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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 28, 2019


New compound which kills antibiotic-resistant superbugs discovered
A new compound developed by University of Sheffield experts has killed antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, during tests.
Light at night is harmful for amphibians, new research shows
Light at night might be convenient for humans, but it's having a detrimental effect on amphibian populations, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
The power of empathy in product development
'Subtle things, such as imagining how someone else would feel, can have a huge impact on creativity in general,' says UConn's Kelly Herd.
Cranberries join forces with antibiotics to fight bacteria
The global spread of antibiotic resistance is undermining decades of progress in fighting bacterial infections.
People born very preterm or with very low birthweight have high risk of lung disease
A global study shows people born very preterm or with very low birthweight have a high risk of lung disease and are not reaching their full airway capacity by early adulthood.
Stem cell study determines most harmful vape liquids
Novel approach reveals vaping's effect on endothelial cells and the most harmful flavors.
New mutations for herbicide resistance rarer than expected, study finds
New evidence suggests that herbicide resistance in weeds is more likely to occur from pre-existing genetic variation than from new mutations.
Women in developing countries need radiotherapy and vaccines for cervical cancer
Millions of women in low- and middle-income countries will need life-saving radiotherapy to treat their cervical cancer, despite the growth of essential human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination prevention programs.
Researchers wonder if ancient supernovae prompted human ancestors to walk upright
Supernovae bombarded Earth with cosmic energy starting as many as 8 million years ago, with a peak some 2.6 million years ago, initiating an avalanche of electrons in the lower atmosphere and setting off a chain of events that feasibly ended with bipedal hominins.
Avalanche Victims: When can rewarming lead to survival?
It is difficult for doctors to accurately assess avalanche victims who arrive at hospital suffering cardiac arrest: has the patient effectively suffocated, or is there a realistic prospect of survival if the patient is properly rewarmed?
Microbes on explanted pedicle screws: Possible cause of spinal implant failure
In this paper, the authors demonstrate a significant association between pedicle screw loosening and the presence of low-virulent pathogens on spinal implants.
New cable-free brain imaging method may take social neuroscience to the next level
Osaka University researchers developed a cable-free recording method that can measure brain activity associated with social behavior in mice.
New study reveals an unexpected survival mechanism of a subset of cancer cells
A research group led by Claus M. Azzalin at iMM has discovered that a human enzyme named FANCM is absolutely required for the survival of ALT tumor cells.
Why parents should teach their kids to give
Teaching children how to appropriately give money away can help them develop valuable financial skills such as budgeting, and it may also contribute to their well-being later in life, according to a study led by the University of Arizona.
Fossil zooplankton indicate that marine ecosystems have entered the Anthropocene
Climate change caused by humans impacts species diversity and ecosystems.
Africa's elephant poaching rates in decline, but iconic animal still under threat
Elephant poaching rates in Africa have started to decline after reaching a peak in 2011, an international team of scientists have concluded.
Fewer than 60% of young women diagnosed with STIs in emergency departments fill scripts
Fewer than 60% of young women diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections in the emergency department fill prescriptions for antimicrobial therapy to treat these conditions, according to a research letter published online May 28, 2019, by JAMA Pediatrics.
Domino effect of species extinctions also damages biodiversity
The mutual dependencies of many plant species and their pollinators mean that the negative effects of climate change are exacerbated.
Does being seen really make cyclists safer on the road?
Researchers from UBC Okanagan have determined motorists tended to give cyclists wearing high-visibility vests more room on the road, compared to cyclists without high-visibility clothing.
Researchers introduce novel heat transport theory in quest for efficient thermoelectrics
NCCR MARVEL researchers have developed a novel microscopic theory that is able to describe heat transport in very general ways, and applies equally well to ordered or disordered materials such as crystals or glasses and to anything in between.
Targeting inflammation to better understand dangerous blood clots
Forty percent of people who develop venous thromboembolism don't know what caused it.
Stiffening arteries in teenagers with persistent obesity
Children and adolescents with long-term obesity have increased arterial stiffness by their late teens, a study of more than 3,000 children followed from age 9 to 17 shows.
Threatened beetles benefit from forest thinning
Wood-living beetles that use oak trees are a species-rich and threatened animal group in modern forestry and agriculture in southern Sweden.
Researchers advance search for laboratory test to predict spread of breast cancer
Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University and other institutions report that a new laboratory test that induces cancer cells to squeeze through narrow spaces has the potential to accurately predict which breast cancers and other solid tumors are likely to spread, or metastasize, to other sites.
