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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 08, 2019


Tsunami signals to measure glacier calving in Greenland
Scientists have employed a new method utilizing tsunami signals to calculate the calving magnitude of an ocean-terminating glacier in northwestern Greenland, uncovering correlations between calving flux and environmental factors such as air temperature, ice speed, and ocean tides.
No developmental differences in children conceived via assisted reproductive technology
A study comparing developmental milestones of children conceived via ART and spontaneously conceived children showed both groups achieved developmental milestones in a similar timeline.
Teaching children to eat healthy: Repetition is the key
Early childhood is a critical period for establishing healthy eating behaviors, yet many preschoolers in the United States are not meeting dietary recommendations.
The Lancet Oncology: Global study predicts more than 50% rise in chemotherapy demand by 2040
Between 2018 and 2040, the number of patients requiring first-line chemotherapy treatment each year is predicted to rise from 9.8 million to 15 million (53%) globally, if there were full application of evidence-based guidelines.
Broccoli sprout compound may restore brain chemistry imbalance linked to schizophrenia
In a series of recently published studies using animals and people, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have further characterized a set of chemical imbalances in the brains of people with schizophrenia related to the chemical glutamate.
Stress in early life could make people more likely to develop depression
New research by the University of Bristol has found that early life adversity could make an individual more at risk of developing negative thinking, which could lead to major depressive disorder (MDD).
Researchers discover new pathway for improving metabolic health
Blocking the action of an enzyme involved in protein digestion may improve metabolic health, according to a new study published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology--Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
Could sleep molecules lead to a blood test for Alzheimer's disease?
A new study published today in the journal Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, has found that a particular class of molecules may help with diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease.
Elections: New report highlights innovative research on 21st century political world
How and why people become engaged in politics? Are the electronic voting machines immune to vote-rigging?
As climate changes, small increases in rainfall may cause widespread road outages
As more rain falls on a warming planet, a new computer model shows that it may not take a downpour to cause widespread disruption of road networks.
Diabetes complications soar in the US, but not Canada, as teenagers become young adults
A new study finds that hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis rise sharply as adolescents transition to adulthood in the US, but not in Canada.
Inhibition of ribosome biogenesis as a novel approach for multi-stage cancer treatment
Nearly ninety per cent of all cancer patient deaths are due to metastasis.
Lentils will help you run faster: Communicating food benefits gets kids to eat healthier
Affirming statements like 'eat your lentils if you want to grow bigger and run faster' are more effective at getting kids to make healthy food choices than presenting the food repeatedly without conversation.
Application of cardiac computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 1, pp.
New research shows community forest management reduces both deforestation and poverty
Giving local communities in Nepal the opportunity to manage their forests has simultaneously reduced deforestation and poverty in the region, new research has shown.
Ride-sharing companies make traffic worse instead of better in San Francisco
Popular ride-sharing companies such as Uber and Lyft were the biggest contributors to increased traffic congestion in San Francisco from 2010 to 2016, according to a new study of traffic patterns in the city.
Occurrence of back-to-back heat waves likely to accelerate with climate change
Princeton University researchers have provided the first estimation of the potential damage from back-to-back, or compound, heat waves, which the authors found will increase as global warming continues.
New avenues for improving modern wheat
Since the Agricultural Revolution about 12,000 years ago, humans have been selectively breeding plants with desirable traits such as high grain yield and disease resistance.
Disparities associated with buprenorphine prescriptions for opioid use disorder
This study used national survey data to estimate buprenorphine prescription rates to treat opioid use disorder by race/ethnicity and by payment type for office visits, which is how most patients with buprenorphine prescriptions get care.
Wireless movement-tracking system could collect health and behavioral data
We live in a world of wireless signals flowing around us and bouncing off our bodies.
In mice, fast-acting compounds accelerate treatment of tropical parasitic worms
Two compounds, from among 300,000 candidates screened, kill parasite-supporting bacteria after a single dose in mouse models of filarial diseases -- one of the biggest contributors to disability and poverty in the developing world.
Multimodality imaging training for general and advanced cardiology fellowships
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 1, pp.
Clean fuel cells could be cheap enough to replace gas engines in vehicles
Advancements in zero-emission fuel cells could make the technology cheap enough to replace traditional gasoline engines in vehicles.
Survey: New moms often overlook critical postpartum care during 'fourth trimester'
A new mom's world is forever changed when her baby arrives.
Study finds biomarker of CTE in some former athletes with multiple concussions
In a group of former professional athletes who experienced multiple concussions, a new study has found that approximately half the group had higher than normal levels of a protein called tau in their cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid surrounding the brain and spine.
