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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 22, 2019


A light matter: Understanding the Raman dance of solids
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Keio University investigated the excitation and detection of photogenerated coherent phonons in polar semiconductor GaAs through an ultrafast dual pump-probe laser for quantum interferometry.
Scientists discover the source of new CFC emissions
Since 2013, annual emissions of a banned chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) have increased by around 7,000 tonnes from eastern China, according to new research published in Nature today by an international team of scientists from the UK, South Korea, Japan, USA, Australia and Switzerland.
Veterans with depression and/or PTSD more likely to seek cardiac rehab
Veterans with PTSD and/or depression were more likely to use cardiac rehabilitation services.
Lifestyle explains part of the protective effect of education on heart disease
Lifestyle factors, such as weight, blood pressure and smoking, explain around 40% of the protective effect of education on heart disease risk in later life, finds a study published by The BMJ today.
Artificial photosynthesis transforms carbon dioxide into liquefiable fuels
Chemists at the University of Illinois have successfully produced fuels using water, carbon dioxide and visible light through artificial photosynthesis.
Civil War plant medicines blast drug-resistant bacteria in lab tests
A new study based on a mostly forgotten guide to medicinal plants, 'Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests,' focuses on three of the plants and shows they inhibit bacteria associated with wound infections.
Global study of urban poor links childhood adversity to adolescent violence and depression
In poor urban areas around the world, exposure to adverse events as children -- including physical and emotional neglect, violence, and sexual abuse -- is strongly associated with both adolescent depression and violence perpetrated by young people, with the data suggesting that boys are suffering even more than girls, according to a new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Reductions in PM over decade has improved health; ozone pollution remains little changed
Fewer deaths and serious illnesses have occurred in the US over the past decade as a result of cleaner air, according to a new report focusing on the two most potent air pollutants: fine particle (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3).
New therapeutic target for depression identified
There are different pharmacological treatments for depression, mainly therapies that act on the serotonin system -- the so-called SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
Poor semen quality in Switzerland
A marked decrease in sperm count has been observed. And in Switzerland?
Chimpanzees at the crossroads: adapt to living outside protected areas
Chimpanzees at the crossroads: how they adapt to living outside protected areas Research carried out into the impact of changes to chimpanzee habitats found they have adapted to human developments in a number of ways -- including learning how to cross roads safely and the best times to visit human habitats -- but their survival is still threatened.
Can blood donation programs identify donors with genetic disorder for high cholesterol, coronary artery disease?
This study examined whether a blood donation program could help identify individuals with the often undiagnosed genetic disorder familial hypercholesterolemia, which results in high cholesterol and premature coronary artery disease.
The top 25 medical lab tests around the world
A recent study can help governments understand which diagnostic laboratory tests are most important when developing universal health coverage systems.
Soft, social robot brings coziness to homes -- and classrooms
A new social robot that can be customized with handcrafted material, such as wood and wool, brings simplicity and fun to home robotics -- and will soon be used to help teach math to fourth graders.
NUS pilot study opens new possibilities for AI to enhance cognitive performance
Results of a pilot study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore provided evidence that an artificial intelligence known as CURATE.AI has the potential to enhance learning, and could pave the way for promising applications in personalized digital therapy, including the prevention of cognitive decline.
First states to expand Medicaid saw larger screening rate increases
The five states and District of Columbia that first adopted Medicaid expansion saw larger increases in cancer screening than those states that did not.
Aspirin green light for brain bleed stroke patients, study finds
People who suffer a stroke caused by bleeding in the brain -- known as brain haemorrhage -- can take common medicines without raising their risk of another stroke, a major clinical trial has found.
Proton therapy lowers risk of side-effects compared to conventional radiation
Cancer patients getting proton therapy instead of traditional photon radiation are at a significantly lower risk of experiencing side-effects from their radiation therapy, while cure rates are almost identical between the two groups.
Massive sequencing study links rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes
An international consortium of scientists has analyzed protein-coding genes from nearly 46,000 people, linking rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes.
Scientists discover novel genes responsible for regulating muscle cells
York University scientists have uncovered a unique set of genes that play a role in muscle cellular gene expression and differentiation which could lead to new therapeutic targets to prevent the spread of muscle cancer.
Quantum rebar: Quantum dots enhance stability of solar-harvesting perovskite crystals
Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power -- and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other.
