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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 30, 2019


Study shows high phenolic acid intake -- associated with a healthy diet -- is associated with reduced breast cancer risk
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, Scotland (April 28-May 1) shows that a high intake of phenolic acids -- associated with a healthy diet -- is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
Reef engineers
The next time you find yourself luxuriating in some exotic, Instagrammable vacation spot, thank a parrotfish.
New 3D imaging and visualization technique provides detailed views of muscle architecture
In a new study, scientists in pathology and anatomical sciences in the University of Missouri's School of Medicine have revealed a three-dimensional view of the skeletal muscles responsible for flight in a European starling.
Children with high BMI who don't become obese adults do not appear to be at increased risk of type 2 diabetes
New research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, UK (April 28-May 1) suggests that having a high BMI in childhood coupled with obesity in adulthood may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
Can the effects of the ketogenic diet help prevent epilepsy after traumatic brain injury?
Neuroscientists at Tufts prevented the development of epileptic activity in mice after traumatic brain injury by using a drug that mimics the metabolic effects of the ketogenic diet.
Bots exploiting blockchains for profit
Like high-frequency traders on Wall Street, a growing army of bots exploit inefficiencies in decentralized exchanges, which are places where users buy, sell or trade cryptocurrency independent of a central authority, a new study found.
Crisis and suicide prevention services struggle with demand after celebrity suicides
The US may lack the resources needed to meet increases in demand for suicide prevention services that occur after celebrity suicides, according to a recent study of crisis mental health services.
Amid genomic data explosion, scientists find proliferating errors
Washington State University researchers found a troubling number of errors in publicly available genomic data as they conducted a large-scale analysis of protein sequences.
Mayo Clinic, other experts call for urgent focus on brain disease that mimics Alzheimer's
In collaboration with the University of Kentucky, the University of Texas Southwest Medical Center, Rush University Medical Center, the University of Cambridge in the UK, and other institutions, Mayo Clinic researchers helped to establish a name for a degenerative brain disease that afflicts the elderly and mimics features of Alzheimer's disease.
Test allows doctors to determine most effective treatment for women with breast cancer
A breast cancer test has been found that helps doctors make treatment decisions for some breast cancer patients, following research carried out at Queen Mary University of London and funded by Cancer Research UK.
How scratching may prime children with eczema for food allergy and anaphylaxis
Eczema, a chronic itchy inflammatory skin disease, affects about 15 percent of U.S. children.
MUSC psychologists release results of survey of 'Maria generation' kids
Psychologists from the Medical University of South Carolina have just published one of the largest post-disaster screening projects in U.S. history.
Novel software to balance data processing load in supercomputers to be presented
The team will present its research in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at the 33rd International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium on May 22, 2019.
A third of type one diabetes is misdiagnosed in the over 30s
The study, led by the University of Exeter, shows that 38% of patients with type 1 diabetes occurring after age 30 were initially treated as type 2 diabetes (without insulin). the team found that half of those misdiagnosed were still diagnosed as type 2 diabetes 13 years later.
Researchers design a strategy to make graphene luminescent
A University of Cordoba research project is able to incorporate luminescence into this super material, paving a new way to continue expanding properties
Study: Health care providers split on who should prescribe HIV prevention drug
UB researchers interviewed a small sample of PrEP-prescribing providers in New York State to conduct a qualitative analysis of their perspectives on the preventive medication.
Regenstrief, IU Health study helps chaplains provide proactive care to families in crises
A new model developed and implemented by the Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University Health provides chaplains with a framework to deliver better care to families and other surrogate decision makers during health emergencies.
Do you smell what I smell?
A new study from the Monell Center and collaborating institutions sheds light on understanding the extensive individual differences in how we sense odors.
International study suggests that eating more rice could be protective against obesity
Obesity levels are substantially lower in countries that consume high amounts of rice (average 150g/day/person), while counties with lower average rice intake (average 14g/day/person) have higher obesity levels, according to an international study of 136 countries, being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow.