1/3 of all cancers in Canada can be prevented by a combination of policymaking & education
A special issue of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, responds to these questions, showcasing results from the Canadian Population Attributable Risk of Cancer (ComPARe) project -- the most comprehensive, up-to-date estimate of the preventable burden of cancer in Canada.
Advancing cell therapy for diabetes
Harvard University researchers used single-cell sequencing to identify a protein expressed uniquely by insulin-producing beta cells created from stem cells in the laboratory.
DGIST acquired the first KELAF Certification as a Daegu-Gyeongbuk Educational Institution
Designated as a KELAF and held signboard hanging ceremony as organized by the Ministry of Drug and Food Safety.
Development of 'transparent and flexible battery' for power generation and storage at once
DGIST Senior Researcher Changsoon Choi's team developed single-layer graphene based multifunctional transparent devices.
Physical and mental health of seniors linked to optimism, wisdom and loneliness
In a new study of older adults living in a senior continuing care facility, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine parse how distinctive factors, such as wisdom, loneliness, income and sleep quality, impact the physical and mental functioning of older persons.
A highly sensitive detection for spicy tastes to choose kimchi of your preference!
The World Institute of Kimchi has announced that it has developed a new analytical tool for the ultra-trace ratiometric detection of capsaicinoids, an analysis method that can be easily applied to analyze the spicy tastes of kimchi in industrial fields.
VisiBlends, a new approach to disrupt visual messaging
To help non-professionals create visual blends for their news and PSAs, Columbia Engineering researchers have developed VisiBlends, a flexible, user-friendly platform that transforms the creative brainstorming activity into a search function, and enables a statistically higher output of visually blended images.
Study shows MD Anderson-developed drug effective in overcoming ibrutinib resistance in mantle cell lymphona
A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center demonstrated how a small molecule drug discovered at the institution may help overcome resistance to treatment with ibrutinib in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Grading conservation: Which reserves defend forests?
Lands that shelter forests have value often readily tallied by developers, but until now it's been more difficult to prove the success of protecting those forested lands in pursuit of sustainability.
Behold the mayo: Experiments reveal 'instability threshold' of elastic-plastic material
Lehigh University's Arindam Banerjee and his team have succeeded in characterizing the interface between an elastic-plastic material and a light material under acceleration.
Caution: Grapefruit juice may impose risk on patients with long QT syndrome and should be avoided when taking QT-prolonging drugs
Grapefruit juice is already listed as a substance to avoid when taking QT-prolonging medications because it increases the toxicity of many drugs.
Identifying therapeutic targets in sepsis' cellular videogame
Exciting new research has defined the chain of molecular events that goes awry in sepsis, opening up opportunities for new treatments to fight the condition that affects more than a million Americans each year and kills up to a third of them.
New approach to drug discovery could lead to personalized treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders
Researchers have developed a method that could drastically accelerate the search for new drugs to treat mental health disorders such as schizophrenia.
Analysis of historical specimens determines single origin of Australian potato pest
In a recently published study, Jacqueline Edwards and colleagues used the PCN cyst reference collection held by Crop Health Services, Agriculture Victoria, to examine the genetic variability of Victorian PCN populations.
CMU researchers make transformational ai seem 'unremarkable'
A surgeon might never feel the need to ask an AI for advice, much less allow it to make a clinical decision for them, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University say.
Phage therapy treats patient with drug-resistant bacterial infection
Scientists have used an experimental therapy that relies on bacteria-infecting viruses collected, in part, through HHMI's SEA-PHAGES program to fight a Mycobacterium infection in a 15-year-old girl.
Source credibility is key to derailing fake news
Fake news is a threat to American democratic institutions and false information can have far-reaching effects.
Urban trees 'live fast, die young' compared to those in rural forests
Urban trees grow more quickly but die faster than rural trees, resulting in a net loss of street-tree carbon storage over time, according to a study published May 8, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ian Smith of Boston University, US and colleagues.
Campus energy advances can be optimized and replicated
With a few changes to its existing energy operations, Stanford could further reduce its carbon footprint and costs in a model that other large campuses, towns and even cities can benefit from, a new study finds.
New research shows promise for success of underrepresented scholars in STEM
With the goal of preparing scholars from underrepresented groups to succeed in graduate and professional programs, Penn State, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) partnered to develop undergraduate programs aimed at increasing retention and academic performance of historically racially underrepresented undergraduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields.
