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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 31, 2019


ASCO: Finally, a tool to predict response to chemotherapy before bladder cancer surgery
'The idea is that for any individual tumor, its gene expression could tell us whether the cancer will respond to a certain kind of chemotherapy,' says Thomas Flaig, MD.
Politicians walk the walk, when it comes to financial investments
For the most part, politicians do put their money where their mouths are.
Nicotine and caffeine withdrawal may lead to unnecessary suffering and testing in intensive care patients
Nicotine and caffeine withdrawal can cause unnecessary suffering to patients in intensive care units (ICUs), and could be leading to unneeded laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging such as X-rays and MRIs, according to a systematic review of clinical and observational studies involving 483 adults.
Vulnerability of cloud service hardware uncovered
Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are, so to say, a computer manufacturer's 'Lego bricks': electronic components that can be employed in a very flexible way.
New research shows how habitat loss can destabilise ecosystems
Habitat loss is the leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide.
New records show spread of parasitic deer flies across the US
With flattened bodies, grabbing forelegs and deciduous wings, deer keds do not look like your typical fly.
Searching for the origins of the depressive symptoms in Huntington's disease
About 40% of the affected patients with Huntington's disease -- a neurodegenerative pathology -- show depression symptoms, even in early stages before the apparition of the typical motor symptoms of the disease.
Classification system based on co-occurring conditions may provide insight into autism
According to research to be published May 31, 2019 in Autism Research, creating a classification system for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on co-occurring conditions could provide useful insights into the underlying mechanics of ASD and these conditions.
Hubble sees a galaxy bucking the trend
This luminous orb is the galaxy NGC 4621, better known as Messier 59.
Radio-wave therapy proves effective against liver cancer cells
A new targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves has been shown to block the growth of liver cancer cells anywhere in the body without damaging healthy cells, according to a study conducted by scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health.
Child deaths in Brazil fall following comprehensive smoking ban
Child deaths have fallen in Brazil following complete smoking bans in public places, according to a new study.
More than half of patients in pain management study took no opioids after operations
Patients undergoing six operations said postoperative pain was manageable, according to Journal of the American College of Surgeons study findings.
Seven key health measures help predict future risk of heart disease
Seven key measures of heart health may help predict future risk of cardiovascular disease, according to researchers.
Certain antidepressants could provide treatment for multiple infectious diseases
Some antidepressants could potentially be used to treat a wide range of diseases caused by bacteria living within cells, according to work by researchers in the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine and collaborators at other institutions.
Guidelines for managing anaphylaxis in children need an update
Treatment guidelines for managing anaphylaxis in children should be reassessed, according to a new Canadian study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice.
Pre-surgical immunotherapy shows promise in trial for patients with early stage lung cancer
Pre-surgical immunotherapy shows promise in trial for patients with early stage lung cancer according to interim results of a large, multicenter trial.
Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory
A team of scientists has for the first time created a particular form of coherent and magnetized plasma jet that could deepen the understanding of the workings of much larger jets that stream from newborn stars and possibly black holes.
Astrocytes protect neurons from toxic buildup
Neurons off-load toxic by-products to astrocytes, which process and recycle them.
Native plant species may be at greater risk from climate change than non-natives
A study led by researchers at Indiana University's Environmental Resilience Institute has revealed that warming temperatures affect native and non-native flowering plants differently, which could change the look of local landscapes over time.
Finding a needle in a haystack: Discovery of Ti 2 InB 2 for synthesizing layered TiB
Scientists at Tokyo Tech managed to use boron as the X element in a family of materials called MAX phases, for which only carbon and nitrogen could previously be used.
Changes to immune genes link paternal smoking with childhood asthma
New research shows that children exposed to paternal tobacco smoking before birth are more likely to develop asthma - and that associated changes to immune genes predict the level of risk.
Most preventive antibiotics prescribed by dentists are unnecessary
A new study has found that 81% of antibiotics prescribed by dentists - who are among the top prescribers in the US, accounting for about 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions - to prevent infections prior to dental visits are unnecessary.
Children who nap are happier, excel academically, and have fewer behavioral problems
Children who nap 30 to 60 minutes midday at least three times a week are happier, have more self-control and grit, and showcase fewer behavioral problems, according to new research from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California, Irvine.
Better conservation through satellites
The use of satellite telemetry in conservation is entering a 'golden age,' and is now being used to track the movements of individual animals at unprecedented scales.
Antibiotics that dentists prescribe are unnecessary 81% of the time, research shows
Antibiotics prescribed by dentists as a preemptive strike against infection are unnecessary 81% of the time, according to a study published today in JAMA Network Open.
The magic behind the medals
The most successful winter Olympian ever opened nearly two decades of training logs to researchers to shed light on how she achieved her goals.
In hot pursuit of dinosaurs: Tracking extinct species on ancient Earth via biogeography
One researcher at UTokyo is in hot pursuit of dinosaurs, tracking extinct species around ancient Earth.
DNA origami to scale-up molecular motors
Researchers have successfully used DNA origami to make smooth-muscle-like contractions in large networks of molecular motor systems, a discovery which could be applied in molecular robotics.