Innovative treatment restores sight in patient
Innovative treatment has improved the vision of a patient suffering from a rare cancer-related syndrome affecting the eye, new research in the journal JAMA Ophthalmology reports.
SwRI develops system to legally test GPS spoofing vulnerabilities in automated vehicles
Southwest Research Institute has developed a cyber security system to test for vulnerabilities in automated vehicles and other technologies that use GPS receivers for positioning, navigation and timing.
Fear of 'being seen' may be hindering teen online access to accurate sexual health info
Fear of 'being seen' may be hindering teens' access to accurate sexual health information online, suggest the results of a small study published online in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.
Only some people get one health benefit from social support
Scientists have long known that the support of friends and family plays a key role in protecting people's physical health.
Cannabis-based medicine may reduce seizures for children with difficult-to-treat epilepsy
Taking a pharmaceutical formulation of cannabidiol, a cannabis-based medicine, cut seizures nearly in half for children with a rare and severe type of epilepsy called Dravet syndrome, according to a phase 3 study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 71st Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, May 4-10, 2019.
Tracking small things in cells
Living cells can react to disturbances with a changed metabolism, but direct observation of trafficking metabolites in live cells is difficult.
Expert: Justin Trudeau's French isn't bad; Quebecers just don't think he belongs
Quebec's criticism of Justin Trudeau's French serves to position him as an 'outsider' to Quebecois identity, according to a professor at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Brain signaling proteins hit the road running
Surprisingly complex movements in an important neurotransmitter receptor may help explain the brain's unpredictable response to drugs, according to a new study.
Sleep and exercise affect new moms differently than new dads
In a study looking at the daily lives of new parents, researchers found that getting more physical activity and sleep was linked with more personal well-being.
EGLN inhibitor protects normal tissue and enables RT in mouse model of pancreatic cancer
Administration of the EGLN inhibitor FG-4592 prior to ablative radiotherapy provided protection against fatal gastrointestinal bleeding and improved survival in a mouse model of unresectable pancreatic cancer.
Disease-causing nibbling amoeba hides by displaying proteins from host cells
A parasitic amoeba that causes severe gut disease in humans protects itself from attack by biting off pieces of host cells and putting their proteins on its own surface, according to a study by microbiologists at UC Davis.
Musculoskeletal conditions now second global cause of years lived with disability
Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, which affect the body's joints, bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments, now rank as the second leading global cause of years lived with a disability, reveals an analysis of international data, published online in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.
A promising new treatment for infants with Noonan syndrome
Infants less than six months old with Noonan Syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure normally have a poor prognosis, with a one-year survival rate of 34%.
New research offers insight into the proteins in the brain that detect cannabis
Researchers at the University of Bristol have made new progress in understanding how cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), the proteins that detect the active components of marijuana, are controlled in the brain.
Pest-killing fungi could protect NYS grapes, apples from invasive insect
Cornell University-led research reports that two local fungal pathogens could potentially curb an invasive insect that has New York vineyard owners on edge.
The space rock that hit the moon at 61,000 kilometers an hour
Observers watching January's total eclipse of the Moon saw a rare event, a short-lived flash as a meteorite hit the lunar surface.
Right combination of diet and bacteria limits cancer progression
Researchers from the University of Luxembourg have discovered a combination of dietary factors and gut bacteria that inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.
New study finds river wildlife contain cocaine, pharmaceuticals and pesticides
For the first time, researchers at King's College London, in collaboration with the University of Suffolk, have found a diverse array of chemicals, including illicit drugs and pesticides in UK river wildlife.
Do 'microglia' hold the key to stop Alzheimer's disease?
A Leuven research team led by Prof. Bart De Strooper (VIB-KU Leuven, UK DRI) studied how specialized brain cells called microglia respond to the accumulation of toxic proteins in the brain, a feature typical of Alzheimer's.
