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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 27, 2019


Microglia turned on
Part of the immune system in the brain is made up of so-called microglia cells.
First-of-its-kind study in endothelial stem cells finds exposure to flavored e-cigarette liquids, e-cigarette use exacerbates cell dysfunction
There has been a rapid rise in e-cigarette use, but its health effects have not been well-studied and their effect on vascular health remains unknown.
Physician burnout costs the US health care system approximately $4.6 billion a year
Physician burnout is a substantial economic burden, costing the US health care system approximately $4.6 billion a year.
Many patients with pancreatic cancer miss out on treatment that may extend survival
Despite potential for prolonging survival with treatment, one-third of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer do not see a medical oncologist, and even more do not receive cancer-directed treatment, found new research published in CMAJ.
Artificial intelligence detects a new class of mutations behind autism
Using artificial intelligence, a Princeton University-led team has decoded the functional impact of regulatory DNA mutations in people with autism.
Brain stimulation enhances visual learning speed and efficiency
Brain stimulation, when coupled with visual training therapy, has dramatic effects on increasing learning speed and retention in both healthy adults and patients who have experienced vision loss due to stroke or other brain injury.
New causes of autism found in 'junk' DNA
Leveraging artificial intelligence techniques, researchers have demonstrated that mutations in so-called 'junk' DNA can cause autism.
How language developed: Comprehension learning precedes vocal production
Green monkeys' alarm calls allow conclusions about the evolution of language.
Coat of proteins makes viruses more infectious and links them to Alzheimer's disease
New research from Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet shows that viruses interact with proteins in the biological fluids of their host which results in a layer of proteins on the viral surface.
Scientists uncover a trove of genes that could hold key to how humans evolved
New computational analysis finds that more than two dozen human zinc finger transcription factors, previously thought to control activity of similar genes across species have in fact human-specific roles and could help explain how our species came to be.
Vatican hosts major atheism conference with University of Kent
The global Understanding Unbelief program to advance the scientific understanding of atheism and nonreligion will today present results from its research at the Vatican in Rome.
Group A strep genome research expedites vaccine development efforts
The global search for a group A streptococcal (Strep A) vaccine has narrowed after researchers identified a common gene signature in almost all global Strep A strains by sequencing thousands of genomes in a project spanning 10 years and more than 20 countries.
Brain stimulation speeds up visual learning and recovery
A combination of visual training and a recently developed brain stimulation technique boosts learning in healthy adults and cortically blind patients, according to research published in JNeurosci.
Skilled health workforce in India does not meet WHO recommended threshold
The skilled health workforce in India does not meet the minimum threshold of 22.8 skilled workers per 10,000 population recommended by the World Health Organization, shows research published today in the online journal BMJ Open.
ASU team throws new light on photosynthetic supercomplex structure
A team of scientists from Arizona State University has taken a significant step closer to unlocking the secrets of photosynthesis, by determining the structure of a very large photosynthetic supercomplex.
De-TOXing exhausted T cells may bolster CAR T immunotherapy against solid tumors
A decade ago researchers announced development of a cancer immunotherapy called CAR (for chimeric antigen receptor)-T, in which a patient is re-infused with their own genetically modified T cells equipped to mount a potent anti-tumor attack.
Study uncovers surprising melting patterns beneath Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf
In a study published today in Nature Geoscience, scientists detail how they discovered an ancient geologic structure that restricts where ocean water flows, and reveals that local ocean currents may play a critical role in the ice shelf's future retreat.
NMR structure of a key anticoagulant protein may help prevent thrombosis
A group of researchers from Brazil and the United States describes for the first time the structure of Ixolaris, an important anticoagulant protein found in tick saliva, and its interaction with Factor Xa, a key enzyme in the process of blood clotting.
Major step forward in the production of 'green' hydrogen
The first thermodynamically reversible chemical reactor capable of producing hydrogen as a pure product stream represents a 'transformational' step forward in the chemical industry.
Colliding lasers double the energy of proton beams
Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators.
E-cigarette use, flavorings may increase heart disease risk, Stanford-led study finds
The flavoring liquid for electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease when inhaled, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Licorice tea causes hypertensive emergency in patient
Licorice tea, a popular herbal tea, is not without health risks, as a case study of a man admitted to hospital for a high-blood pressure emergency demonstrates in CMAJ.
