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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 30, 2019


The Lancet: Health progress threatened by neglect of gender
Today, The Lancet published a new Series on 'Gender Equality, Norms and Health', which finds that governments and health institutions have persistently failed to make progress towards gender equality, despite the impact of gender -- and the spoken and unspoken rules of societies about acceptable gender behaviors -- on health throughout life.
Over half a million corals destroyed by port of Miami dredging, study finds
A team of researchers including scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, published new findings that reveal significant damage to Miami's coral reefs from the 16-month dredging operation at the Port of Miami that began in 2013.
Fishing among worst jobs for health
People working in the fishing industry have among the poorest health of all workers in England and Wales, new research suggests.
Brain activity in teens predicts future mood health
An imbalance of functioning in attention-related brain systems may help forecast the course of teen depression, according to a study published in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, published by Elsevier.
Cannabis use among older adults rising rapidly
Cannabis use among older adults is growing faster than any other age group but many report barriers to getting medical marijuana, a lack of communication with their doctors and a lingering stigma attached to the drug, according to researchers.
DeepMind's new gamer AI goes 'for the win' in multiplayer first-person video games
DeepMind researchers have taught artificially intelligent gamers to play a popular 3D multiplayer first-person video game with human-like skills -- a previously insurmountable task.
The FASEB Journal: Alternative molecular mechanisms observed in cancer cells
Current anti-cancer drugs can be quite effective but too often, tumors are not fought off completely and end up returning.
Eating blueberries every day improves heart health
Eating a cup of blueberries a day reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease -- according to a new study.
Wildfire smoke worse for kids' health than smoke from controlled burns, study finds
Children were exposed to higher air pollutant levels during a California wildfire than during a similar-sized controlled burn, and the difference was reflected by changes in immune markers in their blood, a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine has found.
Towards a new era of small animal imaging research
Thanks to a collaborative effort between McGill University, Montreal Canada and the University of Antwerp, Belgium this no longer needs to be the case.
Combing through someone's phone could lead to end of relationship -- or not
For some people, the thought of their partner, friend or colleague snooping through their phone, reading their texts and emails, is an automatic deal breaker.
Public health leaders call for new efforts to promote vaccination acceptance
On Thursday, an international coalition of public health leaders including CUNY SPH Dean Ayman El-Mohandes and Senior Scholar Scott Ratzan issued a statement asserting its commitment to vaccine acceptance around the world and to eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, including childhood diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella.
ASCO: Oncologists see benefit of medical marijuana, but not comfortable prescribing
73 percent of oncology providers believe that medical marijuana provides benefits for cancer patients, but only 46 percent are comfortable recommending it.
Concussion symptoms reversed by magnetic therapy
Concussion symptoms -- such as loss of balance and ability to walk straight -- can be reversed by a new type of magnetic stimulation
ASCO 2019: 40-50 percent response rate for brigatinib after other next-gen ALK inhibitors
University of Colorado Cancer Center study presented at ASCO 2019 shows that brigatinib remains effective even after treatment with another next-generation ALK inhibitor
Perceived discrimination associated with well-being in adults with poor vision
This study of nearly 7,700 men and women 50 or older in England looked at how common perceived discrimination was among those with visual impairment and how that was associated with emotional well-being.
NICER's night moves trace the X-ray sky
This is a map of the entire sky in X-rays recorded by NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), a payload on the International Space Station.
Scientists identify a novel strategy to fight viral infections and cancer in animal model
A potential therapeutic strategy to treat viral infection and boost immunity against cancer is reported in the May 30, 2019 online issue of the journal Cell.
Exposure to airborne metal pollution associated with increased risk of mortality
Study uses samples of wild moss to estimate individual human exposure to atmospheric metals.
Church, couch, couple: Social psychological connections between people and physical space
From couples to communities, the built environment shapes us as much as we shape it.
New imaging tool for diagnosing heart disease
An international team led by scientists from Lawson Health Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center are the first to show that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to measure how the heart uses oxygen for both healthy patients and those with heart disease.