Gender impacts brain activity in alcoholics
Compared to alcoholic women, alcoholic men have more diminished brain activity in areas responsible for emotional processing (limbic regions including the amygdala and hippocampus), as well as memory and social processing (cortical regions including the superior frontal and supramarginal regions) among other functions.
Cryptographic breakthrough helps spies to shake hands
When spies meet, they use secret handshakes to confirm their identities, ensuring they are who they say they are.
Biologists warn of peril from biological invasions as White House cuts funding
As the Trump Administration prepares to cut in half the budget for the National Invasive Species Council, a group of invasive species experts has issued a warning about the growing peril of biological invasions and the increasing threat they pose to the economy, environment, public health and national security.
A novel method for assessing combined risk of multiple tap water pollutants
The array of toxic pollutants in California drinking water could cause more than 15,000 cases of cancer, according to a peer-reviewed EWG study that is the first ever to assess the cumulative risk from all contaminants in the state's public water systems.
Study reveals how glial cells may play key epilepsy role
In eLife, MIT neuroscientists present a new, detailed accounting of how a mutation in a fly model of epilepsy undermines the ability of glial cells to regulate the balance of ions that neurons need to avoid producing seizures.
Deadly box jellyfish antidote discovered using CRISPR genome editing
Researchers studying how pain works at the University of Sydney have discovered an antidote to the deadly sting delivered by the most venomous creature on Earth -- the Australian box jellyfish.
Confidence in asthma inhaler technique doesn't match actual skills
Many children with asthma think they are using their asthma inhaler medications correctly when they are not.
Breaking open the gates of antibiotic resistance
Creating a defect in tRNA molecules could weaken bacteria's two-pronged defense and help make faster-acting antibiotics
Study shows that controlling or 'wiping out' obesity and excess weight could avoid substantial numbers of premature deaths
New research presented at the European Congress on Obesity in Glasgow, UK (April 28-May 1) shows that controlling or wiping out obesity and overweight would have a substantial impact in reducing premature deaths from non-communicable diseases, which is also a key target outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals.
Nanomaterials mimicking natural enzymes with superior catalytic activity and selectivity
A KAIST research team doped nitrogen and boron into graphene to selectively increase peroxidase-like activity and succeeded in synthesizing a peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with a low cost and superior catalytic activity.
Too much smiling in a sales pitch could kill the deal
Researchers found a direct connection between salesmen spending too much time flashing their biggest smile during a presentation and the amount of capital raised.
New mathematical approach tested for the search of flight MH370
The 2014 disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 remains ones of the biggest mysteries in aviation.
Star with strange chemistry is from out of town
Astronomers have discovered a star in the Milky Way Galaxy with a chemical composition unlike any other star in our Galaxy.
Field study finds pellet-fed stoves cut air pollutant emissions 90%
A field study finds that a new cookstove design, which makes use of compressed wood pellets, reduces air pollution by about 90% for a range of contaminants associated with health problems and climate change.
Number of UK adults on low incomes who face hunger has likely almost doubled since 2004
The proportion of UK adults on low incomes who face hunger because they can't afford to buy enough to eat -- a situation known as 'food insecurity' -- has likely almost doubled in the UK since 2004, suggests an analysis of survey data published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
Possible link between autism and antidepressants use during pregnancy
An international team led by Duke-NUS Medical School has found a potential link between autistic-like behaviour in adult mice and exposure to a common antidepressant in the womb.
Obese children over a third more likely to require a hospital emergency department visit
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, Scotland (April 28-May 1) reveals that obese children are over a third more likely to require a hospital emergency department visit than their normal weight counterparts.
Your genetic make-up has little impact on your dental health, new study finds
A new study estimates that one in three Australian children have tooth decay by the time they start school.
Antibiotics may treat endometriosis
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that treating mice with an antibiotic reduces the size of lesions caused by endometriosis.
Guidelines proposed for newly defined Alzheimer's-like brain disorder
A recently recognized brain disorder called limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy, or LATE, mimics clinical features of Alzheimer's disease.