New Jurassic non-avian theropod dinosaur sheds light on origin of flight in Dinosauria
A new Jurassic non-avian theropod dinosaur from 163-million-year-old fossil deposits in northeastern China provides new information regarding the incredible richness of evolutionary experimentation that characterized the origin of flight in the Dinosauria.
HIV epidemic stubbornly persists despite proven tool to prevent spread
A new survey of more than 200 Internal Medicine residents indicates that more than half rated their knowledge of a proven medication to prevent the spread of HIV as only poor or fair.
Negative economic messaging impacting on suicide rates, says new research
Relentless negative reporting on economic downturns is impacting on people's emotions and contributing to the suicide rate, according to new research.
Water flea can smell fish and dive into the dark for protection
Zoologists at the University of Cologne have discovered the messenger substance responsible for the flight of the small planktonic crustacean Daphnia from fish in lakes.
Radioactive carbon from nuclear bomb tests found in deep ocean trenches
Radioactive carbon released into the atmosphere from 20th-century nuclear bomb tests has reached the deepest parts of the ocean, a new study in AGU's journal Geophysical Research Letters finds.
Research could lead to more precise diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer
Oncologists may soon have an accurate and inexpensive way of differentiating between types of ovarian cancer that will improve how patients are treated, thanks to findings from a national research study co-led out of the University of Alberta.
Vietnam can reduce emissions, save $2.3 billion by 2030 in ag, forestry and land use
Vietnam is one of the fortunate nations that has a suite of untapped options for emissions reductions that, if undertaken, can save the country an estimated $2.3 billion by 2030, substantially decrease emissions while increasing agricultural productivity, and benefit coastal and forest ecosystems.
Workplace discrimination: if they don't fit, they always call in sick?
Prof. Florian Kunze (University of Konstanz, Cluster of Excellence 'The Politics of Inequality') and Max Reinwald (University of Konstanz, Graduate School for Decision Sciences) investigate workplace behavior of employees who are in the minority in their teams.
Management of radial scars diagnosed on core biopsy during transition to tomosynthesis
It may be safe to follow-up pure radial scars (RSs) diagnosed on core needle biopsy (CNB) instead of surgical excision, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10, 2019 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Why creative experts may be better at imagining the future
Humans use imagination a lot, whether it be thinking about what's for dinner later tonight or trying to imagine what someone else on the other side of the world may be experiencing after reading the news.
Chronic kidney disease epidemic may be result of high heat, toxins
A mysterious epidemic of chronic kidney disease among agricultural workers and manual laborers may be caused by a combination of increasingly hot temperatures, toxins and infections, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
When sand behaves like oil
Sand, coffee grounds and rice behave very differently than water or oil, but under certain conditions they will suddenly exhibit astonishing similarities.
Australian doctors overprescribing flu antivirals
Australian doctors are prescribing antivirals for people with the flu who may not benefit, putting patients at risk of unnecessary side effects and potentially increasing the risk of antimicrobial resistance to these medications, researchers from the University of Adelaide have found.
Genomics uncovers the mystery of the magic drumstick tree -- Moringa oleifera
A team of scientists led by Prof. R. Sowdhamini at the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Bengaluru, has recently deciphered the transcriptome by purifying and sequencing RNA from five different tissues (root, stem, flower, seed and leaf) of the Moringa tree.
Research highlights role of psychological distress and emotional eating in obesity
New research, published in the research journal Obesity, has found that people on lower incomes may be more likely to have obesity due to psychological distress that gives rise to emotional eating to cope.
Researchers take a step towards light-based, brain-like computing chip
Scientists have succeeded in developing a piece of hardware which could pave the way for creating computers resembling the human brain.
The Estée Lauder Companies showcases new research on combating aging at 2019 SID Meeting
The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. Research & Development (R&D) team will present research focused on new findings in skin defense and anti-aging research at the 2019 Society for Investigative Dermatology Meeting (SID) in Chicago from May 8th - 11th.
Statistical study finds it unlikely South African fossil species is ancestral to humans
Research by UChicago paleontologists finds that it is unlikely that a two-million-year-old, apelike fossil from South Africa is a direct ancestor of Homo, the genus to which modern-day humans belong.
A step toward better understanding brain anatomy of autism spectrum disorder
A new study, led by researchers at McGill University's Faculty of Medicine and the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, set out to settle some of the discrepancies related to brain anatomy and ASD, employing a large dataset to obtain their findings.