Bacteria's protein quality control agent offers insight into origins of life
The discoveries not only offer new directions for fighting the virulence of some of humanity's most dangerous pathogens, they have implications for our understanding of how life itself evolved.
Subaru Telescope captures 1800 exploding stars
The Subaru Telescope has captured images of more than 1800 exploding stars in the Universe, some located 8 billion light years from Earth.
Scientists discover 'switch' that helps breast cancer spread around the body
Researchers have unveiled clues into how breast cancer cells spread around the body.
Teens at greater risk of violence, injury during sexual assaults than previously thought
A recent study of the forensic evidence in 563 sexual assault cases in Massachusetts found 'striking similarities' in the types of injuries and violence experienced by adult and adolescent victims.
Are hormones a 'female problem' for animal research?
Women, but not men, are often still described as 'hormonal' or 'emotional,' an outdated stereotype that poses a critical problem for public health, writes Rebecca Shansky in this Perspective.
New framework helps gauge impact of mosquito control programs
Effective methods of controlling mosquito populations are needed to help lower the worldwide burden of mosquito-borne diseases including Zika, chikungunya, and dengue.
Swapping water for CO2 could make fracking greener and more effective
Scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and China University of Petroleum (Beijing) have demonstrated that CO2 may make a better hydraulic fracturing (fracking) fluid than water.
Scientists bioengineer human liver disease in the lab to find new treatments
Scientists successfully bioengineered human liver organoids that faithfully mimic key features of fatal liver disease in the laboratory.
Concussions in elite soccer not assessed according to expert recommendations: study
An average of at least one potential concussive event occurred per game during the 2016 UEFA European Championship and nearly three quarters of the head collision incidents did not result in a medical assessment by sideline health-care personnel, according to a review published today in the journal BMJ Open.
Patient groups untested in cancer immunotherapy trials found to also benefit
Cancer patients previously excluded and underrepresented in immunotherapy clinical trials, such as African Americans and patients with HIV or viral hepatitis, actually benefit at the same rate as patients tested in the clinical trials, according to a Georgetown-led study to be presented at the 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.
More democracy -- A second chance for climate politics
Hope was high when the Paris Climate Agreement was adopted 2015.
DNA tests for patients move closer with genome analysis advance
Diseases caused by genetic changes could be detected more readily thanks to an advance in DNA analysis software developed by experts at the University of Edinburgh and the European Bioinformatics Institute at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.
NIST physicists 'teleport' logic operation between separated ions
Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks.
To curb infection, bacteria direct their defenses against themselves
To fight off invading viruses, bacteria have evolved a slew of creative defense tactics.
How protected areas are losing ground in the United States and Amazonia
Once champions of global conservation, the United States and Brazil are now leading a troubling global trend of large-scale rollbacks in environmental policy, putting hundreds of protected areas at risk, a new study suggests.
Dating app users may be more likely to control their weight in unhealthy ways
Use of dating apps may be associated with an increased risk of unhealthy weight control behaviors, including vomiting, laxative use, or diet pill use, a study in the open-access Journal of Eating Disorders suggests.
Being teased about weight linked to more weight gain among children, NIH study suggests
Youth who said they were teased or ridiculed about their weight increased their body mass by 33 percent more each year, compared to a similar group who had not been teased, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
Interaction with stromal cells influences tumor growth, metastasis in pancreatic cancer
A study from researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center has demonstrated how the response to pancreatic cancer cells of normal tissue -- called the stroma -- within tumors can influence the ability of individual cancer cells to proliferate and metastasize
Resistance to Fusarium head blight holding in Illinois, study says
Illinois wheat growers, take heart. A new University of Illinois study shows no evidence of a highly toxic Fusarium head blight (FHB) variant, known as NA2, in the wheat-growing region of the state.