Scientists revisit the cold case of cold fusion
Scientists from the University of British Columbia, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Maryland, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Google are conducting a multi-year investigation into cold fusion, a type of benign nuclear reaction hypothesized to occur in benchtop apparatus at room temperature.
Signalling protein discovery may lead to drug-based therapies to treat hyperparathyroidism
Singapore researchers discover protein that protects parathyroid glands from excessive growth, suggesting potential drug-based strategies to treat hyperparathyroidism and other relevant tumours.
Efficient triplet pair separation in dibenzopentalene derivatives
In intramolecular SF (iSF), the strong coupling nature and confinement of diffusional separation of 1(TT) limits the extraction and harnessing of triplet energy.
'Loser effect' evolves separate from fighting ability
The 'loser effect' -- which causes animals to shy away from violence after losing a fight -- evolves independently of any change in fighting ability, new research suggests.
What is known -- and not known -- about heart muscle diseases in children
Cardiomyopathies (heart muscle diseases) in children are the focus of a new scientific statement from the American Heart Association that provides insight into the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases as well as identifying future research priorities.
Societal values and perceptions shape energy production and use as much as new technology
Societal values and perceptions have shaped the energy landscape as much as the technologies that drive its production and consumption, a new paper from an Oregon State University researcher suggests.
Scientists develop surface acidity -- and selectivity-tunable manganese oxide catalyst
A research group led by Prof. XU Jie from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has developed a surface acidity -- and selectivity-tunable manganese oxide catalyst using a surface modification technique.
Inhibitory neurons have two types of impact on brain oscillations
Synchronisation is important to understanding how neurons behave, which is particularly relevant with regard to brain diseases like Alzheimer's, epilepsy and Parkinson's.
AccessLab: New workshops to broaden access to scientific research
A team from the transdisciplinary laboratory FoAM Kernow and the British Science Association detail how to run an innovative approach to understanding evidence called AccessLab in a paper published on May 28 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology.
Finding a cell's true identity
In a bid to reveal even more distinctive differences and similarities, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, the Johns Hopkins Institute for Genetic Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Department of Neuroscience developed two new artificial intelligence methods that decipher complex gene activity controlling cell fate decisions in retina development and relate this gene activity to what occurs in other tissues and across different species.
NYS winters could pose solar farm 'ramping' snag for power grid
By adding utility-scale solar farms throughout New York state, summer electricity demand from conventional sources could be reduced by up to 9.6 percent in some places.
Young carers' futures look bleak without flexible school support
Young Australians providing care for family members with mental illnesses, alcohol and drug addictions are struggling to keep up with their studies, according to new research.
Bariatric surgery can be safe and effective for adolescents
Pediatricians are often reluctant to recommend bariatric surgery for teen-agers, but a Rutgers-led study concludes it is a justifiable treatment for adolescents with persistent extreme obesity if they can maintain a healthy lifestyle afterward.
Ultra-cold lithium atoms shedding light on superfluid formation
A new study resolves a long-standing debate about what happens at the microscopic level when matter transitions into a superconducting or superfluid state.
First ICESat-2 global data released: Ice, forests and more
More than a trillion new measurements of Earth's height - blanketing everything from glaciers in Greenland, to mangrove forests in Florida, to sea ice surrounding Antarctica - are now available to the public.
Severe air pollution can cause birth defects, deaths
In a comprehensive study, researchers from Texas A&M University have determined that harmful particulate matter in the atmosphere can produce birth defects and even fatalities during pregnancy using the animal model.
Researchers find 28% of 35- to 50-year-old men studied are at-risk for osteoporosis
The study analyzed the bone mineral density of 173 adults between 35 and 50 years old.
Electric-field-controlled superconductor-ferromagnetic insulator transition
Xianhui Chen's group at University of Science and Technology of China observed an electric-field controlled reversible transition from superconductor to ferromagnetic insulator in (Li,Fe)OHFeSe thin flake using the latest SIC-FET gating technique.
Sound waves bypass visual limitations to recognize human activity
Video cameras continue to gain widespread use, but there are privacy and environmental limitations in how well they work.
Texture-modified foods for people with dysphagia
Eight percent of the population suffer dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing food and this could rise to 80% among the elderly or in cases of neurodegenerative diseases.
Comet inspires chemistry for making breathable oxygen on Mars
Caltech researchers discover a process that turns carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen.
Put more father friendly cues in OB/GYN offices, Rutgers-led study suggests
A new Rutgers-led study finds that by adding a few subtle cues to prenatal care waiting rooms, such as photos of men and babies, and pamphlets and magazines aimed toward men, OBGYNS can get fathers more involved in prenatal care and increase healthier outcomes for women and infants.