Hospital study shows in just a decade, proportion of pregnant women with obesity has doubled
The proportion of pregnant women with obesity (body mass index [BMI] above 30 kg/m2) has doubled over the past decade, from around 22% in 2010 to 44% in 2018, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, UK (April 28-May 1).
Chatterbox parents may boost tots' intelligence
A major new study, led by researchers at the University of York, has identified a link between kids who hear high quantities of adult speech and better nonverbal abilities such as reasoning, numeracy and shape awareness.
Pregnancy shifts the daily schedule forward
New research from Washington University in St. Louis finds that women and mice both shift their daily schedules earlier by up to a few hours during the first third of their pregnancy.
Researchers define Alzheimer's-like brain disorder
Researchers at Rush University Medical Center and scientists from several National Institutes of Health-funded institutions, in collaboration with international peers, described the newly-named pathway to dementia, Limbic-predominant Age-related TDP-43 Encephalopathy, or LATE, in a report published today in the journal Brain.
Twelve-year follow-up after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
A 12-year retrospective clinical study of patients who received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for malignant neuroendocrine tumors demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of this treatment, which also allows patients to maintain a high quality of life.
New screening approach helps identify sources of rare genetic diseases in children
Scientists are using a new approach to pinpoint the causes of rare genetic diseases in children and identify treatment options faster than with traditional methods.
When a 'she' becomes an 'it'
What happens in the human brain when a woman is put on a par with an object?
Chloride-channel in muscle cells provides new insights for muscle diseases
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have mapped the structure of an important channel in human muscle cells.
Watchful waiting reasonable for patients with diabetic macular edema and good vision
People with good vision despite having center-involved diabetic macular edema can safely forego immediate treatment of their eye condition as long as they are closely monitored, and treatment begins promptly if vision worsens, according to clinical trial results.
What predicts college students' drinking habits? How much they think others are drinking
A new study by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University examined students' genetic risk of alcohol use, roommates' drinking habits and the perception of peer drinking.
US cities host more regionally unique species than previously thought
To better understand whether rapidly growing cities are hosting the same species, a team from the California Academy of Sciences analyzed an immense volume of data gathered by citizen scientists during the four-day global City Nature Challenge.
New research to explore technology needed for peer-to-peer 'free trade' in excess energy
People who generate their own power through solar panels and wind turbines may soon be able to decide where to distribute their excess energy, rather than back to the national grid.
What can be done to prevent another CRISPR crisis?
The public announcement last fall from China regarding gene editing on human embryos, conducted without the benefit of scientific review or ethical debate, has raised global concerns that more rigorous standards must be established to guide research in germline gene therapy, according to a new article publishing on April 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by medical ethicist Arthur L.
NC study: Warmer water linked to higher proportion of male flounder
In the wild and in the lab, researchers find a relationship between higher water temperature and a lower percentage of female flounder, a cause for concern.
Evolving alongside viruses impacts susceptibility to future infections
Researchers have shown that when fruit flies co-evolve with viruses, different genetic changes occur to those caused by encountering a virus for the first time, altering the insects' susceptibility to future infection.
Put down the protein shake: Variety of protein better for health
University of Sydney researchers have examined whether there are any ongoing ramifications or potential side-effects from long-term high protein intake or from consuming certain types of amino acids.
Samara scientists discovered a new path for the synthesis of helical molecules -- helicenes
Together with the colleagues from the USA universities, they discovered a new path for the synthesis of helical molecules -- helicenes.
Rapid permafrost thaw unrecognized threat to landscape, global warming researcher warns
University of Guelph Prof. Merritt Turetsky and an international team of researchers asssessed abrupt thaw studies across the permafrost zone to estimate the overall effect.
Can stress in the womb lead to mental resilience later in life?
Maternal stress during or after pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with subsequent psychiatric problems and non-coding 'epigenetic' DNA changes during childhood.
'Seeing the light' behind radiation therapy
Delivering just the right dose of radiation for cancer patients is a delicate balance in their treatment regime.
