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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 24, 2019


Mathematically designed graphene has improved electrocatalytic activity
An international research group has improved graphene's ability to catalyze the 'hydrogen evolution reaction,' which releases hydrogen as a result of passing an electronic current through water.
Odds of success
The more a student engages with various activities on campus, the higher their odds of success post-graduation.
Better together: human and robot co-workers
More and more processes are being automated and digitised. Self-driving delivery vehicles, such as forklifts, are finding their way into many areas -- and companies are reporting potential time and cost savings.
Discovery of hippocampal mossy cell involvement to maximize antidepressant effects
Professor Yong-Seok Oh's team at the DGIST Department of Brain-Cognitive Science clarified the expression of antidepressant efficacy by modulating hippocampal mossy cells.
New approaches to study the genetics of autism spectrum disorder may lead to new therapies
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly variable disorder, both in its presentation and in its genetics -- hundreds of risk genes have been identified.
New study reveals gut is organized by function, and opportunities for better drug design
New findings provide insights about how the intestine maximizes nutrient uptake, while at the same time protecting the body from potentially dangerous microbes.
New algorithm uses disease history to predict intensive care patients' chances of survival
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen and Rigshospitalet have used data on more than 230,000 intensive care patients to develop a new algorithm.
Researchers discover how three-dimensional organization of the genome regulates cell differentiation
A new study from the University of Minnesota Medical School clarifies how the three-dimensional organization of the genome is regulated at the onset of skeletal muscle formation.
New neurons form in the brain into tenth decade of life, even in people with Alzheimer's
Researchers examining post-mortem brain tissue from people ages 79 to 99 found that new neurons continue to form well into old age.
Nature inspires a novel new form of computing, using light
McMaster researchers have developed a simple and highly novel form of computing by shining patterned bands of light and shadow through different facets of a polymer cube and reading the combined results that emerge.
Trinity researchers find stark social inequalities in children's body mass index (BMI)
Researchers at Trinity College have found that socioeconomic inequalities in children's body mass index (BMI) emerge during the preschool years and widen across childhood and into early adolescence.
Adding a carbon atom transforms 2D semiconducting material
A technique that introduces carbon-hydrogen molecules into a single atomic layer of the semiconducting material tungsten disulfide dramatically changes the electronic properties of the material, according to Penn State researchers at Penn State who say they can create new types of components for energy-efficient photoelectric devices and electronic circuits with this material.
How to prevent mosquitofish from spreading in water ecosystems
Preventing the introduction of the mosquitofish and removing its population are the most effective actions to control the dispersal of this exotic fish in ponds and lakes, according to a study published in the journal Science of the Total Environment.
When macrophages are deprived of oxygen
Infected tissue has a low concentration of oxygen. The body's standard immune mechanisms, which rely on oxygen, can then only function to a limited extent.
Soil communities threatened by destruction, instability of Amazon forests
A meta-analysis of nearly 300 studies of soil biodiversity in Amazonian forests found that the abundance, biomass, richness and diversity of soil fauna and microbes were reduced following deforestation.
PSA, a prostate cancer marker, activates vascular and lymphangiogenic growth factors
A new study indicates that PSA, a prostate cancer marker, is one of the catalysts that activate vascular endothelial and lymphangiogenic growth factors which contribute to the spread of cancer.
CNIO participates in a study identifying a novel oncogene for most common types of blood cancer
The study shows that tumour suppressor hnRNP K can lead to cancer.
Aluminum is the new steel: NUST MISIS scientists made it stronger than ever before
Aluminum is one of the most promising materials for aeronautics and automobile industry.
Shedding light on the burden of dengue in Bangladesh
Dengue, also known as dengue fever, is a viral disease transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes.
'Neural Lander' uses AI to land drones smoothly
Control engineers and AI experts team up to make drones that fly more smoothly close to the ground.
Short-term use of opioids increases subjective pleasure
As indicated by a recently published study, short-term opioid use shifts a range of emotional responses to the positive direction.
To save biodiversity and feed the future, first cure 'plant blindness'
From the urban jungle -- even the leafier parts of suburbia -- we often have a tough time naming the last plant we saw.
Don't overdo omega-6 fat consumption during pregnancy
New research in The Journal of Physiology showed that eating a diet with three times the recommended daily intake of linoleic acid might be harmful in pregnancy.
