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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 17, 2019


The science and technology of FAST
The Five hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), located in a radio quiet zone, with the targets (e.g., radio pulsars and neutron stars, galactic and extragalactic 21-cm HI emission).
Earliest evidence of the cooking and eating of starch
New discoveries made at the Klasies River Cave in South Africa's southern Cape, where charred food remains from hearths were found, provide the first archaeological evidence that anatomically modern humans were roasting and eating plant starches, such as those from tubers and rhizomes, as early as 120,000 years ago.
Tobacco and e-cig promotions spark teens' use of nicotine products, Stanford study finds
Owning items that promote e-cigarettes and other alternative tobacco products doubles the likelihood that a young person will try these products, a new study led by the Stanford University School of Medicine has found.
NIST team demonstrates heart of next-generation chip-scale atomic clock
Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and partners have demonstrated an experimental, next-generation atomic clock--ticking at high 'optical' frequencies -- that is much smaller than usual, made of just three small chips plus supporting electronics and optics.
Manipulating atoms one at a time with an electron beam
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have found a way to manipulate the positions of individual atoms on a graphene sheet, which could be a first step to new quantum computing and sensing devices.
Cell polarity -- An aurora over the pole
A recent research led by Assistant Professor Fumio Motegi, Principal Investigator at the Mechanobiology Institute at the National University of Singapore, has identified the master switch that triggers the symmetry breaking process in the zygotes of the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans.
Study finds narrowing gender gap in youth suicides
New research from Nationwide Children's Hospital finds a disproportionate increase in youth suicide rates for females relative to males, particularly in younger youth aged 10-14 years.
'Imagine...' -- our attitudes can change solely by the power of imagination
Roland Benoit and Philipp Paulus together with Daniel Schacter from Harvard University have examined the question, how neutral places suddenly become valuable to us, in a study published in the journal Nature Communications.
Being sick in the morning can be different from being sick at night
In a review published May 17, 2019 in the journal Trends in Immunology, researchers discuss how time of day affects the severity of afflictions ranging from allergies to heart attacks.
Sedimentary, dear Johnson: Is NASA looking at the wrong rocks for clues to Martian life?
In 2020, NASA and European-Russian missions will look for evidence of past life on Mars.
USC researchers imagine a cheaper, fairer marketplace for digital goods
Bhaskar Krishnamachari, a professor at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, and Aditya Asgaonkar -- a recent undergraduate computer science alum at BITS Pilani, India who visited and worked with Krishnamachari at USC Viterbi over several months in 2018 -- believe they have found a way to make the buying and selling of digital goods less costly, more efficient, and less vulnerable to fraud.
Ernst Haeckel: Pioneer of modern science
Evolutionary biologist Ernst Haeckel became the first person to define the term ecology in his work published in 1866, entitled 'General Morphology of Organisms'.
Owning a dog is influenced by our genetic make-up
A team of Swedish and British scientists have studied the heritability of dog ownership using information from 35,035 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry.
Human capital benefits of military boost economy by billions
A recent study finds that US government spending on military personnel has a positive impact on the nation's human capital -- essentially improving the American workforce.
Polymers jump through hoops on pathway to sustainable materials
Recyclable plastics that contain ring-shaped polymers may be a key to developing sustainable synthetic materials.
Early dengue virus infection could "defuse" zika virus
The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America has affected over 60 million people up to now.
Blister packaging for drugs in nursing homes: Much discussed, but hardly investigated
Data are lacking for arguments on the pros and cons, as the available studies examine the outpatient sector.
Opposite pathways in forest recovery
Tropical forests are being deforested at an alarming rate to make way for agriculture; the good news is that they can regrow naturally when the fields are abandoned.
Intensive silviculture accelerates Atlantic rainforest biodiversity regeneration
The study shows the advantages of herbicide spraying and intensive fertilization in reforestation programs to mitigate the effects of climate change.
Enzyme may indicate predisposition to cardiovascular disease
Study suggests that people with low levels of PDIA1 in blood plasma may be at high risk of thrombosis; this group also investigated PDIA1's specific interactions in cancer.
Finding the 'Goldilocks' level of enthusiasm for business pitches
Georgia Institute of Technology researchers found how long an entrepreneur displays the highest level of excitement during a pitch also plays a major role in predicting success in receiving funding.
'Stepped' treatment reduces drinking in patients with HIV
People with HIV who drink too much were more likely to reduce drinking after undergoing an approach to care known as integrated stepped alcohol treatment, according to a Yale-led study.