Medicare spending higher among older adults with disabilities who lack adequate support
A new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that more than one in five older adults who were aging in place with a mobility or self-care disability reported experiencing negative consequences such as having to stay in bed or going without eating due to no one being available to help or the activity being too difficult to perform alone.
EPFL researchers crack an enduring physics enigma
Researchers from EPFL have found the mechanism that lies behind a mysterious physics phenomenon in fluid mechanics: the fact that turbulence in fluids spontaneously self-organizes into parallel patterns of oblique turbulent bands -- an example of order emerging spontaneously from chaos.
3D printed artificial corneas similar to human ones
Professor Dong-Woo Cho of Mechanical Engineering, Professor Jinah Jang of Creative IT Convergence Engineering, and Ms.
Bioengineers suggested ways to reduce crop losses caused by heat, cold and drought
Scientists of Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS), Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and National Taiwan University comprehended state of the art scientific knowledge about plants stress response activated by unfavorable environmental factors.
GWAS identifies new risk loci for harmful alcohol use
A genome-wide association study has identified five new genetic risk loci that can pass on risk for harmful alcohol use from parents to children, and confirmed one previously identified risk locus.
Chloropicrin application increases production and profit potential for potato growers
Chloropicrin was first used on potato in 1940 as a wireworm suppressant and then in 1965 as a verticillium suppressant.
New compounds could be used to treat autoimmune disorders
In autoimmune disorders, the body's defense system erroneously attacks normal cells, leading to serious health problems.
Researchers identified novel oncogenic function for receptor linked to Alzheimer's disease
Common and rare SORLA single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease.
New snake species in Europe named after a long-forgotten Iron Age kingdom
Based on the genetic and morphological data, researchers were able to say that the Blotched Rat Snake (Elaphe sauromates) is actually comprised of two different species and includes a cryptic species that has been named after the old kingdom of Urartu.
Newly discovered mechanism reveals how Parkinson's disease can spread between brain cells
Tiny channels between nerve cells are involved in a newly discovered mechanism of how Parkinson's disease can spread throughout the brain, according to new research from Linköping University, Sweden.
New evidence: It's not necessary to fast before complete cholesterol test
A large study led by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Imperial College provides robust evidence that nonfasting lipid levels were similar to fasting lipid levels in the same individuals, predicting cardiovascular risk just as well.
UTSA study shows vaping is linked to adolescents' propensity for crime
UTSA criminal justice professor Dylan Jackson recently published one of the first studies to explore emerging drug use in the form of adolescent vaping and its association with delinquency among 8th and 10th grade students.
All ears: Genetic bases of mammalian inner ear evolution
Mammals have also a remarkable capacity in their sense of hearing, from the high-frequency echolocation calls of bats to low frequency whale songs.
Inconsistent choice-making a normal part of how the brain evaluates options
Sometimes consumers will switch their preferences, known in industry terms as 'customer churn.' While economists have previously called that an error in rationality, a new study says an important part of inconsistent choice-making is due to idiosyncratic activity in the brain areas that assess value.
Stem cell identity unmasked by single cell sequencing technology
Scientists from The University of Queensland's Diamantina Institute have revealed the difference between a stem cell and other blood vessel cells using gene-sequencing technology.
Army project develops agile scouting robots
In a research project for the US Army, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley developed an agile robot, called Salto that looks like a Star Wars Imperial walker in miniature and may be able to aid in scouting and search-and-rescue operations.
Study of northern Alaska could rewrite Arctic history
New research on the North Slope of Alaska could help revise predictions about the Arctic's oil, gas and mineral wealth.
Self-esteem may be key to success for Portland's homeless youth, PSU study finds
Service providers for youth experiencing homelessness typically focus on the big three: food, shelter and health care.
New evidence supports surgery for rare type of brain lymphoma
Through a systematic review of published studies going back 50 years, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have identified a distinct subtype of primary central nervous system (PCNS) lymphoma that should be considered for surgical removal, suggesting a major shift in how this type of tumor is evaluated and managed.
Immune discovery set to boost cancer therapies, study suggests
Cancer therapies that use immune cells to trigger the body to attack tumors could be improved by a molecule that boosts their function, research from the University of Edinburgh suggests.
When drug treatment for social anxiety is insufficient
A Japanese study group clarified that cognitive therapy maintained its effects more than a year after the end of therapy for patients with a social anxiety disorder even for those who did not respond to antidepressant drugs.
Using the past to unravel the future for Arctic wetlands
A new study has used partially fossilised plants and single-celled organisms to investigate the effects of climate change on the Canadian High Arctic wetlands and help predict their future.