Isle Royale winter study: 13 new wolves, 20 radio-collared moose
Michigan Technological University's 2019 Isle Royale Winter Study focuses on the implications of newly introduced wolves and the movements of newly collared moose.
Fat cell discovery could help combat obesity-related health issues
A world-first discovery has identified three different kinds of fat cells including a 'fast burning' type which if unlocked might help people lose weight.
Lines blurring between human herpes simplex viruses
The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) that commonly infects the mouth, is continuing to mix with the genital herpes virus (HSV-2) to create new, different recombinant versions.
To boldly go or anxiously hang back?
UC San Francisco research has identified a particular group of nerve cells in the brain that play an important role in anxiety's influence over behavior.
Researchers identify causes and mechanisms of polycystic ovary syndrome using family-based genetic analysis
The findings will enable personalized medicine approaches to disease prediction and potential new therapies for PCOS.
Can we cure cancer by finding out how two proteins interact?
The research conducted by Dr. Sila Özdemir during her Ph.D.
Anti-stress brain chemical is related to PTSD resilience after trauma
Fewer receptors for the anti-stress brain chemical nociceptin is associated with less severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in college women who have experienced sexual violence, according to a study in Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier.
Television programming for children reveals systematic gender inequality
Programming children watch on American TV shows systematic gender inequality, according to new research.
Circadian rhythm disruption tips the cell-cycle balance toward tumor growth
Disrupting normal circadian rhythms promotes tumor growth and suppresses the effects of a tumor-fighting drug, according to a new study publishing April 30, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Yool Lee, Amita Sehgal, and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania.
Brain mapping: New technique reveals how information is processed
Scientists have discovered a new method for quickly and efficiently mapping the vast network of connections among neurons in the brain.
Scientists develop stereodefined N and S atom-codoped graphdiyne for oxygen evolution
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance in energy-related techniques, such as metal-air batteries and water splitting.
Almost half of World Heritage sites could lose their glaciers by 2100
Glaciers are set to disappear completely from almost half of World Heritage sites if business-as-usual emissions continue.
Designer drugs to inhibit hepatitis A virus
Structure-based drug design revealed that a compound previously investigated for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer could function as a lead compound for the development of drugs to treat hepatitis A virus infection, according to a study publishing April 30, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Dan Su of Sichuan University, Zihe Rao of Tsinghua University, Xiangxi Wang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and colleagues.
Keto diet has potential in military, researchers say
A new study has researchers hopeful that a ketogenic diet could prove useful in the military, where obesity is an ongoing challenge, both in terms of recruiting soldiers and keeping them fit for service.
The new 'runner's high'? MJ users often mix weed, workouts
A study of cannabis users in states where it's legal found 82 % use the drug before and/or after exercise, with many reporting it increases enjoyment, enhances recovery, and heightens motivation.
How the brain integrates sensory input
Hearing, sight, touch - our brain captures a wide range of distinct sensory stimuli and links them together.
First human germline gene editing was deeply flawed science, Chinese experts argue
The first reported instance of germline gene editing in humans was bad science as well as bad ethics, according to a commentary publishing April 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Haoyi Wang of the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Hui Yang of the Institutes of Neuroscience, CAS, both well-known experts in gene editing.
Human ancestors were 'grounded,' new analysis shows
African apes adapted to living on the ground, a finding that indicates human evolved from an ancestor not limited to tree or other elevated habitats.
Changing climate may affect animal-to-human disease transfer
Climate change could affect occurrences of diseases like bird-flu and Ebola, with environmental factors playing a larger role than previously understood in animal-to-human disease transfer.
Consumers prefer pork cooked to 145 degrees, study says
Are pork chops on the menu this grilling season? According to new research from University of Illinois meat scientists, pork enthusiasts can improve taste, juiciness, and tenderness by cooking chops to the new USDA standard: 145 degrees Fahrenheit.