Violence exposure, depression, and poor health habits may increase asthma in adolescents
Exposure to violence, depression and poor health habits -- including obesity, drinking soda, poor sleep and smoking marijuana -- appear to be associated with asthma in high school students.
Long-lived roundworms help identify new anti-aging compounds among the FDA approved drugs
Researchers from Gero, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) collaborated to derive a transcriptomic signature of aging, which they confirmed using large transcriptomic databases.
Three exocomets discovered around the star Beta Pictoris
Three extrasolar comets have been discovered around the star Beta Pictoris, 63 light years away, by the University of Innsbruck.
Charging into the future -- novel rock salt for use in rechargeable magnesium batteries
By synthesizing novel material for electrode that facilitates reversing of the chemistry of ions, a group of researchers led by Professor Idemoto from Tokyo University of Science combat the wasteful aspects of energy sources by laying an important foundation for the production of next-generation rechargeable magnesium secondary batteries.
As more veterans die of opioid overdoses, study shows need to focus beyond prescriptions
A dramatic rise in opioid overdose deaths among American veterans in recent years has happened mainly among veterans dying from heroin and synthetic opioids, a new study shows.
New approach for determining conservation threat for species with little data
University of British Columbia researchers have found a new way to identify which marine species are threatened and what is threatening them, even if these species lack data.
Neptune's moon Triton fosters rare icy union
Astronomers using the Gemini Observatory explore Neptune's largest moon Triton and observe, for the first time beyond the lab, an extraordinary union between carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices.
Hypertension found in children exposed to flower pesticides
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine found higher blood pressure and pesticide exposures in children associated with a heightened pesticide spraying period around the Mother's Day flower harvest.
Exposing vaccine hesitant to real-life pain of diseases makes them more pro-vaccine
New research from Brigham Young University professors finds there is a better way to help increase support for vaccinations: Expose people to the pain and suffering caused by vaccine-preventable diseases instead of trying to combat people with vaccine facts.
Detecting bacteria in space
A new genomic approach provides a glimpse into the diverse bacterial ecosystem on the International Space Station.
New role in spatial chromosome organization identified for often mutated cancer protein
New research from The Wistar Institute sheds light on the function of the ARID1A protein, encoded by a gene that is among the most frequently mutated across human cancers.
Experimental noninvasive tool monitors effectiveness of stem cell transplantation
Other than clinical observations, the stem cell field lacks a repeatable, time-sensitive, noninvasive tool to assess the effectiveness of transplanted cells in the targeted organ.
Historically redlined communities face higher asthma rates
An analysis of eight California cities shows that residents of historically redlined neighborhoods are more than twice as likely as their peers to visit emergency rooms for asthma.
Stroke deaths in England halved in the first decade of the 21st century
Deaths from stroke in England halved during the first decade of the 21st century, mainly as a result of improved survival due to better care, finds a study published by The BMJ today.
Defects in heart valve cilia during fetal development cause mitral valve prolapse
Genetic mutations in heart valve cells of the developing fetus lead to mitral valve prolapse, report a global collaborative of researchers, including Medical University of South Carolina investigators, in today's Science Translational Medicine.
Plankton as a climate driver instead of the sun?
Fluctuations in the orbital parameters of the Earth are considered to be the trigger for long-term climatic fluctuations such as ice ages.
How to enlarge 2D materials as single crystals?
IBS scientists have presented a novel approach to synthesize large-scale of silicon wafer size, single crystalline 2D materials.They have found a substrate with a lower order of symmetry than that of a 2D material that facilitates the synthesis of single crystalline 2D materials in a large area.
New study estimates preventable cancer burden linked to poor diet in the US
A new study from researchers at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts estimated the association between suboptimal consumption of seven types of foods and specific cancers.
USC study finds warmer temperatures improve women's performance
A new USC study found that women performed better on math and verbal tasks at higher temperatures, while the opposite was true for men.
Examining ethical issues surrounding wearable brain devices marketed to consumers
Wearable brain devices are now being marketed directly to consumers and often claim to confer benefits like boosting memory and modulating symptoms of depression.
Lupus characteristics and progression differ among racial/ethnic groups
In the first epidemiologic study comparing lupus among four major racial/ethnic groups, researchers found that, following a lupus diagnosis, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing problems related to the kidneys, the neurological system, and the blood.
Exercise may help teens sleep longer, more efficiently
Getting more exercise than normal -- or being more sedentary than usual -- for one day is enough to affect sleep later that night.