Computer-assisted diagnostic procedure enables earlier detection of brain tumor growth
A computer-assisted diagnostic procedure helps physicians detect the growth of low-grade brain tumors earlier and at smaller volumes than visual comparison alone, according to a study published May 28 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Hassan Fathallah-Shaykh of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and colleagues.
Steroids can reduce lung cancer risk in COPD patients
For many people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, a steroid inhaler is a daily necessity to keep their airways open and help them to breathe.
High LDL linked to early-onset Alzheimer's
Researchers with the Atlanta VA and Emory University found a link between high LDL cholesterol and early-onset Alzheimer's disease.
Study finds how prostate cancer cells mimic bone when they metastasize
In a study published online Tuesday in the journal PLOS ONE, Duke Cancer Institute researchers describe how prostate cancer cells develop the ability to mimic bone-forming cells called osteoblasts, enabling them to proliferate in the bone microenvironment.
Fainting during pregnancy can be a sign of problems for both mother and baby
Women have long been told fainting is a common but harmless symptom of pregnancy, but new research shows it may indicate issues for both the baby and mother's health, especially when it occurs during the first trimester.
Researchers have discovered how a nanocatalyst works at the atomic level
The researchers of the Nanoscience Center (NSC) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and in the Xiamen University, China, have discovered how copper particles at the nanometer scale operate in modifying a carbon-oxygen bond when ketone molecules turn into alcohol molecules.
Climate undermined by lobbying
For all the evidence that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gases outweigh the costs of regulation, disturbingly few domestic climate change policies have been enacted around the world so far.
Copenhagen researchers break quantum limit in precision of force and position measurements
Researchers of the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have pushed the precision of force and position measurements into a new regime.
You're having a heart attack; why not ask for help?
A perceived inability to act on symptoms could signify a life-threatening situation, according to research published today in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Centuries-old drawings lead to better understanding of fan-shaped auroras
Physics researchers and literature researchers have joined together to better understand the rare natural phenomenon of white and red auroras fanning across the night sky in Japan.
Long-term health effects of armed conflict could last years after bombs stop falling
Living in a warzone is linked with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke among civilians, even years after the conflict ends, a study has found.
Replacing diesel with liquefied natural leads to a fuel economy of up to 60% in São Paulo
A study conducted in Brazil at the FAPESP-funded Research Centre for Gas Innovation pointed to the environmental and economic benefits of the cargo transportation industry in São Paulo State's interior adopting LNG.
New organic flow battery brings decomposing molecules back to life
After years of working on an organic aqueous flow battery, Harvard researchers found that their ground-breaking, organic anthraquinone molecules were decomposing over time, reducing the long-term usefulness of the battery.
Lessons from Pohang: Solving geothermal energy's earthquake problem
A geothermal energy project triggered a damaging earthquake in 2017 in South Korea.
Study reveals structure of a 'master switch' controlling cell division
Unregulated cell division is a hallmark of cancer, and one of the key proteins involved in controlling cell division is called FoxM1.
Jumping drops get boost from gravity
'It turns out that surface tension and gravity work far better together than either works on its own.'
NASA-supported monitoring network assesses ozone layer threats
On the heels of the first definitive signs of the ozone layer recovery last year, an international team of scientists discovered that production and emission of a banned, potent ozone-depleting chemical is on the rise again.
A warming Arctic produces weather extremes in our latitudes
Atmospheric researchers at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have now developed a climate model that can accurately depict the frequently observed winding course of the jet stream, a major air current over the Northern Hemisphere.
Release of solar panel dataset helps cities make power grids more safe, reliable
Solar power researchers have traditionally used the power measurements from single residential solar photovoltaic systems to estimate the power generated within a city.
The discovery of acoustic spin
Recently, Chengzhi Shi (now at Georgia Tech), Rongkuo Zhao, Sui Yang, Yuan Wang, and Xiang Zhang from the University of California, Berkeley and Long Yang, Hong Chen, and Jie Ren from Tongji University discover and experimentally observe the existence of acoustic spin in airborne sound waves.
New genetic engineering strategy makes human-made DNA invisible
In a paper published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal, Dr.
Factors associated with elephant poaching
Study associates illegal hunting rates in Africa with levels of poverty, corruption and ivory demand.
Continent drift and plateau uplift drive evolutions of Asia-Africa-Australia monsoon and arid regions
Monsoon and arid regions in the Asia-Africa-Australia realm occupy more than 60% of the total area of these continents.
Lost in translation: The medium is the message for a healthy heartbeat
Researchers at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion have revealed how a genetic message to produce healthy heart tissue is altered in the body during stress and aging to contribute to sudden cardiac death.