Discovery may lead to natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid for NK-based tumor immunotherapy
Research groups led by Prof. LI Yan and Prof. Puno Pematenzin from the Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that ent-kaurane diterpenoids, which show a wide range of bioactivity, especially antitumor activity, are good candidates as sensitizer agents for NK cells.
ASCO: Entrectinib gets edge over crizotinib against ROS1+ lung cancer
Median time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) on crizotinib was 8.8 months; TTD of patients using entrectinib was 14.6 months.
Clinical calculator could spare breast cancer patients five years of unnecessary hormone therapy
New research confirms that an algorithm, called CTS5, can accurately identify patients who are at a significantly low risk of their breast cancer returning at a later stage.
Intranasal stem cell therapy restores smell in mice
A stem cell therapy delivered into the nose can restore the sense of smell in a mouse model of olfactory loss.
LSU health research finds new RX target for common STD
Research led by Ashok Aiyar, PhD, Associate Professor of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has identified a target that may lead to the development of new treatments for the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US.
Raw or cooked: this is how we recognise food
Do we see an apple? The occipital cortex in our brain will activate itself to recognise it.
Freshwater find: Genetic advantage allows some marine fish to colonize freshwater habitats
Fishes are present in not only marine but also freshwater environments.
Wild boars, hunting dogs and hunters carry tick-borne bacteria
Rickettsia bacteria cause a number of human and animal infections, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Multi-step spread of first herders into sub-Saharan Africa
An analysis of 41 ancient African genomes led by Mary Prendergast and David Reich suggests that the spread of herding and farming into eastern Africa affected human populations in phases, involving multiple movements of -- and gene flow among -- ancestrally distinct groups.
Stanford engineers develop a more stable, efficient prosthetic foot
Hiking trails and other rough terrain are especially difficult for people with prosthetic legs.
How the immune system keeps the Epstein-Barr virus in check
A protein called PD-1, which is found on immune cells called CD8+ T cells, plays a key role in controlling infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, according to a study published May 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Christian Münz of the University of Zurich, and colleagues.
Experiments and calculations allow examination of boron's complicated dance
In a study that combines groundbreaking experimental work and theoretical calculations, researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists in Germany and Poland, have determined the nuclear geometry of two isotopes of boron.
Gut bacteria influence autism-like behaviors in mice
Caltech researchers have discovered that gut bacteria directly contribute to autism-like behaviors in mice.
Unknown mini-proteins in the heart
A team led by Professor Norbert Hübner's MDC research group has observed the human heart cells' 'protein factories' in action, examining the entire tissue for the very first time.
How can organizations promote and benefit from socioeconomic diversity?
A new white paper has been published by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Newly discovered immune cell linked to type 1 diabetes
In a discovery that might be likened to finding medicine's version of the Loch Ness monster, a research team from Johns Hopkins Medicine, IBM Research and four collaborating institutions is the first to document the existence of long-doubted 'X cell', a 'rogue hybrid' immune system cell that may play a key role in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Scientists design organic cathode for high performance batteries
Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory have designed a new, organic cathode material for lithium batteries.
UCI research helps shed new light on circadian clocks
Can your liver sense when you're staring at a television screen or cellphone late at night?
Uncovering microgel mysteries
Researchers successfully recorded the behavior of hydrogel microspheres (microgels) using a newly customized tool: the temperature-controlled high-speed atomic force microscopy.
Greater emphasis is needed on joint role of condoms and vaccines to prevent HPV
Public health efforts must emphasize condom use and vaccination together to reduce human papillomavirus (HPV) cases among young sexually active gay men, according to researchers at Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health published today in the journal Vaccine.
Heartburn drugs linked to fatal heart and kidney disease, stomach cancer
A study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Laser technique could unlock use of tough material for next-generation electronics
Researchers used a laser technique to permanently stress graphene into a structure that allows the flow of electric current, which is necessary for the material to be useful for next-generation electronics.