18 Earth-sized exoplanets discovered
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS), the Georg August University of Göttingen, and the Sonneberg Observatory have discovered 18 Earth-sized planets beyond the solar system.
Newly discovered hybrid molecules could serve as a novel category of anti-cancer agent
Researchers from NYU Abu Dhabi's (NYUAD) chemistry program and colleagues from the University's biology program have developed and studied the biological activity of five new, metal-organic hybrid knotted molecules, termed metal-organic trefoil knots (M-TKs).
New data on ultrafast electron photoemission from metallic nanostructures obtained
Metallic nanoparticle ensembles are capable of emitting short bunches of electrons when irradiated by powerful laser pulses of femtosecond (1 fs = 10-15 s) duration.
Good vibrations: Using piezoelectricity to ensure hydrogen sensor sensitivity
Researchers at Osaka University developed a new method that uses piezoelectric resonance to improve the manufacture of highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.
Black men less likely than nonblack men to adopt active surveillance
At a time when a growing number of men with prostate cancer considered 'low risk' are opting for active surveillance or watchful waiting rather than immediate treatment with surgery or radiation, a new study reveals that black men are less likely than white men to adopt an active surveillance strategy for their disease.
Study questions European Parliament's perception as champion of gender equality
The European Parliament is often viewed as the most democratic and gender equal decision-making institution of the European Union.
Hospital-acquired infections may be lower in closed ICUs
Three hospital-acquired infections rates appear to be lower in patients admitted to a 'closed' intensive care unit, meaning that the ICU team has primary responsibility for the patient, rather than a primary care physician,
Parental use of prescription opioids associated with risk of suicide attempt by children
Opioid use by parents was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt by their children in a study that linked medical claims for opioid prescriptions for parents with medical claims for suicide attempts by their children.
Cocktails with Cleopatra?
A team of scientists from Hebrew University, Israel's Antiquities Authority, Tel Aviv University and Bar-Ilan University create ancient alcohol from ancient yeast.
Belief in the 'prosperity gospel' does not turn people into successful entrepreneurs
Belief in the 'Prosperity Gospel' -- that God financially blesses faithful followers -- does not turn individuals into successful entrepreneurs.
Ancient toy inspires tool for state-of-the-art science
A 5,000-year-old toy still enjoyed by kids today has inspired an inexpensive, hand-powered scientific tool that could not only impact how field biologists conduct their research but also allow high-school students and others with limited resources to realize their own state-of-the-art experiments.
Eating healthily at work matters
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, demonstrated that employees at a large urban hospital who purchased the least healthy food in its cafeteria were more likely to have an unhealthy diet outside of work, be overweight and/or obese, and have risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, compared to employees who made healthier purchases.
A simple, yet versatile, new design for chaotic oscillating circuitry inspired by prime numbers
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have found a simple, yet highly versatile, way to generate 'chaotic signals' with various features.
Using fruit flies to identify new treatment for a colorectal cancer patient
Erdem Bangi and colleagues demonstrate a new approach to developing personalized therapy for a patient with treatment-resistant colorectal cancer: using a fruit fly genetically modified with a patient's own cancer mutations to test candidate treatments.
Global burden of serious health-related suffering due to almost double by 2060
New research findings published today in The Lancet Global Health show that the number of people dying with palliative care needs is set to almost double over the next four decades.
SWOG spotlights high-impact research at ASCO
At ASCO 2019, SWOG investigators will report on 16 group-led trials, one jointly-led study, and another 12 involving partners.
New 3D-printed technology lowers cost of common medical test
A desire for a simpler, cheaper way to do common laboratory tests for medical diagnoses and to avoid 'washing the dishes' led University of Connecticut researchers to develop a new technology that reduces cost and time.
Scientists break record for highest-temperature superconductor
University of Chicago scientists are part of an international research team that has discovered superconductivity -- the ability to conduct electricity perfectly -- at the highest temperatures ever recorded.
Social networks and suicide prevention
Depression and mental health problems are increasing - and suicide and drug overdose rates are rising dramatically in the USA.
3D-printed device detects biomarkers of preterm birth
Preterm birth (PTB) -- defined as birth before the 37th week of gestation -- is the leading complication of pregnancy.
Researchers identify genetic switch that controls conversion of bad to good fat
Researchers at University of Utah Health have identified a way to control the production of white fat using TLE3, a genetic switch that stops the conversion of white fat into beige fat.