Machine learning speeds modeling of experiments aimed at capturing fusion energy on Earth
Release describes application of machine learning form of artificial intelligence to predict the behavior of fusion plasma.
Wearable cooling and heating patch could serve as personal thermostat and save energy
Engineers at UC San Diego have developed a wearable patch that could provide personalized cooling and heating at home, work, or on the go.
Clinical trial at IU School of Medicine improves treatment of genetic rickets
A new study shows a drug developed in conjuction with investigators at Indiana University School of Medicine to alleviate symptoms of a rare musculoskeletal condition is significantly more effective than conventional therapies.
For many HIV+ women, daily survival takes precedence over viral suppression
Georgetown researchers say that while a majority of the 1,989 HIV+ women they have been studying since 1994 have been able to control their virus -- often on and off -- challenges such as mental health, unstable housing, and lack of social support constitute ongoing barriers to effective and sustained viral suppression.
A new approach to targeting cancer cells
A University of California, Riverside, research team has come up with a new approach to targeting cancer cells that circumvents a challenge faced by currently available cancer drugs.
Nanoscale sculpturing leads to unusual packing of nanocubes
Brookhaven and Columbia scientists found that cubic nanoparticles surrounded by thick DNA shells pack in a never-before-seen 'zigzag' pattern.
Research reveals insulin-producing beta cells may change function in diabetes
A revolutionary new study using only materials derived from humans has revealed that insulin-producing beta cells can change their function in diabetes -- and that this change may be reversible.
Dangerous pathogens use this sophisticated machinery to infect hosts
A detailed new model of a bacterial secretion system provides directions for developing precisely targeted antibiotics.
Integrated stepped alcohol treatment for people in HIV care improves both HIV & alcohol outcomes
Increasing the intensity of treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time improves alcohol-related outcomes among people with HIV, according to new clinical research supported by the National Institutes of Health.
IU researchers develop electric field-based dressing to help heal wound infections
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have found a way to charge up the fight against bacterial infections using electricity.
New findings could lead to improved vaccinations against sexually transmitted infections
In a study published today in the Nature Communications, researchers from King's College London have shown how skin vaccination can generate protective CD8 T-cells that are recruited to the genital tissues and could be used as a vaccination strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Ultra-clean fabrication platform produces nearly ideal 2D transistors
Columbia Engineering researchers report that they have demonstrated a nearly ideal transistor made from a 2D material stack -- with only a two-atom-thick semiconducting layer -- by developing a completely clean and damage-free fabrication process.
A PCR statement on behalf of PCR and the EAPCI
Heart failure is a common cardiovascular disorder with ominous prognosis despite significant therapeutic advances.
Development of a displacement sensor to measure gravity of smallest source mass ever
One of the most unknown phenomena in modern physics is gravity.
Cancer drug could be repurposed to provide treatment for brain aneurysms
An important class of drug used to treat cancer patients could be used to treat brain aneurysms, according to new research published this week.
PCR statement on evolving indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Paris, France, 21 May 2019. Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, a degenerative disease-causing calcification and immobility of the aortic valve leaflets leading to left ventricular outflow obstruction, is the most common valve lesion leading to intervention in Europe and the USA.
Restaurant acoustics that schmeckt
Acoustics consultant Klaus Genuit says that new ISO guidelines for defining, measuring and evaluating soundscapes are a big step forward in guiding the creation of audibly fine restaurants.
Metals influence C-peptide hormone related to insulin
Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at UC Davis.
Scientists propose rethinking 'endangered species' definition to save slow-breeding giants
Conservation decisions based on population counts may fail to protect large, slow-breeding animals from irrevocable decline, according to new research coinciding with World Endangered Species Day.
Nivolumab with ipilimumab: Combination has added benefit in advanced renal cell carcinoma
There are advantages in overall survival, which are not offset by any disadvantages of similar importance.
Scientists capture first-ever video of body's safety test for t-cells
For the first time, immunologists have captured on video what happens when T-cells undergo a type of assassin-training program before they get unleashed in the body.
Changes in subsistence hunting threaten local food security
Scientists with the Universidad San Francisco de Quito and WCS Ecuador Program publishing in the journal BioTropica say that subsistence hunting in Neotropical rain forests -- the mainstay of local people as a source of protein and a direct connection to these ecosystems -- is in jeopardy from a variety of factors.
'Brand Me' presentations increase students' confidence and enhance their employability
The University of Portsmouth is helping its students build a strong personal brand to increase their confidence and enhance their employability.

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