Transgenic fungus rapidly killed malaria mosquitoes in West African study
In a research paper published in the May 31, 2019, issue of the journal Science, a team of scientists from the University of Maryland and Burkina Faso described the first trial outside the laboratory of a transgenic approach to combating malaria.
Cold-parenting linked to premature aging, increased disease risk in offspring
New research out of Loma Linda University Health suggests that unsupportive parenting styles may have several negative health implications for children, even into their adult years.
Belief in learning styles myth may be detrimental
Many people, including educators, believe learning styles are set at birth and predict both academic and career success even though there is no scientific evidence to support this common myth, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
Providing a critical roadmap to bridge the gap between medicine and public health
Academic medical centers across the country and around the world are rapidly creating and expanding population health departments to bridge the worlds of clinical practice and public health.
Ancient DNA tells the story of the first herders and farmers in east Africa
A collaborative study led by archaeologists, geneticists and museum curators is providing answers to previously unsolved questions about life in sub-Saharan Africa thousands of years ago.
Scientists engineer unique 'glowing' protein
Biophysicists from MIPT and their colleagues from France and Germany have created a new fluorescent protein.
Research deepens understanding of gut bacteria's connections to human health, disease
Researchers have made an important advance in understanding the roles that gut bacteria play in human health.
Stellenbosch University researchers study resistance to 'protect' anti-TB drug
Scientists from Stellenbosch University are trying to conserve the life-saving treatment bedaquiline, by studying how the bacterium that causes TB can develop resistance to this drug.
Understanding why virus can't replicate in human cells could improve vaccines
The identification of a gene that helps to restrict the host range of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) could lead to the development of new and improved vaccines against diverse infectious agents, according to a study published May 30, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Bernard Moss of the National Institutes of Health, and colleagues.
Cancer-fighting combination targets glioblastoma
An international team of researchers combined a calorie-restricted diet high in fat and low in carbohydrates with a tumor-inhibiting antibiotic and found the combination destroys cancer stem cells and mesenchymal cells, the two major cells found in glioblastoma, a fast-moving brain cancer that resists traditional treatment protocols.
Scientists develop gel-based delivery system for stem cell-derived factors
In ongoing research to find a treatment for acute kidney injury, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) scientists have further advanced a promising approach using therapeutic factors produced by stem cells by creating a more efficient delivery method that would improve tissue regeneration.
International team identifies potential therapeutic target for sepsis
An international collaboration led by scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center has identified a potential new therapeutic target for sepsis.
Early genome catastrophes can cause non-smoking lung cancer
Catastrophic rearrangements in the genome occurring as early as childhood and adolescence can lead to the development of lung cancer in later years in non-smokers.
Annual Report to the Nation: Overall cancer mortality continues to decline
For all cancer sites combined, cancer death rates continued to decline in men, women, and children in the United States from 1999 to 2016.
Pain free, thanks to evolution
African mole-rats are insensitive to many different kinds of pain.
Research confirms gut-brain connection in autism
Up to 90% of people with autism suffer from gut problems, but nobody has known why.
Scientists demonstrate plant stress memory and adaptation capabilities
Russian and Taiwanese scientists have discovered a connection between the two signalling systems that help plants survive stress situations, demonstrating that they can remember dangerous conditions that they have experienced and adapt to them.
Depression sufferers at risk of multiple chronic diseases
Women who experience symptoms of depression are at risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, research led by The University of Queensland has found.
Edible insects? Lab-grown meat? The real future food is lab-grown insect meat
Livestock farming is destroying our planet. It is a major cause of land and water degradation, biodiversity loss, acid rain, coral reef degeneration, deforestation -- and of course, climate change.
Emergency room or doctor's office?
A new study in the journal Heliyon, published by Elsevier, examines the relationship between the way individuals perceive and respond to threats (threat sensitivity) and where they most frequently seek medical care.
African mole-rats immune to 'wasabi pain'
A new report in Science provides the first evidence of a mammal -- the highveld mole-rat -- being immune to pain from exposure to allyl isothiocyanate, or AITC, the active ingredient of wasabi.
