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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | April 22, 2019


Artificial intelligence can diagnose PTSD by analyzing voices
A specially designed computer program can help to diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans by analyzing their voices.
Study provides insights on marijuana and opioid use in people with cancer
A new study reveals that many people with cancer use marijuana, and rates of use in the US have increased over time.
A deep-learning model may help predict lung cancer survival and outcomes
A deep-learning model developed using serial image scans of tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predicted treatment response and survival outcomes better than standard clinical parameters.
Droplet trains reveal how nature navigates blood traffic
IBS Scientists report that they discovered spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic droplet networks.
Mount Sinai study: Intervention in preschool -- an opportunity to promote healthy lifestyle
Children may have a better chance of avoiding unhealthy habits linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease later in life if they are taught properly about healthy behaviors in preschool, Mount Sinai researchers have shown in a first-of-its-kind study.
Better labor practices could improve archaeological output
In a new paper, 'Essential Excavation Experts: Alienation and Agency in the History of Archaeological Labor,' published in Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, archaeologist AllisonMickel illuminates the ways that nineteenth century archaeologists working in the Middle East managed local labor in ways that reflected capitalist labor management models.
Nursing, dental, and medical students train together to improve kids' oral health
Nursing, medical, and dental students can work as a team to improve their knowledge of pediatric oral health -- and how to work with their fellow health professionals, finds new research led by NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.
Personalizing precision medicine with combination therapies improves outcomes in cancer
University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers found that treating patients with personalized precision medicine that combined therapies to target multiple alterations improved outcomes in patients with therapy-resistant cancers.
Modified 'white graphene' for eco-friendly energy
Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU), together with colleagues from the United States and Germany, have found a way to obtain inexpensive catalysts from hexagonal boron nitride or ''white graphene''.
Hole-forming protein may suppress tumor growth
A gene called gasdermin E, which is downregulated in many cancers, aids cells in dying in an unexpected way, and may also suppress tumor growth.
PA residents shoulder health impacts of state's oil and gas waste
More than 80 percent of all waste from Pennsylvania's oil and gas drilling operations stays inside the state, according to a new study that tracks the disposal locations of liquid and solid waste from these operations across 26 years.
Biomimetics: Artificial receptor distinguishes between male and female hormones
Researchers at Tokyo Tech have revealed that an artificial receptor preferentially binds male steroid hormones from a mixture of male and female hormones in water.
New pediatric blood pressure guidelines identify more kids at higher risk of premature heart disease
Children who were reclassified as having elevated blood pressure under new American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines are more likely to develop high blood pressure, thickening of the heart muscle and other conditions that increase heart disease risk when they reach adulthood, compared with children who have normal blood pressure.
Study highlights global burden of emergency diseases and conditions
In 2015, about half of the world's 28 million human deaths were the result of medical emergencies, with the bulk of the burden borne by poorer nations, according to a statistical analysis of information from nearly 200 countries by a Johns Hopkins Medicine researcher.
Not drinking water may boost kids' consumption of sugary beverages
Kids and young adults who drink no water throughout the day may consume twice the amount of calories from sugary drinks than those who drink water, according to Penn State researchers.
A deep learning tool for personalized workout recommendations from fitness tracking data
Computer scientists at the University of California San Diego have developed FitRec, a recommendation tool powered by deep learning, that is able to better estimate runners' heart rates during a workout and predict and recommend routes.
Older adults starting dialysis die at higher rates than previously thought
Study found more than half of older adults with end-stage kidney disease died within a year of starting dialysis.
Repelling charges prevent Cooper pairs from 'island hopping' in insulating state
New research shows how Cooper pairs -- quasiparticles that make superconductivity possible -- can also play an opposite role in an exotic type of insulating materials known as Cooper pair insulators.
Rutgers develops new tool to help psychiatrists encourage patients to quit smoking
Psychiatrists often disregard their patients' smoking even though tobacco use accounts for 50% of deaths among people with mental illness, a Rutgers-led study finds.
Physical activity may offset mortality risk caused by too much sitting
For less active adults, the amount of time spent sitting may be associated with an increased risk of death; however, increasing physical activity to recommended levels may eliminate this association in some, according to a study published today in the annual cardiovascular health promotion issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Study suggests overdiagnosis of schizophrenia
In a small study of patients referred to the Johns Hopkins Early Psychosis Intervention Clinic (EPIC), Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that about half the people referred to the clinic with a schizophrenia diagnosis didn't actually have schizophrenia.