Music helps to build the brains of very premature babies
In Switzerland, 1% of children are born 'very prematurely.' These children are at high risk of developing neuropsychological disorders.
Altered brain activity in antisocial teenagers
Teenage girls with problematic social behavior display reduced brain activity and weaker connectivity between the brain regions implicated in emotion regulation.
New study dismisses green growth policies as a route out of ecological emergency
The new study examines green growth policies as articulated in major reports by the World Bank, the OECD and the UN Environment Programme, and tests the theory against extant empirical evidence and models of the relationship between GDP and both material footprint and CO2 emissions.
Exploring the origins of the apple
Recent archaeological finds of ancient preserved apple seeds across Europe and West Asia combined with historical, paleontological, and recently published genetic data are presenting a fascinating new narrative for one of our most familiar fruits.
Broken brain cells repaired in dementia mouse model
Dysfunctional neurons in the hippocampus of adult female mice modeling dementia can be repaired and reconnected to distant parts of the brain, reports a new study published in JNeurosci.
Could gold be the key to making gene therapy for HIV, blood disorders more accessible?
Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center took a step toward making gene therapy more practical by simplifying the way gene-editing instructions are delivered to cells.
More fishing vessels chasing fewer fish, new study finds
A new analysis of global fishing data has found the world's fishing fleet doubled in size over the 65-years to 2015 but for the amount of effort expended the catch fell more than 80 per cent.
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds do less vigorous physical activity
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds and certain ethnic minority backgrounds, including from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds, have lower levels of vigorous physical activity, according to researchers at the University of Cambridge.
Imperfection is OK for better MOFs
Imaging defects in MOF crystals, and monitoring how they develop, will allow control of defect formation to design better MOFs for many applications.
Reinvent Motherisk to protect mothers and babies
Canada should reinvent the Motherisk program to support pregnant women to have healthy babies, argues an editorial in CMAJ.
Thirty years after anorexia onset, fewer ill than healthy
A study that started in 1985 followed some 50 people who had become anorexic in their teens.
Being overweight as a teen may be associated with higher risk of heart muscle disease in adulthood
The risk of developing cardiomyopathy, which often leads to heart failure, increased in adult Swedish men who were even mildly overweight around age 18.
Iconic Australian working dog may not be part dingo after all
Researchers at the University of Sydney have found no genetic evidence that the iconic Australian kelpie shares canine ancestry with a dingo, despite Australian bush myth.
Direct methane conversion under mild conditions by thermo-, electro- or photocatalysis reviewed
A research group led by Professor DENG Dehui from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reviewed the latest progress in low-temperature methane conversion in thermocatalytic, electrocatalytic, and photocatalytic systems.
The sun follows the rhythm of the planets
One of the big questions in solar physics is why the sun's activity follows a regular cycle of 11 years.
Antibiotic ornament clasp
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing health threat, making new antibiotics essential.
Global Strep A vaccine one step closer
The search for a global Strep A vaccine has narrowed after researchers sequenced the DNA of more than 2,000 Group A Streptococcus samples from around the world.
A forest 'glow' reveals awakening from hibernation
Gross Primary Production (GPP) in forests tells scientists how much CO2 these vast and remote systems are breathing in.
Diagnosis of coronary artery disease improved by deep learning analysis of SPECT MPI
A multicenter international study has demonstrated that diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease can be improved through deep learning analysis of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.
Microaerobic Fe(II) oxidation could drive microbial carbon assimilation in paddy soil
Carbon assimilation process is important to maintain the production and ecological function of paddy field.
Epigenetic study provides new approaches to combination therapies for aggressive cancers
A recent study by CeMM reveals how the interaction of the epigenetic protein BRD4 with the metabolic enzyme MTHFD1 controls gene expression and cell proliferation.
Fighting academic failures
Children from undereducated, low-income families face a greater risk of poor academic performance.
New tool for understanding cells in health and disease
A new analysis platform called CellBench is helping to interpret large biological datasets from single-cell studies.
Plainification holds promise for improving material sustainability
Researchers from Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences proposed to advance material properties by plainification, which means tailoring stable interfaces at different length scales instead of alloying.
Study highlights vulnerability of rural coast to sea-level rise
A new paper in Nature Climate Change highlights growing recognition that existing knowledge is insufficient to best inform public and private decisions regarding the encroachment of wetlands into privately owned farm land and forests.

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