Nav: Home

Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 10, 2019


Education trumps age-structure in terms of providing a demographic dividend
The relationship between population changes and economic growth has been a controversial topic among demographers for many years.
Three public health interventions could prevent 94 million premature deaths
Lowering blood pressure, reducing sodium intake, and eliminating trans fat could prevent 94 million early deaths around the world according to a new study led by Harvard T.H.
Deceptively simple: Minute marine animals live in a sophisticated symbiosis with bacteria
Trichoplax, one of the simplest animals on Earth, lives in a highly specific and intimate symbiosis with two types of bacteria.
Tart cherry shown to decrease joint pain, sore muscles in some breast cancer patients
Tart cherry reduces the musculoskeletal effects of aromatase inhibitors in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer, according to new findings from a clinical trial by researchers at Marshall University Joan C.
The common wisdom about marketing cocreated innovations is wrong
A new study in the Journal of Marketing finds that companies can improve consumer adoption and accelerate product takeoff of cocreated innovations through a novel communication strategy that creates inconsistency or a mismatch between the creator's and the company's messages.
Light energy and biomass can be converted to diesel fuel and hydrogen
A research group led by Professor WANG Feng at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently developed a method to produce diesel fuel and hydrogen by exploiting light energy (solar energy or artificial light energy) and biomass-derived feedstocks.
Type 1 diabetes may have an impact on the developing brain in children
A study co-led by Dr. Nelly Mauras at Nemours Children's Health System in Jacksonville, Fla., found that children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have slower growth in brain areas associated with mild cognitive deficits compared to children without T1D.
Breakthrough Watch and the European Southern Observatory achieve 'first light' on upgraded planet-finding instrument to search for Earth-like planets in nearest star system
Newly-built planet-finding instrument installed on Very Large Telescope, Chile, begins 100-hour observation of nearby stars Alpha Centauri A and B, aiming to be first to directly image a habitable exoplanet.
One change can make diet more planet friendly
Food production is an important contributor to climate change, accounting for about a quarter of carbon emissions globally.
Marijuana and fertility: Five things to know
For patients who smoke marijuana and their physicians, 'Five things to know about ... marijuana and fertility' provides useful information for people who may want to conceive.
Using tumor biomarkers to tailor therapy in metastatic pancreatic cancer
A new pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of using molecular tumor markers as the basis for selecting the chemotherapeutic agents to use in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Body fat distribution linked to higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer
In the first prospective study of directly measured body fat distribution and prostate cancer risk, investigators found that higher levels of abdominal and thigh fat are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
Unique case of cannabis hyperemesis syndrome in palliative care
The medical use of cannabis is growing. Medical marijuana may improve symptoms including pain and anorexia.
SIRT1 plays key role in chronic myeloid leukemia to aid persistence of leukemic stem cells
Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Sleeping with artificial light at night associated with weight gain in women
Sleeping with a television or light on in the room may be a risk factor for gaining weight or developing obesity, according to scientists at the National Institutes of Health.
New study dramatically narrows the search for advanced life in the universe
Scientists may need to rethink their estimates for how many planets outside our solar system could host a rich diversity of life.
USC study: Exposure to videos of race-based violence online may be spurring mental-health issues
Viral videos of the detainment of undocumented immigrants in cages and police killings of unarmed citizens are two of the most pressing traumatic events facing adolescents of color.
Researchers 'stretch' the ability of 2D materials to change technology
Two-dimensional (2D) materials -- as thin as a single layer of atoms -- have intrigued scientists with their flexibility, elasticity, and unique electronic properties.
The mantis shrimp's perfect shield
The shield-like tail segment, or telson, of the smasher mantis shrimp is a multiscale structure with ridges on the outside and a structure shaped like a spiral staircase on the inside.
Direct from distant planet: Spectral clues to puzzling paradox
CI Tau b is a paradoxical planet, but new research about its mass, brightness and the carbon monoxide in its atmosphere is starting to answer questions about how a planet so large could have formed around a star that's only 2 million years old.
Study finds macrophages' pathway to nurture PTEN-deficient glioblastoma
A common genetic deficiency empowers glioblastoma to broadcast a molecular message to the wrong type of immune cell, summoning macrophages that protect and nurture the brain tumor instead of attacking it, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report in Cancer Cell.
Switchgrass hybrid yields insights into plant evolution
Scientists have identified specific parts of genetic code within switchgrass that could contribute to larger switchgrass harvests while reducing potential crop weaknesses.
Snow monitoring at the Sierra Nevada peaks offer the first medium-term data sets
A research group at the University of Cordoba published 14 years of weather monitoring in the Sierra Nevada along with photographs of snow distribution.
Our water cycle diagrams give a false sense of water security
Pictures of the earth's water cycle used in education and research throughout the world are in urgent need of updating to show the effects of human interference, according to new analysis by an international team of hydrology experts.
Study finds FDA dermatology advisors receive payments following drug approvals
A team of researchers examined post-advisory financial relationships between US physicians who advised FDA committees during dermatological drug approval processes.
Trailblazing findings on the properties of daguerreotypes discovered by The Met and UNM
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met) and The University of New Mexico (UNM) today announced the groundbreaking findings of a two-year study of the plasmonic properties of daguerreotypes.
Ancient DNA from Roman and medieval grape seeds reveal ancestry of wine making
A grape variety still used in wine production in France today can be traced back 900 years to just one ancestral plant, scientists have discovered.
To protect kids and teens from firearm harm, answer these question first, experts
Firearm injuries kill more American children and teens than anything else, except automobile crashes.