Researchers create 'impossible' nano-sized protein cages with the help of gold
Researchers from an international collaboration have succeeded in creating a 'protein cage' -- a nanoscale structure that could be used to deliver drugs to specific places of the body -- that can be readily assembled and disassembled but that is also extremely durable, withstanding boiling and other extreme conditions.
How do you find a virus that's completely unknown? Study says, look to the genome
Researchers have identified a previously unknown viral family, which turns out to be the second-most common DNA virus in human lung and mouth specimens, where it is associated with severe critical illness and gum disease.
Medicinal mushroom newly reported from Thailand helps reveal optimum growth conditions
A species of globally recognised medicinal mushroom was recorded for the first time in Thailand.
Otago ethicist shines light on lack of discussion about body donation after euthanasia
As New Zealand considers a bill looking to legalise euthanasia, an Otago University ethicist considers it's time to shine the light on the ethical complications surrounding body donation and assisted dying.
Articles focus on psoriasis, risk of mental health disorders
Two related articles and an editorial focus on the chronic inflammatory skin disorder psoriasis and the risk of mental health disorders.
The secrets of secretion: isolating eucalyptus genes for oils, biofuel
Close genetic analysis of 480 blue mallee eucalyptus plants provides clues to modify cultivars for greater yield, whether for essential oils or jet fuel.
Low oxygen levels could temporarily blind marine invertebrates
Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego have found that low oxygen levels in seawater could blind some marine invertebrates.
Great chocolate is a complex mix of science, physicists reveal
The science of what makes good chocolate has been revealed by researchers studying a 140-year-old mixing technique.
Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly: Old wine or new cocktail?
Unique clinico-radiological features of a provisionally unclassified vascular anomaly can assist radiologists in identifying this uncommon distinct entity, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Quality improvement in cardiovascular imaging
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 1, pp.
Explosions of universe's first stars spewed powerful jets
Instead of ballooning into spheres, as once thought, early supernovae ejected jets that may have seeded new stars.
Nipah virus: Age and breathing difficulties increase the risk of disease spread
Nipah virus has been identified as an emerging infectious disease that may cause severe epidemics in the near future.
Understanding the power of honey through its proteins
Honey is a culinary staple that can be found in kitchens around the world.
Road test shows some adaptive cruise control systems can amplify phantom jams
Their work builds on earlier research that showed adding even a small fraction of specially designed autonomous vehicles could eliminate phantom jams by keeping an optimal separation between cars and avoiding sudden stops.
Gold makes invisible surfaces visible in CT
Zoologists in Cologne and Bonn have developed a new method for displaying previously invisible surface details using computer tomography.
Progesterone could increase births in women with early pregnancy bleeding and previous miscarriage
Research led by the University of Birmingham suggests that giving progesterone to pregnant women with early pregnancy bleeding and a history of miscarriage could increase their chances of having a baby.
New poll shows how little we know about dying
New data released today shows that six in 10 people answering feel they know, at most, 'just a little' about what happens to a person in their final hours of life.
Mini-centrifuge for simpler study of blood cells opens new organ-on-chip possibilities
Micro-device to enable tailored experiments in drug development and disease research via new 'organ-on-chip' systems.
Obesity rising faster in rural areas than cities
Obesity is increasing more rapidly in the world's rural areas than in cities, according to a new study of global trends in body-mass index (BMI).
American Cancer Society sets 2035 challenge goals
The American Cancer Society has set a challenge goal to reduce overall cancer mortality 40% between 2015 and 2035.
Solar-powered hydrogen fuels a step closer
A cheaper, cleaner and more sustainable way of making hydrogen fuel from water using sunlight is step closer thanks to new research from the University of Bath's Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies.
Intelligence can link to health and aging
For over 100 years, scientists have sought to understand what links a person's general intelligence, health and aging.
Avocados, as a substitution for carbohydrates, can suppress hunger without adding calories
A new study released by the Center for Nutrition Research at Illinois Institute of Technology suggests that meals that include fresh avocado as a substitute for refined carbohydrates can significantly suppress hunger and increase meal satisfaction in overweight and obese adults.
Creating a global map of the protein shape universe
Purdue University researchers have come up with a novel way to classify proteins and their shapes, which lays the foundation of how we understand protein structures and functions.
Physicists propose perfect material for lasers
Weyl semimetals are a recently discovered class of materials, in which charge carriers behave the way electrons and positrons do in particle accelerators.
Stanford-led study shows how big data can be used for personal health
Scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators followed a cohort of more than 100 people over several years, tracking the biology of what makes them them.
