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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 06, 2019


Hopping bacteria
Scientists have long known that key models of bacterial movement in real-world conditions are flawed.
IPBES: Nature's dangerous decline 'unprecedented,' species extinction rates 'accelerating'
Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history -- and the rate of species extinctions is accelerating, with grave impacts on people around the world now likely, warns a landmark new report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the summary of which was approved at the 7th session of the IPBES Plenary, meeting last week (April 29-May 4) in Paris.
Program involving community volunteers shows promise for reducing health care use by seniors
Incorporating community volunteers into the health care system shows promise in reducing health care usage by older adults and shifting health care from hospitals to primary care, according to new research in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Fitness may affect risk of lung, colorectal cancer and survival likelihood after diagnosis
In a recent CANCER study, adults who were the most fit had the lowest risk of developing lung and colorectal cancer.
AI can detect depression in a child's speech
A machine learning algorithm can detect signs of anxiety and depression in the speech patterns of young children, potentially providing a fast and easy way of diagnosing conditions that are difficult to spot and often overlooked in young people.
Nearly half of public wrongly believe heart failure is normal in old age
Low awareness of heart failure among patients and the public is highlighted in surveys to be presented during Heart Failure 2019 the annual congress of the Heart Failure Association (HFA), a branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), taking place in Athens, Greece from May 25-28, 2019.
Index that tracks impact of pharmaceuticals worldwide to relaunch, focus on more diseases
The Global Health Impact Index, developed by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York to rank pharmaceutical companies based on their drugs' impact on global health, is launching a new, more-robust model that addresses even more diseases worldwide.
Rethinking digital service design could reduce their environmental impact
Rethinking digital service design could reduce their environmental impact Digital technology companies could reduce the carbon footprint of services like YouTube by changing how they are designed, experts say.
Five things to know about physician suicide
Physician suicide is an urgent problem with rates higher than suicide rates in the general public, with potential for extensive impact on health care systems.
Regenstrief faculty discuss communication and patient advocacy at national meeting
Regenstrief Institute research scientists are presenting some of the institute's latest research on patient engagement and advocacy at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., May 8-11.
Merging cell datasets, panorama style
A new algorithm developed by MIT researchers takes cues from panoramic photography to merge massive, diverse cell datasets into a single source that can be used for medical and biological studies.
'Google Maps' for cancer: Image-based computer model reveals finer details of tumor blood flow
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have developed something akin to a 'Google Maps' approach for more accurately computing and visualizing the structural and functional blood vessel changes needed for tumor growth.
Homemade cat food diets could be risky
A new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis, finds most homemade cat food recipes are unlikely to provide cats all their essential nutrients.
High rates of Indigenous people in jail is a health crisis
The overincarceration of Indigenous people in Canada is a health crisis, causing more years of life to be lost than premature death from heart disease, injuries and cancer, argues a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
The perils of a leader who is too extroverted
Extroverts are often seen as natural leaders in organizations. But a new study suggests that some leaders may have too much of a good thing.
A new approach to targeting tumors and tracking their spread
MIT researchers have developed nanosized antibodies that home in on the meshwork of proteins surrounding cancer cells.
Smart pill bottle keeps drugs safe
Low-cost, stretchy sensors can be assembled inside the lid of a drug container to help monitor patient safety.
UNH researchers discover new strain of canine distemper in wild animals in NH, VT
A distinct strain of canine distemper virus, which is a widespread virus of importance to wildlife and domesticated dogs, has been identified in wild animals in New Hampshire and Vermont, according to pathologists with the New Hampshire Veterinary Diagnostic Lab at the University of New Hampshire.
UMN researchers advance understanding of atrial fibrillation-related dementia
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers have determined that atrial fibrillation (Afib) is independently associated with changes that occur with aging and dementia.
Blue supergiant stars open doors to concert in space
Blue supergiants are rock-and-roll: they live fast and die young.
Bullying among adolescents hurts both the victims and the perpetrators
About a tenth of adolescents across the globe have been the victim of psychological or physical violence from their classmates.
Rice husks can remove microcystin toxins from water
An abundant and inexpensive agricultural byproduct, rice husks have been investigated as a water purification solution in the past.
Trans-catheter aortic valve replacement can improve outcomes in low-risk surgical patients
A new study examines the effects of TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve for low-risk patients.
Researchers find protein that suppresses muscle repair in mice
Researchers report that a protein known to be important to protein synthesis also influences muscle regeneration and regrowth in an unexpected manner.
