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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 07, 2019


The clinical and biological significance of HER2 over-expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: A large study from a single institution
Upcoming publication from the British Journal of Cancer, investigating HER2 expression as a predictor of recurrence and development in patients with DCIS.
Aspirin before at-home colorectal cancer screening test didn't significantly improve ability to detect cancer precursors
Some observational studies have suggested that taking aspirin before undergoing colorectal cancer screening with a fecal immunochemical test for blood in stool might improve the ability of the test to detect cancer precursors.
Learning language
When it comes to learning a language, the left side of the brain has traditionally been considered the hub of language processing.
Patients of medicare providers committing fraud, abuse more likely to be poor, disabled
A new study from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health analyzed providers excluded from Medicare for fraud and abuse, and found that the patients they treated prior to being banned were more likely to be minorities, disabled and dually-enrolled in Medicaid to supplement financial assistance for health care.
Reducing carbon emissions while improving health is economically attractive, study shows
A study debuting a new climate policy model developed by Princeton University researchers and others reports it is economically sound to quickly and dramatically cut greenhouse gas emissions given the immediate and significant human health benefits.
Groundbreaking study could lead to fast, simple test for Ebola virus
In a breakthrough that could lead to a simple and inexpensive test for Ebola virus disease, researchers have generated two antibodies to the deadly virus.
Alternative treatment for epileptic seizures in children identified
A new study published in The Lancet, involving researchers from the University of Liverpool and Alder Hey Children's Hospital Trust, has identified a 'user friendly' treatment for the most common life-threatening neurological emergency in children.
Utilization and cancer yield of BI-RADS 3 lesions detected on high risk screening breast MRI
When appropriate, short-interval follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify early stage breast cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Health professionals wary of medicinal cannabis misuse and adverse effects
An analysis by Queensland University of Technology (QUT) of published studies gauging attitudes to medicinal cannabis has found that while health professionals are broadly supportive, they feel they lack clinical and legislative knowledge, and their greatest concerns are the psychiatric harm that may be caused to patients and misuse by recreational drug users.
Key step in transformation of B cells to antibody-secreting cells described
Immunologist Frances Lund, Ph.D., and colleagues have detailed the role of a key controlling factor in the transformation of B cells into antibody-secreting cells, the cells that produce antibodies to fight invading pathogens like viruses.
A study analyzes the academic repercussions of institutional scientific dissemination
Communicating research results to the public generates a range of positive effects on the careers of university professors, according to a study carried out by researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad de Valencia (UV), which analyzed the perception of university researchers who have participated in institutional communication campaigns.
Academics show how to create a spotlight of sound with LEGO-like bricks
Informatics experts create low-cost directional beams of sound. Using age-old principles of magnifying glasses, lighthouses and telescopes to create state-of-the-art sound.
Challenging metabolism may help fight disease
New research by Swansea University academics has shown that harnessing metabolism at a cellular level may help to relieve or heal a range of disorders.
Collision-detecting suitcase, wayfinding app help blind people navigate airports
Carnegie Mellon University researchers say a smart suitcase that warns blind users of impending collisions and a wayfinding smartphone app can help people with visual disabilities navigate airport terminals safely and independently.
KAIST identifies the cause of sepsis-induced lung injury
A KAIST research team succeeded in visualizing pulmonary microcirculation and circulating cells in vivo with a custom-built 3D intravital lung microscopic imaging system.
Cell architects: 'Smart cells' improve production of pharmaceutical raw materials
Researchers in Japan have developed an integrated synthetic biology system to construct new metabolic pathways and enzymes within microbes.
Dehesa health starts from the ground up
University of Cordoba research analyzes how changes in the structure of soil microbiota affect holm oak decline.
New 'jumping' superbug gene discovered, resistant to last-resort antibiotic
While sifting through the bacterial genome of salmonella, Cornell University food scientists discovered mcr-9, a new stealthy, jumping gene so diabolical and robust that it resists one of the world's few last-resort antibiotics.
Freshwater mussel shells were material of choice for prehistoric craftsmen
An international team of researchers, including academics from the University of York, have discovered that 6000-years-ago people across Europe shared a cultural tradition of using freshwater mussel shells to craft ornaments.