Scientists found a way to increase the capacity of energy sources for portable electronics
Scientists from Skoltech, Moscow State University (MSU) and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have proposed a new approach to replacing carbon atoms with nitrogen atoms in the supercapacitor's crystal lattice and developed a novel capacity enhancement method based on carbon lattice modification with the aid of plasma.
How stress leads to Facebook addiction
Friends on social media such as Facebook can be a great source of comfort during periods of stress.
Palm oil: Down from the conservation barricades and out of the rhetorical trenches
Oil palm is neither the devil's work, nor a godsend to humanity.
'Mindreading' neurons capable of having expectations about the behavior of the others
Psychologists and philosophers had long suggested that simulation is the mechanism whereby humans understand the minds of others.
Thai dinosaur is a cousin of T. rex
Scientists from the University of Bonn and the Sirindhorn Museum in Thailand have identified two new dinosaur species.
How small can they get? Polymers may be the key to single-molecule electronic devices
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and University of Tsukuba demonstrate that polymers could play a key role in the fabrication of single-molecule electronic devices, allowing us to push the boundaries of the nanoelectronics revolution.
Energy researchers break the catalytic speed limit
A team of researchers from the University of Minnesota and University of Massachusetts Amherst has discovered new technology that can speed up chemical reactions 10,000 times faster than the current reaction rate limit.
The 'Forbidden' planet has been found in the 'Neptunian Desert'
An exoplanet smaller than Neptune with its own atmosphere has been discovered in the Neptunian Desert, by an international collaboration of astronomers, with the University of Warwick taking a leading role.
Pollen allergies occur more frequently in anxiety sufferers
Seasonal allergies to different types of grass or tree pollen are more common in people with anxiety disorders, while patients with depression are more likely to suffer from perennial allergies triggered by allergens such as animal hair.
Why sports fans find this brand violation a game winner
A new study finds that sports fans are more likely to buy and recommend sponsors who shed their brand colors to adopt their team's colors.
Reading clinician visit notes can improve patients' adherence to medications
In a study led by Catherine DesRoches, DrPH, Executive Director of OpenNotes, patients who read their clinician's visit notes were more likely to take medications as prescribed.
The message that addiction is a disease makes substance users less likely to seek help
Research finds that people with substance-use problems who read a message describing addiction as a disease are less likely to report wanting to engage in effective therapies, compared to those who read a message that addiction behaviors are subject to change.
Scientists evaluated the effects of different chemical treatments to tissue transplants
A group of scientists from Russia and Ireland found out how quality of tissue-engineered biomeshes (biological 'frame' which is used for tissue repair) is affected by various chemical fixatives (cross-linkers).
Female patients more likely to survive but experience worse side effects from cancer treatment
An analysis of over 3,000 patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach suggests female patients are more likely to survive longer than male patients, but experience more nausea, vomiting and diarrhea during therapy.
Synthetic version of CBD treats seizures in rats
A synthetic, non-intoxicating analogue of cannabidiol (CBD) is effective in treating seizures in rats, according to research by chemists at UC Davis.
One night brand: Sexy snaps lead to clean buys
New research by Monash University in Australia shows that highly sexualised imagery in advertising causes some consumers to feel 'physically dirty' and motivates them to buy products such as toothpaste, soap and face wash.
More isn't better when it comes to evaluating chest pain
New and more effective tests are needed to help predict heart attacks and other major cardiac events in patients with chest pain, the second most common reason for emergency department visits in the US.
As plaque deposits increase in the aging brain, money management falters
Aging adults often show signs of slowing when it comes to managing their finances, such as calculating their change when paying cash or balancing an account ledger.
Self-harm images on Instagram associated with subsequent self-harm in viewers
Instagram and self-harm: An analysis of a two-wave survey of 729 young adults in the U.S. finds that those who reported seeing self-harm images on Instagram were much more likely than those who didn't to report their own self-harm at a second interview.
Lifting the lid on bladder cancer support
Bladder cancer is a painful and sometimes life-threatening condition that patients can find difficult to talk about, with many becoming homebound as they cope with debilitating side effects such as incontinence.

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#537 Science Journalism, Hold the Hype
Everyone's seen a piece of science getting over-exaggerated in the media. Most people would be quick to blame journalists and big media for getting in wrong. In many cases, you'd be right. But there's other sources of hype in science journalism. and one of them can be found in the humble, and little-known press release. We're talking with Chris Chambers about doing science about science journalism, and where the hype creeps in. Related links: The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study Claims of causality in health news: a randomised trial This...