Analysis of old people's civic participation
A team of the University of Barcelona has analysed the research carried out over the last 55 years on old people's civic participation.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder prevalence is very high in susceptible groups worldwide
A major new review of the world literature has found that fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is 10 to 40 times higher in certain susceptible groups than the general population.
Keeping fit is more than physical: It's a state of mind
Preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) face heightened risks of death, critical illness, and prolonged hospitalization, particularly if they progress to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Responding to extremist attacks: For Muslim leaders, 'It's damned if you do, damned if you don't'
Muslim leaders face a perilous task when asked to publicly respond to violent attacks carried out by Muslim extremists.
Making glass more clear
Northwestern University researchers have developed an algorithm that makes it possible to design glassy materials with dynamic properties and predict their continually changing behaviors.
Poor, crowded cities lack access to opioid reversal drug, Rutgers study finds
People living in the most populous, low-income areas in New Jersey with the highest risk for opioid overdoses have less access to the potentially life-saving opioid reversal drug naloxone, Rutgers researchers find.
Scientists develop new model to describe how bacteria spread in different forms
A new model describing how bacteria spread when moving in two different forms has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.
NASA's Aqua Satellite finds Tropical Cyclone Fani stronger, more organized
Visible imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite showed Tropical Cyclone Fani appeared more organized than the previous day.
Chronic disruptions to circadian rhythms promote tumor growth, reduce efficacy of therapy
In a study published today in the journal PLOS Biology, researchers at Penn Medicine show circadian disruptions trigger an increase in cell proliferation that, ultimately, shifts the cell-cycle balance and stimulates the growth of tumors in mice.
New giant virus may help scientists better understand the emergence of complex life
A team of scientists led by virologist Masaharu Takemura at Tokyo University of Science and Hiroyuki Ogata at Kyoto University in Japan have discovered a giant virus that, much like the mythical monster Medusa, can turn almost amoeba to a stone-like cyst.
Excessive rainfall as damaging to corn yield as extreme heat, drought
Recent flooding in the Midwest has brought attention to the complex agricultural problems associated with too much rain.
Middle Pleistocene human skull reveals variation and continuity in early Asian humans
A team of scientists led by LIU Wu and WU Xiujie from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the first ever Middle Pleistocene human skull found in southeastern China, revealing the variation and continuity in early Asian humans.
Genetic testing has a data problem; New software can help
As at-home genetic testing becomes more popular, companies are grappling with how to store all the accumulating data and how to process results quickly.
Research decodes one way cancer survives treatment, proposes a way to prevent it
Cancer cells have various tricks up their metaphorical sleeves to survive in the face of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other cancer treatments.
When is Alzheimer's not Alzheimer's? Researchers characterize a different form of dementia
Alzheimer's is dementia, but not all dementias are Alzheimer's (which may explain why so many Alzheimer's drugs have failed in clinical trials).
Low income is a risk factor for 'catastrophic' amputation after knee joint replacement
Above-knee amputation (AKA) is a rare but severe complication of deep infection after knee replacement surgery.
Advanced detection tool to limit the spread of devastating tree pathogens
New easy-to-transport tool, suitable for non-scientists to promote the advanced detection and limits the spread of some of the most devastating tree pathogens in the European context.
New study identifies drug that can reverse hyperactivity induced by parasitic infection
When rodents get infected by Toxoplasma gondii, the single-celled brain parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, they become hyperactive risk-takers.
Australian blue tongue lizard ancestor was round-in-the-tooth
Reconstruction of the most complete fossil lizard found in Australia, a 15 million year old relative of our modern blue tongues and social skinks named Egernia gillespieae, reveals the creature was equipped with a robust crushing jaw and was remarkably similar to modern lizards.
Flowering plants, new teeth and no dinosaurs: New study sheds light on the rise of mammals
A new study has identified three factors critical in the rise of mammal communities since they first emerged during the Age of Dinosaurs: the rise of flowering plants; the evolution of tribosphenic molars in mammals; and the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, which reduced competition between mammals and other vertebrates in terrestrial ecosystems.

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