Innovative mechanobiology research expands understanding of cells
Researchers have developed a new technology that allows them to probe cell changes without disturbing the cell's physiology -- a major advancement that helps scientists look more closely at cell changes to solve human health problems, according to a new paper in Cell Reports.
Soaking up pharmaceuticals and personal care products from water
Medications excreted in the urine or dumped into the toilet can end up in the water supply, just like lotions or cosmetics that wash off the body and go down the sink or shower drain.
A new filter to better map the dark universe
To address messy measurements of the cosmic web that connects matter in the universe, researchers at Berkeley Lab developed a way to improve the accuracy and clarity of these measurements based on the stretching of the universe's oldest light.
New study in Nature: Just one-third of the world's longest rivers remain free-flowing
Infrastructure development and other man-made changes have already fragmented or disrupted two-thirds of Earth's longest rivers.
What makes athletes report or hide concussion symptoms?
Whether or not an NCAA Division I athlete is likely to report concussion symptoms depends on factors including their vested interests, their understanding of health implications, and their team culture and societal influences drawn from narratives of performance circulating in media, according to a study published May 8, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Steven Corman of Arizona State University, USA, and colleagues.
Move over, silicon switches: There's a new way to compute
Researchers have introduced a voltage-controlled topological spin switch for logic and memory devices, such as computer hard drives, that now use nanomagnetic mechanisms to store and manipulate information.
Study suggests crash location of MH370 near 25°S, north of underwater search area
A new analysis of Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 found that the most probable crash site in the Indian Ocean is near 25°S, north of the area where most of the underwater search missions were performed.
The smell of dark chocolate, demystified
Chocolate is one of the most-consumed treats around the world, and the smell alone is usually enough to evoke strong cravings from even the most disciplined eaters.
Genetic therapy heals damage caused by heart attack
Researchers from King's College London have found that therapy that can induce heart cells to regenerate after a heart attack.
Significant unmet mental health care needs exist in current and former smokers with COPD
Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have published new information that stresses the need for increased mental health care for current and former smokers, especially those who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Emerging techniques for cardiovascular PET
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 1, pp.
Imaging beyond the angiogram in women with suspected MI and no obstructive CAD
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 1, pp.
Development of graphene with enhanced speed of high frequency signal transmission
DGIST Professor Jae Eun Jang's team developed high frequency signal transmission line technology which maximizes carrier concentration of graphene using graphene-amorphous carbon junction structure.
Rural innovation policies need to exploit differences within communities
Policies aimed at encouraging rural innovation should take into account the differences between entrepreneurs and how they view where they live, according to a new study.
'Good enough' parenting is good enough, new research says
What really matters in caring for babies may be different than commonly thought.
Older adults with obesity may have fewer years of healthy life
A study by researchers at Duke-NUS, conducted of older Singaporeans (above 60 years) showed that those with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) might have the same number of remaining years of life compared to those with a lower BMI, but spend fewer of those years in good health.
Statewide initiative doubles survival rates after severe TBI
The implementation of a massive, statewide public health initiative led by University of Arizona researchers and involving 21,000 prehospital care patients has doubled the survival rate of severe traumatic brain injury victims and tripled the survival rate among those who were intubated.
Novel molecular multi-step photoswitches caught in the act
Scientists from the University of Groningen, the University of Amsterdam, the University of Twente (all in the Netherlands) and the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy in Italy, have been able to follow the entire sequence of structural transformations in a new class of molecular switches for the first time.
Stark racial, financial divides found in opioid addiction treatment
Escaping the grip of opioid addiction doesn't come easily for anyone.
World-class research performance that bloomed in an undergraduate class
Research achievement through an Undergraduate Group Research Program (UGRP) was published on an international scientific journal.
Why some red wines taste 'dry'
Wine connoisseurs can easily discriminate a dry red wine, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, from a fruitier red, like Pinot Noir.
Star formation burst in the Milky Way 2-3 million years ago
A team led by researchers of the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona and the Besançon Astronomical Observatory have found, analysing data from the Gaia satellite, that a severe star formation burst occurred in the Milky Way about to and three thousand million years ago.
The art of the circus
From tightrope to trapeze, circus arts have long fascinated and inspired people of all ages.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
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#530 Why Aren't We Dead Yet?
We only notice our immune systems when they aren't working properly, or when they're under attack. How does our immune system understand what bits of us are us, and what bits are invading germs and viruses? How different are human immune systems from the immune systems of other creatures? And is the immune system so often the target of sketchy medical advice? Those questions and more, this week in our conversation with author Idan Ben-Barak about his book "Why Aren't We Dead Yet?: The Survivor’s Guide to the Immune System".