Rapid bacterial analysis and testing for antibiotic sensitivity demonstrated
Medical professionals may soon be able to detect bacteria in patient samples in minutes rather than days thanks to a new approach that traps and tests single cells, according to a team of biomedical engineers.
Social media has limited effects on teenage life satisfaction
A study of 12,000 British teenagers has shown that links between social media use and life satisfaction are bidirectional and small at best, but may differ depending on gender and how the data are analysed.
Study presents drug candidate for reversing mucosal barrier damage by HIV
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital led by Raina Fichorova, MD, PhD, in collaboration with an international team, tested a laboratory-made version of a naturally occurring protein (recombinant fragment of human Surfactant Protein D or rfhSP-D) on bioengineered vaginal tissues, immune cells and microbes to determine if the drug candidate could help prevent HIV transmission safely.
Taming defective porous materials for robust and selective heterogeneous catalysis
Precise engineering of defects transforms metal-organic frameworks into selective heterogeneous catalysts for ethylene dimerization without activators or solvent.
Tip sheet: Studies on opioid-prescribing practices
Although opioids play a key role in reducing pain when recovering from surgery, some patients transition to chronic users and become dependent on them.
The power of randomization: Magnetic skyrmions for novel computer technology
Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have succeeded in developing a key constituent of a novel unconventional computing concept.
Form drives function in cancer proliferation
A new study finds that the protein responsible for the crawling movements of cells also drives the ability of cancer cells to grow when under stress.
First in-vivo trial of subharmonic contrast-enhanced imaging for detection of PCa
A new technique for imaging of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents may be useful in detection of prostate cancer (PCa) not found by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Oxygen linked with the boom and bust of early animal evolution
Extreme fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen levels corresponded with evolutionary surges and extinctions in animal biodiversity during the Cambrian explosion, finds new study led by UCL and the University of Leeds.
Brain injury from low oxygen affects specific cells, Stanford-led study finds
Low oxygen levels are a well-known cause of brain injury in premature babies.
Direct dispensing of naloxone by pharmacists can cut opioid overdose deaths, study finds
The opioid antidote naloxone can reverse the effects of an overdoes if given to a person promptly and many states have approved rules to make the drug more widely available.
URI researchers: Offshore wind farm increased tourism on Block Island
Researchers at the University of Rhode Island who analyzed AirBnB rental data before and after construction of the Block Island Wind Farm have found that, contrary to some concerns, the turbines have increased tourism on the island.
Eddy currents affect flux of salt more than heat
Modeling the 3D structure of Red Sea eddies shows how transport of energy and biochemical materials influences circulation patterns in the Red Sea.
Rapid heating equipment for semiconductor devices using innovative wireless lamp
Researchers from Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology (TUAT), ORC Manufacturing Co.
Dataset bridges human vision and machine learning
Neuroscientists and computer vision scientists at Carnegie Mellon University and Fordham University say a new dataset of unprecedented size -- comprising brain scans of four volunteers who each viewed 5,000 images -- will help researchers better understand how the brain processes images.
The fossilization process of the dinosaur remains
A piece of work conducted between the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country and the University of Zaragoza has conducted an in-depth analysis of the dinosaur fossils at La Cantalera-1, one of the Iberian sites belonging to the Lower Cretaceous with the largest number of vertebrates.
Immediate HIV treatment initiation: Increased but not yet universal in NYC
A new study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases found that immediate treatment initiation for HIV infection has improved since local and federal guidelines began to recommend universal treatment for all persons diagnosed with HIV, regardless of their disease stage.
How common is e-cigarette use among adults in households with kids?
Nearly 5 percent of adults living in households with children use e-cigarettes based on analyses of national survey data from 2016-2017.
Experimental device generates electricity from the coldness of the universe
A drawback of solar panels is that they require sunlight to generate electricity.
Huntington drug successfully lowers levels of disease-causing protein
An international clinical trial has found that a new drug for Huntington disease is safe, and that treatment with the drug successfully lowers levels of the abnormal protein that causes the debilitating disease in patients.
Study reveals final fate of levitating Leidenfrost droplets
A new study shows why levitating droplets on hot surfaces eventually explode if they start our large enough.
Even more amphibians are endangered than we thought
Due to a lack of data on many amphibian species, only about 44% of amphibians have up-to-date assessments on their risk of extinction, compared to nearly 100% of both birds and mammals.