Wakeup call: Pervasiveness of sexual harassment and its effect on female physics students
A recent study revealed that sexual harassment in physics is insidious and experienced at a significantly higher rate than is generally acknowledged.
New insight into how obesity, insulin resistance can impair cognition
Obesity can break down our protective blood brain barrier resulting in problems with learning and memory, scientists report.
Skipping breakfast associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death
New evidence underscores the importance of eating breakfast every day, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology that showed skipping breakfast was significantly associated with an increased risk of death from heart disease.
Preschool health program successful in instilling heart healthy habits
Preschoolers in an underserved community who took part in a health promotion educational program aimed at establishing health behaviors showed a 2.2-fold increase in knowledge, attitudes and habits compared to their classmates who did not take part in the program, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Rewriting the textbook on fossil fuels: New technologies help unravel nature's methane recipes
Experts say scientific understanding of deep hydrocarbons has been transformed, with new insights gained into the sources of energy that could have catalyzed and nurtured Earth's earliest forms of life.
FEFU scientists are developing brand-new method to heal brain cancer
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) in cooperation with colleagues from Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center (Moscow), Switzerland, and Sweden for the first time studied proteins, which constitute WNT signaling pathway of the cancer stem cells of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM CD133+ CSCs), one of the most aggressive brain tumors.
Brain regions linked to memory and emotion help humans navigate smell
Using varying combinations of banana and pine scents, University of Pennsylvania professor Jay Gottfried discovered that three key brain regions help humans navigate from one odor to the next.
Wristband samplers show similar chemical exposure across three continents
After Oregon State University researchers deployed chemicals to individuals on three continents, they found that no two wristbands had identical chemical detections.
Researchers outline how humans reduce uncertainty in social situations
A new perspective paper from Brown University scientists establishes a framework to apply rigorous mathematical models of uncertainty originally developed for non-social situations, such as whether or not to purchase a lottery ticket, to social scenarios such as determining an interviewer's opinion of an interviewee.
No increase in complications with 'tummy tuck' in obese patients
'Tummy tuck' surgery (abdominoplasty) can be safely performed in obese patients, with no increase in complications compared to non-obese patients, reports a study in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Island lizards are expert sunbathers, and researchers find it's slowing their evolution
If you've ever spent some time in the Caribbean, you might have noticed that humans are not the only organisms soaking up the sun.
Study: Reducing energy required to convert CO2 waste into valuable resources
Surplus industrial carbon dioxide creates an opportunity to convert waste into a valuable commodity.
Marine Skin dives deeper for better monitoring
A pioneering tagging system that monitors the movement and local environment of sea animals reaches deeper depths and higher sensitivities.
Researchers find high-risk genes for schizophrenia
Using a unique computational 'framework' they developed, a team of scientist cyber-sleuths in the Vanderbilt University Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and the Vanderbilt Genetics Institute (VGI) has identified 104 high-risk genes for schizophrenia.
Slime mold absorbs substances to memorize them
In 2016, CNRS scientists demonstrated that the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, a single-cell organism without a nervous system, could learn to no longer fear a harmless but aversive substance and could transmit this knowledge to a fellow slime mold.
Microglia, immune cells of the central nervous system, shown to regulate neuroinflammation
A research team at Massachusetts Eye and Ear has shown that microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system -- including the retina -- serve as 'gatekeepers' of neuroinflammation.
Permanent daylight savings may cancel out changes to school start times
Several states in the US, including California, Washington, Florida, and North Carolina, are now considering doing away with the practice by making daylight savings time (DST) permanent.
Neonics hinder bees' ability to fend off deadly mites, U of G study reveals
A University of Guelph study is the first to uncover the impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees' ability to groom and rid themselves of deadly mites.
Was the restaurant really that bad -- Or was it just the rain?
There are a few things that will result in poor customer reviews of a restaurant: bad service, bad food -- and bad weather.
How slippery surfaces allow sticky pastes and gels to slide
An MIT research team that has already conquered the problem of getting ketchup out of its bottle has now tackled a new category of consumer and manufacturing woe: how to get much thicker materials to slide without sticking or deforming.
From coal to gas: How the shift can help stabilize climate change
A transition from coal-based energy to cleaner-burning gas has long been viewed as a staple of many climate action plans, despite concerns over leakage and possible harmful emissions.