CBT could benefit mental health of children with long-term conditions
The mental health of children and young people with some long term physical conditions could benefit from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), according to a recent study from the University of Exeter Medical School.
Blood pressure and glucose control may prevent common arrhythmia
Blood-pressure and glucose control may be effective in preventing heart block, a common form of arrhythmia, and the subsequent need for a pacemaker, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco.
Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere
Scientists today announced a major new finding about how matter behaves in the extreme conditions of the sun's atmosphere.
How single neurons and brain networks support spatial navigation
Research groups worldwide have studied the neuronal basis of spatial navigation, and the activity of both individual nerve cells and large cell assemblies in the brain appear to play a crucial role in the process.
Gene therapy towards a clinical trial for gamma-sarcoglycanopathy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
Isabelle Richard's team, a CNRS researcher in an Inserm unit at Genethon, the AFM-Telethon laboratory, has demonstrated the efficacy of gene therapy and determined the effective dose for treating a rare muscle disease, gamma-sarcoglycanopathy, in mouse models of the disease.
New research shows that mites and ticks are close relatives
Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Natural History Museum in London have reconstructed the evolutionary history of the chelicerates, the mega-diverse group of 110,000 arthropods that includes spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks.
PolyU develops highly flexible high-energy textile lithium battery to cope with surging demand for wearable electronics
Researchers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) have developed a highly flexible, high-energy textile lithium battery that offers more stable, durable and safe energy supply for wearable electronics with a myriad of applications, such as in healthcare monitoring, intelligent textiles, smartphones, global positioning system (GPS) tracking and Internet of Things (IoT).
Weekly pharmacy visits boost drug adherence and quality of life in heart failure patients
Elderly patients with heart failure who see a pharmacist once a week are more likely to take their tablets and be active in daily life, according to late breaking results from the PHARM-CHF randomised controlled trial presented today at Heart Failure 2019, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Cancer cells are quick-change artists adapting to their environment
Until now, researchers have assumed that the growth of solid tumors originates from cancer stem cells characterized by specific surface markers, which develop in a fixed, hierarchical order.
Researchers propose new federal rule of evidence for more accurate verdicts in court
While many juries use commonsense when determining an innocent or guilty verdict, research has shown that commonsense can be misleading and inaccurate.
Science Snapshots -- May 2019
Researchers at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry have predicted fascinating new properties of lithium; a powerful combination of experiment and theory has revealed atomic-level details about how silver helps transform carbon dioxide gas into a reusable form; new study reports the first comprehensive, highly coordinated effort to examine the global diversity and biogeography of activated sludge microbiome.
Measles vaccination: 'All for one and one for all'
A commentary by researchers addresses the specter of clinical, ethical, public health and legal concerns that have been raised because of the recent measles outbreaks in New York.
AI and high-performance computing extend evolution to superconductors
In a new study from the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, researchers used the power of artificial intelligence and high-performance supercomputers to introduce and assess the impact of different configurations of defects on the performance of a superconductor.
Dead roots double shoreline loss in gulf
A new Duke University-led study finds that the loss of marsh-edge salt grasses and mangroves due to disturbances such as heavy oiling from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill doubles the rate of shoreline erosion in hard-hit marshes.
Infection biology: Signs of selection in the stomach
Helicobacter pylori, a globally distributed gastric bacterium, is genetically highly adaptable.
More than a protein factory
Researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have discovered a new function of ribosomes in human cells that may show the protein-making particle's role in destroying healthy mRNAs, the messages that decode DNA into protein.
US dentists out-prescribe UK dentists when it comes to opioids
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago have found that dentists practicing in the US write 37 times more opioid prescriptions than dentists practicing in England.
Quantum computing boost from vapour stabilising technique
A technique to stabilise alkali metal vapour density using gold nanoparticles, so electrons can be accessed for applications including quantum computing, atom cooling and precision measurements, has been patented by scientists at the University of Bath.
How corn's ancient ancestor swipes left on crossbreeding
Determining how one species becomes distinct from another has been a subject of fascination dating back to Charles Darwin.