International travelers experience the harmful effects of air pollution
Even a short stay for travelers in cities with high levels of air pollution leads to breathing problems that can take at least a week from which to recover, a new study shows.
Significant 'knowledge gap' exists in use of genetic testing to decide cancer treatment
A survey conducted by Georgetown investigators found a significant knowledge and practice gap among community oncologists in the understanding and usage of genetic testing in determining patients' treatment plans and potential clinical trial outcomes.
Ancient DNA illuminates first herders and farmers in east Africa
Genome-wide analyses of 41 ancient sub-Saharan Africans answer questions left murky by archaeological records about the origins of the people who introduced food production -- first herding and then farming -- into East Africa over the past 5,000 years.
The most complete study of battery failure sees the light
An international team of researchers just published in Advanced Energy Materials the widest study on what happens during battery failure, focusing on the different parts of a battery at the same time.
Novel protocol significantly improves outcomes in locally advanced pancreatic cancer
A Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center clinical trial of a protocol combining intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy with the blood pressure drug losartan has produced unprecedented results in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, allowing complete removal of the tumor in 61% of participants and significantly improving survival rates.
New research paves the way for safer leukemia treatments
Researchers have discovered a new, safer way to treat a type of childhood leukaemia: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).
Human contact plays big role in spread of some hospital infections, but not others
An observational study conducted in a French hospital showed that human contact was responsible for 90 percent of the spread of one species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to new patients, but less than 60 percent of the spread of a different species.
Critical need for greater understanding into diagnosis of inherited heart disease
Results of a study carried out by researchers at the Centenary Institute in collaboration with Wiser Healthcare, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and the University of Sydney, have shown that the use of advanced imaging equipment is driving a significant increase in the diagnosis of a little known inherited heart disease in adults.
A new mechanism for accessing damaged DNA
UV light damages the DNA of skin cells, which can lead to cancer.
CNIO researchers discover a new way to protect against high-dose radiation damage
Intensive radiotherapy can be toxic in 60% of patients with tumors located in the gastrointestinal cavity.
A combination of agrochemicals shortens the life of bees, study shows
A nonlethal dose of insecticide clothianidin can reduce honeybees' life span by half; once combined with the fungicide pyraclostrobin, it alters the behavior of worker bees to the point of endangering the whole colony.
Circadian clock and fat metabolism linked through newly discovered mechanism
Princeton University researchers found that the enzyme Nocturnin, known for its role in fat metabolism and circadian rhythm, acts on two well-established molecules in metabolism.
Combination of three gene mutations results in deadly human heart disease
The Human Genome project allowed scientists to identify some rare cases of disease caused by severe mutations of a single gene, but scientists believe that more common forms of disease may be the result of a combination of more subtle genetic mutations that act together.
COMMD3/8 protein complex: a potential drug target for treating inflammatory diseases
A team of researchers led by Kazuhiro Suzuki from the Immunology Frontier Research Center at Osaka University discovered the COMMD3/8 complex as a molecule involved in immune cell migration, clarifying that the complex plays a critical role in the establishment of immune responses.
Researchers restore beta-cell function by deleting old cells
Joslin researchers confirmed similarly increased proportion of aged beta-cells in islets recovered from humans with type 2 diabetes.
Stand up to cancer-funded research to be presented at ASCO May 31-June 4 in Chicago
SU2C supported researchers will present work on pediatric brain tumors, cfDNA for early cancer detection, dual blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in mCRC, cancer interception of pancreatic and lung cancers, machine learning RECIST in RWE study of lung cancer, and molecular markers of response to neoadjuvant nivolumab in resectable NSCLC.
Childhood adversity linked to early puberty, premature brain development, & mental illness
Growing up in poverty and experiencing traumatic events like a bad accident or sexual assault were linked to accelerated puberty and brain maturation, abnormal brain development, and greater mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis, according to a new Penn Medicine study published this week in JAMA Psychiatry.

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