologists in detecting prostate cancer
UCLA researchers have developed a new artificial intelligence system to help radiologists improve their ability to diagnose prostate cancer.
Catfish use complex coordination to suck in prey
Using a powerful X-ray-based technology, Brown University scientists tracked catfish as they caught and swallowed prey to develop a precise understanding of the complex set of motions required to create the suction necessary to eat.
Small fossils with big applications -- the BP Gulf of Mexico time scale
Geologic time scales are critical to understanding the timing, duration, and connection of geologic events.
Bacterial mix helps predict future change
Understanding how bacterial metacommunities homogenize could help scientists predict future changes to ecosystems.
Novel biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of NAFLD-related fibrosis
With an estimated 25% of people worldwide affected by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there is a large unmet need for accurate, noninvasive measures to enhance early diagnosis and screening of hepatic fibrosis.
Study reveals brain marker for angry dreams
Researchers have identified a pattern of brain activity that reflects anger experienced during dreaming according to a new study carried out on healthy adults and published in The Journal of Neuroscience.
University of Hawaii astronomer's planet prediction verified in Star Wars-like system
A team of astronomers, including Nader Haghighipour from the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, discovered a third planet in the circumbinary planetary system Kepler-47.
Climate change to blame for Hurricane Maria's extreme rainfall
Hurricane Maria dropped more rain on Puerto Rico than any storm to hit the island since 1956, a feat due mostly to the effects of human-caused climate warming, new research finds.
Probing the mystery of drug resistance: New hope for leukemia's toughest cases
Alejandro Gutierrez, MD, a researcher at the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center has made it his mission to figure out why leukemia treatments cure some patients but not others.
Researchers identify a new biomarker for personalized treatments against cancer
Many treatments against cancer, such as TRAIL, aim to trigger a type of cell death known as apoptosis.
New discovery makes fast-charging, better performing lithium-ion batteries possible
Creating a lithium-ion battery that can charge in a matter of minutes but still operate at a high capacity is possible, according to research from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute just published in Nature Communications.
Uninformed, overwhelmed clients; unrealistic agency expectations
Contracted private agencies provide approximately 33 percent of foster care placement services and 59 percent of family preservation services.
Three studies show how tumors hijack the immune system to resist radiation therapy
Treg cells turn off the immune system. Three recent studies show that targeting tregs may increase the effectiveness of anti-cancer immunotherapies.
Scientists report new approach to reduce or prevent renal fibrosis
Renal fibrosis, the abnormal accumulation of fibrotic material within the kidney, hinders kidney function and may lead to eventual renal failure.
What Earth's gravity reveals about climate change
On March 17, 2002, the satellite duo GRACE was launched to map the Earth's gravity field more precisely than ever before.
2017 pneumonic plague outbreak in Madagascar characterized by scientists
Plague is an endemic disease in Madagascar. Each year there is a seasonal upsurge between September and April, especially in the Central Highlands, which stand at an elevation of more than 800m.
Men's knowledge on prostate cancer needs improving
UBC researchers have determined the majority of men struggle when it comes to understanding the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
Climate engineering needs to look at the big picture, says researcher
Climate engineering research is too focused on specific aspects of individual projects, argues Nadine Mengis.
Green plastic production made easy
A one-step method enables scalable and more environmentally friendly production of plant-derived plastic monomers, paving the way towards the mass production of a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based materials.
Scientists crack the code to regenerate plant tissues
A group of scientists from Tokyo University of Science have discovered a new way to regenerate flowering plant tissues, opening possibilities of mitigating global food shortage problem.
PCV10 pneumococcal vaccine has big impact in kenya, even among unvaccinated individuals
A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of childhood illness and mortality in the developing world, sharply reduced the incidence of serious pneumococcal disease among children in a large Kenyan community after it was introduced in 2011, according to a new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Radiology publishes roadmap for AI in medical imaging
In August 2018, a workshop was held at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Md., to explore the future of artificial intelligence (AI) in medical imaging.
TESS discovers its first Earth-sized planet
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, TESS, has discovered its first Earth-sized exoplanet.
New study explains how inflammation causes gastric cancer
Researchers from Kanazawa University and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development have solved the decades-old mystery of how stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer.
DNDi and Atomwise collaborate to advance drug development using AI for neglected diseases
Atomwise Inc., a biotech company using artificial intelligence (AI) for drug discovery, and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), a not-for-profit research and development organization working to deliver new treatments for neglected diseases, today announced that promising drug-like compounds have been discovered in a program to develop first-in-class treatments for Chagas disease.
Microscopy in the body
Biotechnologists, physicists, and medical researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed technology for microscopic imaging in living organisms.
New research identifies microbes that may reduce allergy-like reactions in many people
A small percentage of humans can suffer allergy-like reactions to certain varieties of ripened cheese due to histamine, a byproduct of the prolonged fermentation process.
Testosterone and cortisol modulate the effects of empathy on aggression in children
The study conducted in the UPV/EHU's Department of Basic Psychological Processes and their Development on 139 eight-year-old children has concluded that low levels of testosterone and high levels of empathy may explain the low levels of aggressive behaviour in girls; and that the low levels of empathy and high levels of cortisol may account for high levels of aggressive behaviour in boys.
In mice, feeding time influences the liver's biological clock
The timing of food intake is a major factor driving the rhythmic expression of most genes in the mouse liver, researchers report April 16, 2019 in the journal Cell Reports.
Bacteria harness viruses to distinguish friend from foe
Bacterial cells that normally colonize our guts can distinguish themselves from other bacterial species using what's traditionally considered their enemy -- a virus.
Want black women students to stay in STEM? Help them find role models who look like them
Representation matters for Black women college students when it comes to belonging in rigorous science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs, according to a new study.
Oral immunotherapy safe for preschool-aged children with peanut allergies
New data published this week in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice suggests that oral immunotherapy is safe for preschool-aged children with peanut allergies.

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