Finding the cause of capacity loss in a metal-oxide battery material
The formation and thickening of internal and surface barriers during battery charge and discharge cycles limits electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery with an iron oxide electrode.
Scientists discover signalling circuit boards inside body's cells
Cells in the body are wired like computer chips to direct signals that instruct how they function, research from the University of Edinburgh suggests.
The Lancet journals: Papers at European Stroke Organisation Conference (ESOC) 2019
The following papers will be presented at the ESOC conference in Milan and published simultaneously in either The Lancet or The Lancet Neurology journals.
Drug-resistant infections: If you can't beat 'em, starve 'em, scientists find
To treat Candida albicans, a common yeast that can cause illness in those with weakened immune systems, University at Buffalo researchers limited the fungus' access to iron, an element crucial to the organism's survival.
Biomarkers help tailor diuretic use in acute heart failure patients
Adrenomedullin activity predicts which acute heart failure patients are at the greatest risk of death without diuretic treatment post-discharge, according to late breaking research presented today at Heart Failure 2019, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Paper stickers to monitor pathogens are more effective than swabs
Using paper stickers to collect pathogens on surfaces where antisepsis is required, such as in food processing plants, is easier, and less expensive than swabbing, yet similarly sensitive.
Hospitals fall short in teaching fall prevention to departing patients
Falls are a leading cause of hospitalizations and emergency room visits among older adults, but until now, little was known about the relationship between falls and hospital readmissions.
Mobile phone app designed to boost physical activity in women shows promise in trial
Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health, the study is one of the first to examine how an app-based program can help increase and maintain objectively measured daily physical activity.
If you could learn every disease your child could possibly develop in life, would you?
Adding genomic sequencing results to traditional newborn screening means a baby could potentially test positive for numerous conditions that might not develop within their lifetime.
Do you hear what I hear?
A new study by Columbia University researchers found that infants at high risk for autism were less attuned to differences in speech patterns than low-risk infants.
Simple test can tell if you're stressed out
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have developed a new test that can easily and simply measure common stress hormones using sweat, blood, urine or saliva.
Study analyzes mortality risks among pro athletes
A first-of-its-kind comparison between elite pro athletes suggests higher overall mortality among NFL players compared with MLB players.
Hubble spies curious galaxy moving a little closer
This Hubble image stars Messier 90, a beautiful spiral galaxy located roughly 60 million light-years from the Milky Way in the constellation of Virgo (the Virgin).
Crabs' camouflage tricks revealed
Crabs from a single species rely on different camouflage techniques depending on what habitat they live in, new research shows.
Does your health in middle age predict how healthy you'll be later in life?
Cognitive decline is the medical term for a decline in your abilities to think, remember, and make decisions.
Meteor magnets in outer space
A UC Riverside-led team has discovered two Jupiter-sized planets about 150 light years away from Earth that could reveal whether life is likely on the smaller planets in other solar systems.
High sugar levels during pregnancy could lead to childhood obesity
The children of women who have high glucose blood levels during pregnancy, even if their mothers are not diagnosed with gestational diabetes, are at an increased risk of developing obesity in childhood, according to a new study published in PLOS One.
Origami-inspired materials could soften the blow for reusable spacecraft
University of Washington researchers have developed a novel solution to help reduce impact forces -- for potential applications in spacecraft, cars and beyond.
Study: High rates of food insecurity found at Southern Appalachia Colleges
College students in Southern Appalachia are affected by food insecurity at a higher rate than the national average, which can translate into poor academic performance and unhealthy spending habits and coping mechanisms, according to a new study coauthored by researchers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and published in Current Developments in Nutrition.
Deletion in mouse neutrophils offers clues to pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis
A mouse model called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, or EAE, is used to discover disease mechanisms that may translate into treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis.
How to interact between mantle and crustal components in the subduction zone?
Subduction process drives the differential evolution of the earth and realizes material cycle and energy exchange.
How interval training affects 'belly fat' in obese 70-year-olds
A team of researchers have designed a study to learn more about the effects of a 10-week, easy-to-perform, personalized, progressive vigorous-intensity interval training among 70-year-olds with 'belly fat.' Their study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Rice U. lab grows stable, ultrathin magnets
Rice University researchers find a simple method to make unique, nearly two-dimensional iron oxides with stable magnetic properties at room temperature.

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