Researchers uncover mechanism blocking retina regeneration
A discovery opens the possibility of one day restoring loss of vision by activating the retina's ability to regenerate.
The evolution of skyrmions in multilayers and their topological Hall signature
The topological Hall effect (THE) is the Hall response to an emergent magnetic field, a manifestation of the skyrmion Berry-phase.
Highly qualified staff at state preschools overcome private sector staffing advantage
Staff who are better qualified and trained maintain the quality of state-funded preschools, to some extent making up for the larger number of children per staff member in comparison to private and voluntary settings.
Researchers discover a trigger for directed cell motion
Researchers at the Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence at Münster University (Germany) have discovered that curvatures of cell membranes trigger a self-organising system.
Essential tool for precision farming: new method for photochemical reflectance index measurement
Precision farming, which relies on spatially heterogeneous application of fertilizers, biologically active compounds, pesticides, etc., is one of the leading trends in modern agricultural science.
Why visual stimulation may work against Alzheimer's
MIT neuroscientists have found that using flickering light to stimulate gamma oscillations in the brain has widespread effects on neurons and immune cells called microglia.
Technology better than tape measure for identifying lymphedema risk
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is better than a tape measure for assessing a woman's risk for developing lymphedema, painful swelling in the arm after breast cancer surgery.
A novel method for improving imaging techniques in geophysical and material studies
The Department of Civil Engineering, led by Prof. Terumi Touhei, at Tokyo University of Science has developed a novel mathematical method for reconstruction/imaging of the complex distribution of point-like scatterers using a sensor grid with a small network.
Study shows adult tourniquet suitable for school-age children
Researchers with Nemours Children's Health System have shown the effectiveness of an adult tourniquet for use in children, according to a study published by the journal Pediatrics.
Arsenic in drinking water may change heart structure raising risk of heart disease
Drinking water that is contaminated with arsenic may lead to thickening of the heart's main pumping chamber in young adults, according to a new study by researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
Global health benefits of climate action offset costs
New research in Nature Communications finds that immediate, dramatic cuts in global emissions -- aggressive enough to meet the Paris Climate Agreement -- are economically sound if human health benefits are factored in.
Fat fruit flies: High-sugar diet deadens sweet tooth; promotes overeating, obesity in flies
Some research suggests that one reason people with obesity overeat is because they don't enjoy food -- especially sweets -- as much as lean people.
Paper wasps capable of behavior that resembles logical reasoning
A new University of Michigan study provides the first evidence of transitive inference, the ability to use known relationships to infer unknown relationships, in a nonvertebrate animal: the lowly paper wasp.
New open source software eases the pain of multiple UI designs
The time-consuming and labor-intensive task of designing multiple user interfaces for different screen sizes and orientations could become a thing of the past thanks to open-source software that uses a new paradigm to speed up or even automate the process.
Arctic rivers provide fingerprint of carbon release from thawing permafrost
The feedback between a warming climate and accelerated release of carbon currently frozen into permafrost around the Arctic is one of the grand challenges in current climate research.
Electroconvulsive therapy reboots certain brain networks to help depressed individuals
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) helps people with severe depression by 'pushing the reset button' on brain networks involved in creating a mental picture, according to recent Baycrest findings.
dnDSA and ethnicity linked with thickening of blood vessels after kidney transplant
Children who developed anti-human leukocyte antibodies against their donor kidney, known as de novo donor-specific antibodies, were more likely to experience carotid intima-media thickening than those without these antibodies, according to preliminary research presented May 7, 2019, during the 10th Congress of the International Pediatric Transplant Association.
A moody gut often accompanies depression -- new study helps explain why
A new study suggests that depression and GI trouble sometimes spring from the same source -- low serotonin -- and identifies a potential treatment that could ease both conditions simultaneously.
Close relatives can coexist: two flower species show us how
Scientists have discovered how two closely-related species of Asiatic dayflower can coexist in the wild despite their competitive relationship.
Seed abortion and the role of RNA Pol IV in seed development
In this newly released article in The Plant Cell, researchers find that in Arabidopsis plants, the abortion of seeds with extra genomes is caused by the enzyme RNA Pol IV and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, a major gene-silencing pathway in plants.
Scientists pinpoint potential new target for regulating inflammation
The scientists discovered that an ancient protein (SARM) is a key regulator of inflammasomes -- tiny molecular machines that initiate the inflammatory response.