Plastic gets a do-over: Breakthrough discovery recycles plastic from the inside out
A team of researchers at Berkeley Lab has designed a recyclable plastic that, like a Lego playset, can be disassembled into its constituent parts at the molecular level, and then reassembled into a different shape, texture, and color again and again without loss of performance or quality.
Pigment-producing stem cells can regenerate vital part of nervous system
Neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) affect millions of people worldwide and occur when parts of the nervous system lose function over time.
Patients reading visit notes report striking benefit over time
A new study from OpenNotes examines the benefits of patients reading their doctors' visit notes, specifically those from traditionally underserved populations.
Mechanics, chemistry and biomedical research join forces for noninvasive tissue therapy
A fortuitous conversation between two University of Illinois scientists has opened a new line of communication between biomedical researchers and the tissues they study.
Soy protein lowers cholesterol, study suggests
With the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) planning to remove soy from its list of heart healthy foods, researchers at St.
New 3-foot-tall relative of Tyrannosaurus rex
'Suskityrannus gives us a glimpse into the evolution of tyrannosaurs just before they take over the planet,' said Sterling Nesbit.
Bacteria causing infections can be detected more rapidly
Prof. Young-Tae Chang, Dr. Nam Young Kang, Dr. Hwa-Young Kwon, and Xiao Liu of POSTECH Department of Chemistry developed a fluorescent probe, BacGo that can detect Gram-positive bacteria precisely and promptly.
Men taking medications for enlarged prostate face delays in prostate cancer diagnosis
University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that men treated with medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) experienced a two-year delay in diagnosis of their prostate cancer and were twice as likely to have advanced disease upon diagnosis.
UV lights on power lines may help save Sandhill cranes
Crane species are declining around the world, and lethal collisions with power lines are an ongoing threat to many crane populations.
Rheumatoid arthritis drug diminishes Zika birth defects in mice
In experiments with pregnant mice infected with the Zika virus, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have successfully used a long-standing immunosuppressive drug to diminish the rate of fetal deaths and birth defects in the mice's offspring.
Prison tobacco ban significantly reduces secondhand smoke
Levels of secondhand smoke in Scotland's prisons fell by more than 80% in the week after smoking was banned, according to new University of Stirling research.
Climate education for kids increases climate concerns for parents
A new study from North Carolina State University finds that educating children about climate change increases their parents' concerns about climate change.
Airbnb vs. hotels: New research sheds light on how they can compete and benefit
Researchers from the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University published new research in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science which sheds new light on the impact Airbnb and similar 'sharing economy' companies are having on the hospitality industry.
Improving the well-being of heart-failure patients
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator can save lives, but can also trigger fears -- a Würzburg study shows how a web-based intervention can improve psychosocial well-being.
Clinical trial looks at absorption levels of sunscreen active ingredients into bloodstream
The US Food and Drug Administration recommends that active ingredients in sunscreen absorbed into the bloodstream above a certain level undergo toxicology testing.
Detailed brain map uncovers hidden immune cells that may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders
Our brains do not only contain neurons, but also a variety of immune cells that play an important role for its functioning.
Ayahuasca fixings found in 1,000-year-old bundle in the Andes
Today's hipster creatives and entrepreneurs are hardly the first generation to partake of ayahuasca, according to archaeologists who have discovered traces of the powerfully hallucinogenic potion in a 1,000-year-old leather bundle buried in a cave in the Bolivian Andes.
New molecule maps cerebrovascular system
Peptide developed in Brazil is capable of binding to the blood-brain barrier that protects the central nervous system and could help create novel imaging tests to diagnose Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Heart failure deaths rising in younger adults
Death rates due to heart failure are now increasing, and this increase is most prominent among younger adults under 65, considered premature death, reports a new study.
Prostate cancer patients with gene mutation at three times the risk of dying
Scientists have identified a gene mutation in the tumours of men with prostate cancer that is linked to very poor survival -- and which could be used to pick out patients for more intensive treatment.
External reference drug pricing could save Medicare tens of billions
A new study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that prices for brand-name prescription drugs averaged 3.2 to 4.1 times higher in the US when compared with prices in the United Kingdom, Japan and the Canadian province of Ontario.
Transplanting gut bacteria alters depression-related behavior, brain inflammation in animals
Scientists have shown that transplanting gut bacteria, from an animal that is vulnerable to social stress to a non-stressed animal, can cause vulnerable behavior in the recipient.
Review on the synthesis and anti-oxidation of copper nanowires for transparent conductive electrodes
In a paper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, a team of researchers have reviewed the methods of synthesizing copper nanowires (Cu NWs) and techniques to improve its oxidation resistance.