Chasing species' 'intactness'
In an effort to better protect the world's last ecologically intact ecosystems, researchers developed a new metric called 'The Last of the Wild in Each Ecoregion' (LWE), which aimed to quantify the most intact parts of each ecoregion.
Racism has a toxic effect
Researchers have long known that racism is linked to health problems, but now results from a small study using RNA tests show that racism appears to increase chronic inflammation among African Americans.
Occupational hazards account for more than one in ten people with range of lung diseases
More than 1 in 10 people with a range of non-cancerous lung diseases may be sick as a result of inhaling vapors, gas, dust or fumes at work, according to a joint American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society statement published in the ATS's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Flexible generators turn movement into energy
Rice University researchers produce triboelectric nanogenerators with laser-induced graphene. The flexible devices turn movement into electrical energy and could enable wearable, self-powered sensors and devices.
A common skin bacterium put children with severe eczema at higher risk of food allergy
In a new study published today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, scientists from King's College London have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacterium, are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy.
A small electrical zap to the brain could help you retrieve a forgotten memory
A study by UCLA psychologists provides strong evidence that a certain region of the brain plays a critical role in memory recall.
Hard food, strong jaw: Jawbone structure responds to forceful chewing
Chewing, or mastication, is thought to impact jawbone structure as bone is continually reconstructed along with alterations in mechanical load.
A new way to predict complications after larynx cancer surgery
A technique that illuminates blood flow during surgery predicted which head and neck cancer patients were likely to have issues with wound healing.
Hyphens in paper titles harm citation counts and journal impact factors
According to the latest research results, the presence of simple hyphens in the titles of academic papers adversely affects the citation statistics, regardless of the quality of the articles.
Research brief: Climate change is already affecting global food production -- unequally
UMN researchers found that climate change is affecting different areas of global food production differently.
Do violent video games affect kids' behavior with real guns?
This randomized clinical trial in a university laboratory examined the effects of video games with weapons on children's behavior when they found a real gun.
Research reveals role of fat storage cells in anti-obesity intervention
New research from a team at the Marshall University Joan C.
How the enzyme lipoxygenase drives heart failure after heart attacks
Heart failure after a heart attack is a global epidemic leading to heart failure pathology.
Breaking the symmetry in the quantum realm
For the first time, researchers have observed a break in a single quantum system.
Community impacts from extreme weather shape climate beliefs
Recent studies suggest that people who experience severe weather are more likely to believe in and be concerned about climate change.
Can cannabinoids help treat obsessive-compulsive disorder?
The body's endocannabinoid system, due to the critical role it plays in regulating neurotransmitter signaling, is an enticing target for drug development against disorders associated with anxiety, stress, and repetitive behaviors, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Ancient feces reveal parasites in 8,000-year-old village of Çatalhöyük
Earliest archaeological evidence of intestinal parasitic worms in the ancient inhabitants of Turkey shows whipworm infected this population of prehistoric farmers.
The body responds to variations in light between the day and night independently of the brain
In mice whose body clock -- an internal mechanism located in the brain -- does not work properly, each tissue still knows what time it is and has the capacity to respond to changes in light intensity.
Men who choose active surveillance for early prostate cancer often don't follow monitoring rules
Preliminary results from a University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center study suggest that not enough patients who choose active surveillance instead of treatment for early-stage prostate cancer may be following recommended monitoring guidelines.
Organic laser diodes move from dream to reality
Researchers from Japan have demonstrated that a long-elusive kind of laser diode based on organic semiconductors is indeed possible, paving the way for the further expansion of lasers in applications such as biosensing, displays, healthcare, and optical communications.
Prescription drug costs steadily soar, yet price transparency is lacking
After reviewing tens of millions of insurance claims for the country's 49 most popular brand-name prescription drugs, a team from Scripps Research Translational Institute found that net prices rose by a median of 76 percent from January 2012 through December 2017--with most products going up once or twice per year.
What are the northern lights? (video)
Every winter, thousands of tourists head north hoping to catch a glimpse of the luminous auroras dancing in the sky.
Colloidal gel properties under the microscope
Researchers at The University of Tokyo have devised a method for following the gelation of colloidal gels.
Wrong side surgical errors substantially underreported and totally preventable
Performing a procedure on the wrong side of a patient's body, although rare, may be more common than generally thought.
Explorers and soldiers don't worry -- anesthesia works in Antarctica!
New research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia congress (the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology) in Vienna, Austria (June 1-3) shows that commonly used anesthetic drugs still work, even after exposure to the extreme environmental conditions of the Antarctic.

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#SB2 2019 Science Birthday Minisode: Mary Golda Ross
Our second annual Science Birthday is here, and this year we celebrate the wonderful Mary Golda Ross, born 9 August 1908. She died in 2008 at age 99, but left a lasting mark on the science of rocketry and space exploration as an early woman in engineering, and one of the first Native Americans in engineering. Join Rachelle and Bethany for this very special birthday minisode celebrating Mary and her achievements. Thanks to our Patreons who make this show possible! Read more about Mary G. Ross: Interview with Mary Ross on Lash Publications International, by Laurel Sheppard Meet Mary Golda...