Developed countries benefit economically from counterterrorism efforts
A new study in Oxford Economic Papers suggests that developed counties may see significant economic gains from their efforts to combat terrorist threats.
New report examines reproducibility and replicability in science
While computational reproducibility in scientific research is generally expected when the original data and code are available, lack of ability to replicate a previous study -- or obtain consistent results looking at the same scientific question but with different data -- is more nuanced and occasionally can aid in the process of scientific discovery, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Apgar scores 'within the normal range' linked to higher risks of illness and death
Apgar scores of 7, 8, and 9 (considered to be within the normal range) are associated with higher risks of illness and even death in newborns, finds a large study from Sweden published by The BMJ today.
Mystery of texture of Guinness beer: inclination angle of a pint glass is key to solution
A team of researchers from Osaka University and Kirin Holdings Company, Limited demonstrated that the texture-formation in a pint glass of Guinness beer is induced by flow of a bubble-free fluid film flowing down along the wall of the glass, a world first.
Patients insured by marketplace health plan less likely to receive a medical appointment
Among adults with mental health needs, those covered by Medicare or employer-sponsored health insurance have greater access to medical treatment, less out-of-pocket cost and are more likely to receive care than those seeking an appointment through an Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace-sponsored plan, according to findings from researchers at Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health.
When doctors and nurses can disclose and discuss errors, hospital mortality rates decline
The diffusion of a culture of openness in hospitals is associated with lower hospital mortality, according to a study conducted among 137 acute trusts in England by Veronica Toffolutti (Bocconi University and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine) and David Stuckler (Bocconi University).
Rate of radiology resident recognition of non-accidental trauma
Radiology residency programs nationwide are not adequately teaching residents to accurately recognize and report child abuse, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
New material also reveals new quasiparticles
Researchers at PSI have investigated a novel crystalline material that exhibits electronic properties that have never been seen before.
Train your brain to eat less sugar
A recent study led by Evan Forman, PhD, a psychology professor in Drexel University's College of Arts and Sciences, shows that a computer game can be used to train its players to eat less sugar, as way of reducing their weight and improving their health.
Does insulin resistance cause fibromyalgia?
Researchers led by a team from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston were able to dramatically reduce the pain of fibromyalgia patients with medication that targeted insulin resistance.
Climate change -- early spring: Predicting budburst with genetics
Tree and shrub genetics can be used to produce more accurate predictions of when leaves will burst bud in the spring, according to a Canada-US study.
Association between weight before pregnancy, weight gain during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for mother, infant
An analysis that combined the results of 25 studies including nearly 197,000 women suggests prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) of the mother was more strongly associated with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes than the amount of gestational weight gain.
Side-by-side comparison on point of care tests for blood's ability to clot
During big procedures like open heart surgery, patients need anticoagulants to prevent dangerous blood clot formation and regular bedside monitoring to make sure the drugs aren't also causing problems like excessive bleeding.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents at elevated risk for engaging in polysubstance use
In a new study among adolescents in the United States, lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents were more likely than heterosexual adolescents to be polysubstance users versus non-users across multiple classes of use: experimental users, marijuana-alcohol users, tobacco-alcohol users, medium-frequency three-substance users, and high-frequency three-substance users.
Genome editing helps decipher a congenital liver disease
Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare genetic disease that can lead to severe liver impairment.
Eye's vulnerability to macular degeneration revealed
Scientists have found significant differences in the shape and biology of the same type of cell taken from different parts of the retina, according to a study in eLife.
Contracts give Coca-Cola power to 'quash' health research, study suggests
New study of FOI documents uncovers provisions that could allow the beverage giant to suppress findings from health science it funds at North American universities.
Oxygen variation controls episodic pattern of Cambrian explosion: study
A multidisciplinary study, published on May 6, 2019 in Nature Geoscience by a joint China-UK-Russia research team, gives strong support to the hypothesis that the oxygen content of the atmosphere and ocean was the principal controlling factor in early animal evolution.
Cancer risk tools underused in general practice, research shows
Potentially life-saving cancer risk assessment tools are being widely underused by general practices across the UK, according to new research.