Parasites dampen beetle's fight or flight response
Beetles infected with parasitic worms put up less of a fight against simulated attacks from predators and rival males, according to a study by Felicia Ebot-Ojong, Andrew Davis and Elizabeth Jurado at the University of Georgia, USA, publishing May 22, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.
Octopus-inspired wearable sensor
Wearable electronics that adhere to skin are an emerging trend in health sensor technology for their ability to monitor a variety of human activities, from heart rate to step count.
Natural environments favor 'good' bacteria
A new study has shown that restoring environments to include a wider range of species can promote 'good' bacteria over 'bad' -- with potential benefits for human health.
Skin patch shows promise for children with milk-induced eosinophilic esophagitis
A new study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia finds that a skin patch may be useful in treating children with a painful, chronic condition called eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) triggered by milk.
Researchers from IKBFU study properties of amorphous microwires
Glass coated amorphous microwires are the newest perspective magnetic composite alloys that can be used for the creation of modern high-speed mass storage devices with high recording density and logic elements.
Pain management protocol sends 92 percent of cancer surgery patients home without opioids
A specialized pain management program for patients who underwent robotic surgery for urologic cancers resulted in just eight percent going home with narcotics after discharge, compared to 100 percent who would have received them without this enhanced recovery protocol.
Tip sheet: Recent research on how DNA is read and copied
Two scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have unraveled aspects of how DNA organizes and preserves genetic information.
Proton therapy for cancer lowers risk of side effects
Proton therapy results in fewer side effects than traditional X-ray radiation therapy for many cancer patients, according to a new study led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.
COPD appears to cause more severe symptoms in women
Women who develop COPD report smoking fewer cigarettes than men; and yet, women experience greater breathing impairments, are subjected to more acute exacerbations of symptoms and report lower quality of life than men with the disease, according to research presented at ATS 2019.
Electric hookahs might be no safer than traditional charcoal-based ones
Waterpipe tobacco smoking, otherwise known as 'hookah' or 'shisha,' is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, especially among youth.
Prison-based college presents challenges, but can succeed, study finds
Interest in prison-based education has grown in recent years as an approach to reduce recidivism and improve the future of people who are incarcerated for crimes.
Smoking unfiltered cigarettes appear to double risk of lung cancer death
People who smoke unfiltered cigarettes are nearly twice as likely to die from lung cancer and 30 percent more likely to die of all causes than those who smoke filtered cigarettes,
Long-lived roundworms helped identify new anti-aging compounds among FDA approved drugs
Researchers from Gero, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) collaborated to derive a transcriptomic signature of aging, which they confirmed using large transcriptomic databases.
Monkey-infecting virus may provide part of future HIV vaccine
A protein from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), which can infect monkeys and apes, has shown promise as a potential component of a vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), in a new study from scientists at Scripps Research.
New study: protecting against type 1 diabetes
A new study has investigated how exposure to certain triggers can increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.
Lack of evaluation in countering violent extremism may boost terror threat
A lack of evaluation of the impact of countering violent extremism (CVE) and counter-terrorism (CT) efforts may actually be increasing the threat and risk of terrorism, a new study points out.
Bipolar disorder may be linked to Parkinson's disease
People who have bipolar disorder may be more likely to later develop Parkinson's disease than people who do not have bipolar disorder, according at a study published in the May 22, 2019, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
New report: Nearly 19,000 asylum seekers await US entry in Mexican border cities
The number of asylum seekers on wait lists in Mexican border cities or those waiting to get on these lists has grown to 18,700, according to a new report.
New insights about carbon and ice could clarify inner workings of Earth, other planets
Two new studies show how carbon and ice, key planetary ingredients, take on exotic forms that could help researchers better understand the inner workings of Earth and other planets across the galaxy.
A new genetic tool to modify and understand gene function
CNIC scientists have developed a new genetic tool that significantly facilitates the study of gene function in physiological conditions and disease.
Leaving school earlier could increase the risk of heart disease
Although it has been known for a long time, that education, and socioeconomic position affect health, particularly in later life, there was limited knowledge as to why.
New Stanford research examines how augmented reality affects people's behavior
Stanford scholar Jeremy Bailenson and other researchers found that people's interactions with a virtual person in augmented reality, or AR, influenced how they behaved and acted in the physical world.