A barrier that keeps cancer at bay
Scientists at EPFL have discovered a biological 'barrier' that prevents cancer cells from forming new tumors and more importantly, from metastasizing.
New class of catalysts for energy conversion
Numerous chemical reactions relevant for the energy revolution are highly complex and result in considerable energy losses.
New research uncovers how life-threatening fungal diseases adapt to survive in humans
A new study from The Westmead Institute for Medical Research has uncovered how serious fungal infections grow in humans by conserving phosphate, highlighting a possible target for treatment.
Many more amphibian species at risk of extinction than previously thought
Frogs already knew it wasn't easy being green, but the going just got a lot tougher for the 1,012 additional species of amphibians who have now been newly identified as at risk of extinction in a Yale-led study.
Show your hands: Smartwatches sense hand activity
We've become accustomed to our smartwatches and smartphones sensing what our bodies are doing, be it walking, driving or sleeping.
Hunting jeopardizes forest carbon storage, yet is overlooked in climate mitigation efforts
The loss of animals, often due to unregulated or illegal hunting, has consequences for the carbon storage capacity of forests, yet this link is rarely mentioned in high-level climate policy discussions, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden and the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.
Genetic adaptation to climate change
New research led by the University of Southampton has shown that the threat of range losses for some species as a result of climate change could be overestimated because of the ability of certain animals to adapt to rising temperatures and aridity.
Ancient ritual bundle contained multiple psychotropic plants
A thousand years ago, Native Americans in South America used multiple psychotropic plants -- possibly simultaneously -- to induce hallucinations and altered consciousness, according to an international team of anthropologists.
Impossible research produces 400-year El Niño record, revealing startling changes
Coral experts around the world said it was impossible to extract a multi-century record of El Niño events.
Cryptic mutation is cautionary tale for crop gene editing
Unexpected interactions between mutations can be a thorn in the side for plant breeders.
New all-fiber device simplifies free-space based quantum key distribution
Researchers have developed a simple and stable device to generate the quantum states necessary for quantum key distribution.
Autism gene linked to brain and behavior deficits in mice
Mice lacking the gene Shank3 display structural and functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex, finds a study published in JNeurosci.
Sensor can detect spoiled milk before opening
Expiration dates on milk could eventually become a thing of the past with new sensor technology from Washington State University scientists.
When a tree falls in St. Louis, will the power go out?
Saint Louis University researchers paired satellite imaging data with machine learning techniques to map local tree species and health.
The winter weather window that is costing rapeseed growers millions
UK rapeseed growers are losing up to a quarter of their crop yield each year because of temperature rises during an early-winter weather window.
Feeling valued, respected appear most important for job satisfaction in academic medicine
A survey of physicians in the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Medicine finds that feeling valued, being treated with respect and working in a supportive environment were the factors most strongly associated with job satisfaction.
New computational tool enables powerful molecular analysis of biomedical tissue samples
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine invented a computational technique called CIBERSORTx that can analyze the RNA of individual cells taken from whole-tissue samples or data sets.
Study reveals how social relationships transform bird flocks
Flocks of birds may appear to move with a single mind, but new research shows jackdaws stick with their mates -- even though it harms the flock.
Twisting whirlpools of electrons
Using a novel approach, EPFL physicists have been able to create ultrafast electron vortex beams, with significant implications for fundamental physics, quantum computing, future data-storage and even certain medical treatments.
Filming how our immune system kill bacteria
To kill bacteria in the blood, our immune system relies on nanomachines that can open deadly holes in their targets.
Low-cost intervention boosts undergraduate interest in computer science
A recent study finds that an online intervention taking less than 30 minutes significantly increased interest in computer science for both male and female undergraduate students.
Russian scientists developed a system for malignant brain tumors diagnosing during surgery
Scientists of the Research Medical University of Volga region and the Institute of Applied Physics, RAS have developed a system for malignant brain tumors diagnosing during surgery.
A step closer to future 5G smartphones with the world's first Antenna-on-Display
A University-Industry research consortium lead by Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) and joined by industry partners such as Dong-Woo Fine Chem, SK Telecom, LG Electronics, Keysight Technologies, and Y.Tech announced the world's first 'Antenna-on-Display (AoD)' technology.
Quantum computing with graphene plasmons
A novel material that consists of a single sheet of carbon atoms could lead to new designs for optical quantum computers.