Colorado nail salon workers face chronic air pollution, elevated cancer risk
Colorado nail salon employees face increased health risks due to high levels of indoor airborne pollutants such as formaldehyde and benzene, new University of Colorado Boulder research finds, concluding that working in a salon is akin to working at an oil refinery or an auto garage.
Ultra-secure form of virtual money proposed
A new type of money that allows users to make decisions based on information arriving at different locations and times, and that could also protect against attacks from quantum computers, has been proposed by a researcher at the University of Cambridge.
Research clarifies role of posterior parietal cortex in decision-making
Researchers at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences provided new insights into the functional role of the PPC in decision-making.
Tibetan plateau first occupied by middle Pleistocene Denisovans
A joint research team led by CHEN Fahu from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and ZHANG Dongju from the Lanzhou University reported their studies on a human mandible found in Xiahe, on the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau.
Biophysicists resolve true structure of highly promising optogenetic protein KR2 rhodopsin
A team of biophysicists has discovered and studied the structure of the KR2 rhodopsin under physiological conditions.
Nursing home cameras aim to protect the vulnerable but present ethical dilemmas
With reports of crimes against nursing home residents gaining media attention around the country, seven states have passed laws regulating the use of cameras in care facilities.
Fewer than half of British men and women have sex at least once a week
Fewer than half of men and women in Britain aged 16-44 have sex at least once a week, reveals a large study published by The BMJ today.
Arsenic in drinking water may change heart structure
Among young adults, drinking water contaminated with arsenic may lead to structural changes in the heart that raise their risk of heart disease.
Everyday stress may boost blood vessel dysfunction in people with depression
Long-term stress has been linked with cardiovascular disease, but for people with depression, researchers say small, everyday stressors may be enough to diminish blood vessel function in otherwise healthy adults.
Can a mobile phone-based behavioral intervention affect weight regain?
A scalable, mobile phone-based intervention designed to slow weight regain after an initial weight loss had no significant effect on participants' weight, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Falko Sniehotta from Newcastle University, UK and colleagues.
Montmorency tart cherries may provide benefits for adults with metabolic syndrome
Montmorency tart cherries reduced systolic blood pressure, insulin levels and insulin concentrations in adults with metabolic syndrome participating in a small pilot study published in the Journal of Functional Foods.
Novel and rapid device opens new doors for Parkinson's disease diagnostics
Researchers from Osaka University developed a new device that can measure levels of α-synuclein aggregates in cerebrospinal fluid.
3D 'mini-gut' model reflects autoimmune response to gluten in celiac patient tissue
In pursuit of a novel tool for the research and treatment of celiac disease, scientists at the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital have validated the use of intestinal organoids.
Threatened sturgeon learns for the fitness
An international team led by IGB is providing one of the first proofs of the complex learning behavior of fish in a recent study.
Percutaneous ablation vs. surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma
Compared to surgery, percutaneous liver ablation interventions (IRs) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with lower inhospital mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Damaged lungs regenerated in study
A new technique to rehabilitate lungs that are too damaged to be considered for transplant could benefit an increasing population of patients with end-stage lung disease.
Brazilian scientists investigate dwarf planet's ring
Theoretical paper published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society proposes an explanation for the dynamics of the ring around Haumea, a dwarf planet located beyond Pluto's orbit.
Frequency and outcomes of new suspicious lesions on breast MRI in neoadjuvant therapy
During neoadjuvant chemotherapy, new suspicious findings detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during neoadjuvant therapy are most likely benign, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Tumor mutations may predict response to immunotherapy
Center say they have found a potential explanation for the failures.
Teaching CRISPR and antibiotic resistance to high school students
A Northwestern University-led team has developed BioBits, a suite of hands-on educational kits that enable students to perform a range of biological experiments by adding water and simple reagents to freeze-dried cell-free reactions.
Stem cells make more 'cargo' packets to carry cellular aging therapies
Johns Hopkins scientists report that adult cells reprogrammed to become primitive stem cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), make tiny 'cargo packets' able to deliver potentially restorative or repairing proteins, antibodies or other therapies to aged cells.
New treatment for severe dry eye disease promising in early clinical trials
Participants in a phase I/II clinical trial of a new enzyme-based treatment for severe dry eye disease experienced reduced signs of disease and discomfort, according to a paper in Translational Vision Science and Technology.