Lessons from Hurricane Maria: Doctors offer tips to better prepare clinics for catastrophe
In the wake of Hurricane Maria, radiation oncologists from the mainland United States and Puerto Rico prepared a set of crisis-planning tips for radiation therapy clinics to minimize gaps in cancer treatment after a catastrophic event.
Human influence on climate change is traced back to the 19th century
A new study shows that human influence on climate change can be traced back to the late 19th century based on summer-winter temperature difference.
Transgender adults more likely to report worse health-related quality of life
Transgender adults were more likely to report worse health-related quality of life compared with cisgender adults.
Advance in CAR T-cell therapy eliminates severe side effects
An advance in the cancer treatment known as CAR T-cell therapy appears to eliminate its severe side effects, making the treatment safer and potentially available in outpatient settings.
Heterogeneous catalyst goes enzymatic
IBS Researchers demonstrated enzyme-like heterogeneous catalysis for the first time.
Semiconductor scientists discover effect that was thought impossible
Superinjection, the effect used in lasers and LEDs creation can work in 'pure' semiconductors, which was previously considered impossible.
Brains of blind people adapt to sharpen sense of hearing, study shows
Research from the University of Washington uses functional MRI to identify two differences in the brains of blind individuals -- differences that might be responsible for their abilities to make better use of auditory information.
One woman's cancer fight: A case study in structural racism
While medical professionals identify race as a risk factor for many diseases, the authors argue that racism also be identified as a root cause of health inequities.
Working out makes hydrogels perform more like muscle
Human skeletal muscles have a unique combination of properties that materials researchers seek for their own creations.
Parents using both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes may be more motivated to quit
A study by MassGeneral Hospital for Children researchers finds that parents who use both traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes may be more receptive to smoking cessation interventions than parents who only smoke traditional cigarettes.
Researchers describe the mechanism of a protein upon infection of the 'Fasciola hepatica'
The study also validated ten reference genes in sheep that allow for studying how the immune system behaves when facing this disease
Bacteria use their enemy -- phage -- for 'self-recognition'
Scientists discovered that cells can distinguish themselves from closely related competitors through the use of a virus, and the harboring of phage in bacterial genomes benefits host cells when facing competitors in the environment.
Mauritian medical herbs possess antitumor properties
Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) scientists teamed up with colleagues from the UK and Mauritius and experimentally demonstrated that extracts of the endemic (i.e. growing only on this island) medicinal herb leaves Acalypha integrifolia, Eugenia tinifolia, and Labourdonnaisia glauca stop the proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, ones of the most deadly cancer type worldwide.
Neuroscientists reverse some behavioral symptoms of Williams syndrome
In a study of mice, MIT neuroscientists have found that impaired myelination underlies the hypersociability seen in patients with Williams syndrome.
Rurality, social identity is driving polarization in Iowa
What will shape voter attitudes heading into the 2020 election?
Study highlights anti-tumor activity of curcumin on stomach cancer
A review article authored by Brazilian researchers evaluated several compounds with therapeutic potential against gastric tumors.
Survey shows half of all American workplaces offer health and wellness programs
Workplace health promotion programs are increasing in the US, according to researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Gillings School of Global Public Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and RTI International.
Study shows zoos and aquariums increase species knowledge index 800 percent
Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: When researchers look at what we know about fertility and survival rates for major classes of species, 98 percent of the page remains blank.
Asia's diabetes epidemic preferentially kills women, the middle-aged: Study
Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in Asia and has dramatically increased the risk of premature death, especially among women and middle-aged people, a multinational study led by Vanderbilt University researchers has found.
Promise of liquid biopsy in cancer biomarker detection and prenatal screening
The promise and challenges of liquid biopsy, an emerging, noninvasive method for targeted disease diagnosis and detection of cancer biomarkers to enable improved and personalized therapy, is the focus of a new special issue of Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert Inc. publishers.
Those home-delivered meal kits are greener than you thought, new study concludes
Meal kit services, which deliver a box of pre-portioned ingredients and a chef-selected recipe to your door, are hugely popular but get a bad environmental rap due to perceived packaging waste.
Metformin may help patients maintain weight loss long-term
In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) clinical trial and its long-term follow-up study, among the persons who lost at least 5 percent of their body weight during the first year, long-term maintenance of weight loss was more likely if they had been assigned to treatment with metformin than with placebo or lifestyle intervention.
With abdominal etching, plastic surgeons help patients get 'six-pack abs'
Even with a good diet and workout routine, some men and women have trouble getting the toned abdominal appearance they want.