Making a 'to do' list for trauma docs
Researchers from Drexel's College of Computing & Informatics have been integrating a tablet-based checklist tool into the workflow of a pediatric trauma center and, over the course of 15 months, have shown that it doesn't hamper doctors' performance.
Secrets of the 'blue supergiant' revealed
'Blue supergiants' -- the final phase in a giant star's lifetime -- have been seen for the fist time.
PolyU develops palm-sized 3D ultrasound imaging system for scoliosis mass screening
The first-of-its-kind palm-sized 3D ultrasound imaging system for radiation-free scoliosis assessment, named 'Scolioscan Air', can bring accurate, safe and cost-efficient mass screening to schools and anywhere in the community.
Radical desalination approach may disrupt the water industry
Columbia Engineering researchers report that they have developed a radically different desalination approach--''temperature swing solvent extraction (TSSE)''--for hypersaline brines.
New computational tool improves gene identification
Looking to improve the identification of genes associates with disease, a team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine has developed a new bioinformatics tool that analyzes CRISPR pooled screen data and identifies candidates for potentially relevant genes with greater sensitivity and accuracy than other existing methods.
Shipwrecks off NC coast harbor tropical migrants
Shipwrecks and sunken structures off the North Carolina coast may act as stepping stones for tropical fish searching for favorable habitats at or beyond the edge of their normal geographic range.
Reduction and loss of SNAP benefits tied to increased food insecurity and poor health among working
Families with young children who experienced a reduction or cutoff in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits because of increased income were more likely to experience food insecurity and report poor health following the benefit change, according to new research from Children's HealthWatch, based out of Boston Medical Center.
Public dread of nuclear power limits its use
Nuclear power has been a part of the American energy portfolio since the 1950s, but for a number of reasons, the general public has long felt a significant dread about it.
Obesity reprograms immune cells in breasts to promote tumor formation
Macrophages in adipose tissue (fat) link obesity to triple-negative breast cancer.
New disease discovered by CU Anschutz researchers
A new immunodeficiency disease caused by a novel genetic mutation has been identified by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus providing unique insights into cell biology.
New model improves staging and risk predictions for esophageal cancer patients
A new nomogram for assessing metastatic risk in esophageal cancer patients shows promise for more accurate risk-stratification, which is particularly relevant for stage T2 patients.
Review of preparation and structures of silicon nanowire/germanium quantum dot composite materials
In a paper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, a team of researchers from Yunnan University, China, have reviewed the recent research on preparation methods and structures of Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and Germanium quantum dots (GeQDs) and their composites, in order to explore their novel physical properties and improve on their optoelectronic properties.
Study finds lifestyle factors that could harden arteries
A new study from the University of Georgia pinpoints lifestyle factors that could lead to hardened arteries.
Driving chemical reactions with light
How can chemical reactions be triggered by light, following the example of photosynthesis in nature?
Pushing early beta-cell proliferation can halt autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes model
Researchers at Joslin have found that increasing the proliferation and turnover of beta cells before signs of type 1 diabetes could halt the development of the disease.
Telescopes in space for even sharper images of black holes
Astronomers have just managed to take the first image of a black hole, and now the next challenge facing them is how to take even sharper images, so that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity can be tested.
Unexpectedly big wins improve two kinds of memory
Brown University researchers have discovered that instances in which outcomes are better than expected -- finding an unexpectedly good parking spot, for example, or spotting a $20 bill on the sidewalk -- improves memories of specific events.
Untangling a cancer signaling network suggests new roadmap to tumor control
In this advanced age of molecular sleuthing, a research team led by Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center have findings that suggest tumors will eventually become resistant to drug inhibitors of a common cancer pathway (dubbed YAP/TAZ), now in preclinical development.
Ash dieback is predicted to cost £15 billion in Britain
A team of researchers from the University of Oxford, Fera Science, Sylva Foundation and the Woodland Trust has calculated the true economic cost of ash dieback -- and the predictions, published today in Current Biology, are staggering.
What does Earth's core have in common with salad dressing? Maybe this
A Yale-led team of scientists may have found a new factor to help explain the ebb and flow of Earth's magnetic field -- and it's something familiar to anyone who has made a vinaigrette for their salad.
A brain region for Pokémon characters?
Adults who played Pokémon videogames extensively as children have a brain region that responds preferentially to images of Pikachu and other characters from the series.
Female flies respond to sensation of sex, not just sperm
Female fruit flies will temporarily reject other partners after mating, thanks to special proteins in a male fly's ejaculate.

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#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...