Study finds lower ER triage scores associated with delayed antibiotics delivery for sepsis patients
in a new study, researchers at Intermountain Healthcare in Salt Lake City found that antibiotic delivery was significantly faster -- by up to 32 minutes -- for sepsis patients being treated in an emergency department if they were assigned a slightly higher score on a subjective one-to-five acuity scale commonly used for patient triage.
New study shows crowdsourced traffic data could save lives
A new University of California, Irvine-led pilot study finds, on average, Waze 'crash alerts' occur two minutes and 41 seconds prior to their corresponding California Highway Patrol (CHP)-reported crash.
Cell division requires a balanced level of non-coding RNA for chromosome stability
Assistant Professor Dr Karen Wing Yee Yuen and Postdoctoral Fellow Dr Yick Hin Ling from the School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong (HKU), discovered that centromeric DNA is used as a template to produce a non-protein coding, centromeric RNA (ribonucleic acid), that is essential for chromosome stability.
Ancient proteins offer clues to the past
Archeologists once relied solely on artifacts, such as skeletal remains, fossils and pottery sherds, to learn about past species and cultures.
Big energy savings for tiny machines
In a ground-breaking study, a team led by Simon Fraser University physics professor David Sivak demonstrates for the first time a strategy for manipulating the trillions of tiny molecular nanomachines inside us that work to keep us alive, to maximize efficiency and conserve energy.
Galaxies as 'cosmic cauldrons'
Star formation within interstellar clouds of gas and dust, so-called molecular clouds, proceeds very rapidly yet highly 'inefficiently'.
Researchers gain key insight into solar material's soaring efficiency
In collaboration with partners at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom, researchers at CSU's National Science Foundation-supported Next Generation Photovoltaics Center have reported a key breakthrough in how the performance of cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells is improved even further by the addition of another material, selenium.
Vascularized kidney tissue engineered by WFIRM scientists
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) researchers have shown the feasibility of bioengineering vascularized functional renal tissues for kidney regeneration, developing a partial augmentation strategy that may be a more feasible and practical approach than creating whole organs.
Global temperature change attributable to external factors, confirms new study
Researchers at the University of Oxford have confirmed that human activity and other external factors are responsible for the rise in global temperature.
Subtropical Storm Andrea gone girl
Subtropical Storm Andrea was gone before the storm could even reach Tropical Storm status.
Unlike men, women's cognitive performance may improve at higher room temperature
Women's performance on math and verbal tests is best at higher temperatures, while men perform best on the same tests at lower temperatures, according to a study published May 22, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Tom Chang and Agne Kajackaite from the USC Marshall School of Business, Los Angeles, USA, and the WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Berlin, Germany.
Analysis reveals extent of drug industry funding of UK patient organizations
From 2012 to 2016 the drug industry donated over £57 million to UK patient organizations, with priority given to a small number of organizations supporting commercially high profile conditions like cancer, reveals an analysis published by The BMJ today.
Risk of suicide attempt by children doubles if parent uses opioids
In a tale of two epidemics, researchers from the University of Chicago and the University of Pittsburgh found that children of parents who use opioids have an increased risk of attempting suicide.
Study identifies dog breeds, physical traits that pose highest risk of biting children
Nearly five million people are bitten by dogs each year in the United States, and children are at a much higher risk than adults.
Strange Martian mineral deposit likely sourced from volcanic explosions
In a finding that is soon to be ground-truthed by NASA's next Mars rover, Brown University researchers show that a Martian mineral deposit was likely formed by ashfall from ancient volcanic explosions.
Need for rigorous procedures within electrochemical production of ammonia
Many experimental studies of electrochemical synthesis of ammonia are flawed.
Defects in cellular antennae can cause a common heart condition
Katelynn Toomer and colleagues have discovered that defects in tiny, hair-like cellular structures can lead to mitral valve prolapse (MVP), a common heart disorder that affects up to one in 40 people worldwide.
Healthy brain development is a human right, argues Yale researcher
We know that the environment in which children and young adults are raised influences healthy brain development.
Translational research led by Singapore scientists uncovers new treatment for fatty liver disease
A new treatment approach that involves blocking a protein has, for the first time, shown promising results in the treatment of fatty liver disease, in a landmark translational research collaboration between Duke-NUS Medical School, National Heart Centre Singapore and biotech company Enleofen Bio.
The neural mechanisms that inhibit slow muscle activity during fast swimming in fish
Using zebrafish larvae, Assistant Professor Yukiko Kimura and Professor Shin-Ichi Higashijima of the National Institute for Basic Biology in Japan have discovered neural mechanisms that suppress slow muscle activity in fish swimming at high speeds.