Photonics: The curious case of the disappearing cylinders
A pair of researchers at Tokyo Tech describes a way of making a submicron-sized cylinder disappear without using any specialized coating.
Soft bedding poses grave danger to sleeping babies, study shows
Almost 70% of babies who died from sleep-related suffocation between 2011 and 2014 did so because of soft bedding, a new study reveals.
Plant-based diets can be effective in reducing heart failure risk
Plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of heart failure in adults without known heart disease, while Southern diets consisting of more fried and processed foods and sweetened drinks are associated with greater risk, according to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology that looked at the association between five dietary patterns and risk of heart failure.
Sand tiger sharks return to shipwrecks off N.C. coast
A study co-led by Duke University reveals shipwrecks off North Carolina's coast are important habitats for sand tiger sharks, whose population plummeted in the 1980 and 1990s.
Not drinking water associated with consuming more calories from sugary drinks
This study examined how drinking water was associated with the amount of calories children, adolescents and young adults consume from sugar-sweetened beverages, including sodas, fruit drinks and sports drinks.
Researchers find new novel circulating proteins involved in progression of DKD to ESRD
Seventeen proteins, called the Kidney Risk Inflammatory Signature (KRIS), could allow doctors to determine the risk of progression to end stage renal disease in a patient with diabetic kidney disease.
Overlooked molecular machine in cell nucleus may hold key to treating aggressive leukemia
Many people fighting a very aggressive form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) don't survive more than five years.
Catalyst renders nerve agents harmless
A team of scientists has studied a catalyst that decomposes nerve agents, eliminating their harmful and lethal effects.
New genomics tool ECCITE-seq expands multimodal single cell analysis
ECCITE-seq (Expanded CRISPR-compatible Cellular Indexing of Transcriptomes and Epitopes by sequencing), developed by scientists at the New York Genome Center's Technology Innovation Lab, allows researchers to perform high-throughput measurements of multiple modalities of information from single cells.
Empathy often avoided because of mental effort
Even when feeling empathy for others isn't financially costly or emotionally draining, people will still avoid it because they think empathy requires too much mental effort, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
Protecting damaged hearts with microRNAs
Once the heart is formed, its muscle cells have very limited ability to regenerate.
How blindness shapes sound processing
Adults who lost their vision at an early age have more refined auditory cortex responses to simple sounds than sighted individuals, according to new neuroimaging research published in JNeurosci.
Sugar entering the brain during septic shock causes memory loss
The loss of memory and cognitive function known to afflict survivors of septic shock is the result of a sugar that is released into the blood stream and enters the brain during the life-threatening condition.
DNA is managed like climbers' rope to help keep tangles at bay
Scientists have uncovered a process in cells that prevents DNA from becoming tangled, which resembles a method used to control climbers' ropes.
Geomagnetic jerks finally reproduced and explained
The Earth's magnetic field experiences unpredictable, rapid, and intense anomalies that are known as geomagnetic jerks.
Snake-inspired robot slithers even better than predecessor
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new and improved snake-inspired soft robot that is faster and more precise than its predecessor.
The kids are alright
A new study reveals the surprising way that family quarrels in seeds drive rapid evolution.
Climate change has worsened global economic inequality
The gap between the economic output of the world's richest and poorest countries is 25 percent larger today than it would have been without global warming, according to new research from Stanford University.
Surrey academics weigh into the debate on daylight saving time and school start time
A switch to permanent daylight saving time will undo any positive effects on sleep of delaying school start times, according to researchers from the University of Surrey.
New technique produces longer-lasting lithium batteries
Columbia Engineering researchers have developed a new method for safely prolonging battery life by inserting a nano-coating of boron nitride (BN) to stabilize solid electrolytes in lithium metal batteries.
Defying the laws of physics? Columbia engineers demonstrate bubbles of sand
A recent discovery by Columbia Engineering researchers explains a new family of gravitational instabilities in granular particles of different densities that are driven by a gas-channeling mechanism not seen in fluids.
Mixing grass varieties may reduce insect infestations in lawns
A simple change in the choice of grass varieties for lawns of St.
Blood samples to help select the right early phase clinical trials for cancer patients
Scientists could help match cancer patients with no other treatment options to clinical trials with experimental medicines, by analyzing the genetic faults in a sample of their blood, according to research published in Nature Medicine today (Monday).

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