Novel artificial intelligence method predicts future risk of breast cancer
Researchers from two major institutions have developed a new tool with advanced artificial intelligence (AI) methods to predict a woman's future risk of breast cancer, according to a new study.
Apalutamide in prostate cancer: indication of considerable added benefit
Symptomatic progression is significantly retarded by this drug. This advantage clearly outweighs the disadvantages presented by some side effects.
Vaccine for African swine fever may save our bacon
Wild boar can be immunized against African Swine Fever by a new vaccine delivered to the animals in their food.
Electoral regulations must tackle 'inequalities' caused by political advertising on Facebook
Regulators must find a way of monitoring and addressing the way political advertising on Facebook creates new types of inequalities for campaigners, experts have said.
How common is alcoholic fatty liver disease?
This study used national survey data from 2001-2016 to examine how common alcoholic fatty liver disease is in the United States.
Could this rare supernova resolve a longstanding origin debate?
Detection of a supernova with an unusual chemical signature may hold the key to solving the longstanding mystery that is the source of these violent explosions.
Complex geology contributed to Deepwater Horizon disaster, new study finds
A study from The University of Texas at Austin is the first published in a scientific journal to take an in-depth look at the challenging geologic conditions faced by the crew of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and the role those conditions played in the 2010 disaster.
Teen girls more vulnerable to bullying than boys
Girls are more often bullied than boys and are more likely to consider, plan, or attempt suicide, according to research led by a Rutgers University-Camden nursing scholar.
UW-Madison research team finds new ways to generate stem cells more efficiently
A new study published in Cell Reports by a team of researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Wisconsin Institute for Discovery and School of Medicine and Public Health could improve the efficiency of creating induced pluripont stem cells.
The Lancet:Targets to reduce harmful alcohol use are likely to be missed as global alcohol intake increases
Increasing rates of alcohol use suggest that the world is not on track to achieve targets against harmful alcohol use, according to a study of 189 countries' alcohol intake between 1990-2017 and estimated intake up to 2030, published in The Lancet.
The Sea Lab's Outreach Coordinator contributes to synthesis on Deepwater Horizon oil spill
The Sea Lab's Discovery Hall Programs Outreach Coordinator Rachel McDonald's work conducting outreach on ACER's research is featured in a special issue of the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative's (GoMRI) Current: The Journal of Marine Education.
New species of fish parasite named after Xena, the warrior princess
A study of crustacean parasites attaching themselves inside the branchial cavities (the gills) of their fish hosts was conducted in order to reveal potentially unrecognised diversity of the genus Elthusa in South Africa.
What's on tap? Michigan's economy
Michigan State University has published a first-of-its-kind study, published in the journal Beverages, that shows the respectable economic impact of burgeoning beer and craft beers' entire value chain on the state of Michigan.
Maternal nut consumption during pregnancy linked to improvements in neurodevelopment in children
For the first time links have been observed between a nut-rich maternal diet during the first trimester of pregnancy and better outcomes after birth in cognitive function, attention capacity and long-term working memory.
Ocean activity is key controller of summer monsoons
New research from MIT finds ocean activity may control the strength and intensity of summer monsoons.
New approach shows regeneration of severely damaged lungs
Researchers have -- for the first time -- demonstrated in a clinically relevant model that severely damaged lungs can be regenerated to meet transplantation criteria.
Research brief: Surface protein editing in bacteria
UMN research delves into an unknown cell circuit in bacteria that can lead to new targets for antibiotics.
Lions vs. porcupines
Lions can bring down wildebeests and giraffes, but when they try to hunt porcupines, the spiky rodents often come out on top.
Success tastes so sweet
Researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences characterized the role of neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice, which is known to relay taste information to the cortex via the gustatory thalamus.
Study identifies better, cheaper ways to stem arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh
An analysis compares four methods of dealing with arsenic contamination in Bangladesh, and pinpoints strategies to deliver cleaner water to the greatest number of people at the lowest cost.
A new culprit for multiple sclerosis relapses
A molecule that helps blood clot may also play a role in multiple sclerosis relapses, researchers report in the May 6, 2019 issue of PNAS.
Discovery of microbial activity in carbon sinking as a gatekeeper of Earth's deep carbon
Carbon is transported from Earth's surface to the mantle where the oceanic crust subducts beneath continents.

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