AERA releases 2019 annual meeting study snapshots
Following its 2019 Annual Meeting last month in Toronto, Canada, AERA is issuing brief overviews, or snapshots, of selected papers presented at the conference.
Study shows incidence rates of aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer rising
New findings from a study by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, show that US incidence rates for aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer rose rapidly among women ages 30 to 79 from 2000 to 2015.
Canadian researchers on promising path towards developing flu treatment using lipid target
A team of scientists of the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) in Montreal, Canada , has tackled this fundamental question and recently identified a target to 'tone down' the hyper-active immunity to influenza infection.
Life-threatening genetic cholesterol condition could be found through blood donations
Blood donation programs represent a unique opportunity as a public health portal to screen for diseases.
Early antiretroviral treatment may preserve key immune responses to HIV
Investigators from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard have found that instituting combination antiretroviral treatment at the earliest stages of HIV infection may allow the generation of functional CD8 'killer' T cells and preservation of the CD4 helper T cells that are the virus's primary target.
Surgery patients are getting older every year
A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) analysis reveals that people undergoing surgery in England are getting older at a faster rate than the general population.
Mapping the global distribution of phytoplankton
Researchers at ETH have charted the distribution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans for the first time and investigated the environmental factors that explain this distribution.
Massive Martian ice discovery opens a window into red planet's history
Newly discovered layers of ice buried a mile beneath Mars' north pole are the remnants of ancient polar ice sheets and could be one of the largest water reservoirs on the planet, according to scientists at The University of Texas at Austin and the University of Arizona.
Long-lived roundworms helped identify new anti-aging compounds among FDA-approved drugs
Researchers from Gero, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences collaborated to derive a transcriptomic signature of aging, which they confirmed using large transcriptomic databases.
Data science helps engineers discover new materials for solar cells and LEDs
UC San Diego engineers have developed a high-throughput computational method to design new materials for next generation solar cells and LEDs.
Infants later diagnosed with autism seldom initiate joint attention
A new study published in Biological Psychiatry shows that infants who are later diagnosed with autism react adequately when others initiate joint attention, but seldom actively seek to establish such episodes themselves.
Help for youth who have experienced sexual or physical abuse
There have not been many scientifically evaluated therapies for teens and young adults who have suffered physical or sexual abuse until now.
More years spent in education associated with lower weight and blood pressure
Scientists have helped unravel the link between higher levels of education and reduced risk of heart attack and stroke.
Unexpected observation of ice at low temperature, high pressure questions water theory
Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studying super-cold states of water discovered a pathway to the unexpected formation of dense, crystalline phases of ice thought to exist beyond Earth's limits.
Spatial DNA organization forms first, then the rest
The fundamental organization of the DNA in active and inactive compartments arises immediately after fertilization of the oocyte, even before genes are activated.
A road map to stem cell development
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have created a method of mapping how the central nervous system develops by tracking the genes expressed in cells.
School choice system is unfair to households in areas given fewer choices
The first ever study to assess secondary school choices made across all households in England has shown that the system is unfair to households in areas where they are given fewer options on the application form, with these parents having to make 'less ambitious' choices.
Robots activated by water may be the next frontier
Columbia University scientists have developed material that can drive mechanical systems, with movements controlled by a pattern set into the design.
Hispanic and black children more likely to miss school due to eczema than white children
In a study that highlights racial disparities in the everyday impact of eczema, new research shows Hispanic and black children are more likely than white children to miss school due to the chronic skin disease.
Genetic discovery may improve corn quality, yields
Researchers may be able to improve corn yields and nutritional value after discovering genetic regulators that synthesize starch and protein in the widely eaten grain, according to a Rutgers-led study.
Residential child care project addresses emotional pain without causing it
A model of care for children's residential agencies takes children's emotional pain into account and emphasizes the bond between the children and their caregivers.
New exercise guidelines for people with cancer
A decade-old treatment recommendation for people with cancer to take a 'slowly slowly' approach to exercise has been replaced with new guidelines recommending a personalized exercise program including high-intensity workouts to achieve the best treatment outcome.
Melting small glaciers could add 10 inches to sea levels
A new review of glacier research data paints a picture of a future planet with a lot less ice and a lot more water.
Seeing inside superfog
Research led by the University of California, Riverside has for the first time produced superfog, a dense combination of smoke and fog, in a laboratory.

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#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...