When it comes to food, one size doesn't fit all: world's largest scientific nutrition research project reveals even identical twins have different responses to food
The first results were revealed from the largest ongoing scientific nutrition study of its kind today, led by an international team of leading scientists including researchers from King's College London, Massachusetts General Hospital and nutritional science company ZOE, showing that individual responses to the same foods are unique, even between identical twins.
Undetected diabetes linked to heart attack and gum disease
People with undetected glucose disorders run a higher risk of both myocardial infarction and periodontitis, according to a study published in the journal Diabetes Care by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
Life in Antarctica's ice mirrors human disease
Mapping tens of thousands of genes from a group of Antarctic fishes called notothenioids, a team of researchers has discovered that the massive amount of genetic change required for life in the Antarctic occurred long before the Antarctic cooled.
People with untreated 'white coat hypertension' twice as likely to die from heart disease
A new Penn Medicine study, published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine, revealed that patients with untreated white coat hypertension not only have a heightened risk of heart disease, but they are twice as likely to die from heart disease than people with normal blood pressure.
New evidence questions use of saline fluids to resuscitate children with sepsis
Doctors have urged hospitals around the world to reconsider the type of fluids used to treat children gravely ill with sepsis.
Millennials are 'canaries in the coalmine' for toxic economic trends
A new report by Stanford scholars lays out the problems US millennials face as a result of decades-long rising inequality.
Lettuce have it! Machine learning for cr-optimization
At Earlham Institute, artificial intelligence-based techniques such as machine learning is moving from being merely an exciting premise to having real-life applications, where it's needed most: improving efficiency and precision on the farm.
Powerful lasers for fragile works of art
Protecting artworks from the effects of aging requires an understanding of the way materials alter over time.
Antennas of flexible nanotube films an alternative for electronics
Metal-free antennas made of thin, strong, flexible carbon nanotube films are as efficient as common copper antennas, according to Rice University researchers.
Supportive families and schools help prevent substance use among trans youth: UBC study
Strong family and school connections are helping prevent transgender youth from smoking cigarettes and using marijuana, even among those targeted by violence.
A new candidate for dark matter and a way to detect it
Two theoretical physicists at UC Davis have a new candidate for dark matter and a possible way to detect it.
Hamsters take cues from decreasing day length to prepare for the long winter
Analysis of the first fully-sequenced genome of the Siberian hamster shows how these small, seasonal breeders adapt their bodies and energy usage to survive the winter.
Dramatic change in ancient nomad diets coincides with expansion of networks across Eurasia
Strengthening of political networks coincided with the intensification of agricultural production, resulting in the widespread adoption of millet by populations across Eurasia.
Safe to breastfeed while on bipolar meds? Jury's still out
Women taking lithium to treat their bipolar disorder frequently ask if breastfeeding while on the medication will harm their babies.
Machine learning approach for low-dose CT imaging yields superior results
Machine learning has the potential to vastly advance medical imaging, particularly computerized tomography (CT) scanning, by reducing radiation exposure and improving image quality.
What's your poison? Scrupulous scorpions tailor venom to target
Replenishing venom takes time and energy -- so it pays to be stingy with stings.
How cryptocurrency discussions spread
PNNL data scientist, Dr. Svitlana Volkova, the team analyzed three years of discussions on Reddit from January 2015 to January 2018.
The Neolithic precedents of gender inequality
Inequality between men and women was not generally consolidated in Iberia during the Neolithic.
New research could help predict seizures before they happen
A new study has found a pattern of molecules that appear in the blood before a seizure happens.
Study counters narrative that street homeless are 'service resistant'
A team of researchers finds that personal resistance isn't the reason many street persons reject outreach workers' offers of shelter.
Settling the debate: Solving the electronic surface states of samarium hexaboride
Researchers at Osaka University show that samarium hexaboride is a topological insulator, which allows electrons to flow only along its exterior surface.
Astronomers determine mass of small black hole at center of nearby galaxy
If astronomers want to learn about how supermassive black holes form, they have to start small -- really small, astronomically speaking.
Mountain-dwellers can adapt to melting glaciers without caring about climate change
For many people, climate change feels like a distant threat -- something that happens far away, or far off in the future.
Our brains appear uniquely tuned for musical pitch
In the eternal search for understanding what makes us human, scientists found that our brains are more sensitive to pitch, the harmonic sounds we hear when listening to music, than our evolutionary relative the macaque monkey.
Exposure to artificial light at night while sleeping and women's weight
Exposure to artificial light at night, especially sleeping with a light or television on in the room, was associated with increased risk of weight gain and overweight and obesity among a large group of women studied.
Canadian pediatric emergency department crowding not linked to death, serious adverse outcomes
Visiting a crowded pediatric emergency department in Canada may increase the likelihood of being hospitalized but is not linked to delayed hospitalization or death in children, according to research in CMAJ.
Engineers use graph networks to accurately predict properties of molecules and crystals
Nanoengineers at UC San Diego have developed new deep learning models that can accurately predict the properties of molecules and crystals.
New look at old data leads to cleaner engines
New insights about how to understand and ultimately control the chemistry of ignition behavior and pollutant formation have been discovered in research led by Sandia National Laboratories.
57% of the plastic waste on the Tarragona coast is clothing fibers from washing machines
The sea water, beaches and sediments on the Tarragona coast contain quantities of plastic similar to those in a big city like Barcelona.
Pitt and CMU researchers discover how the brain changes when mastering a new skill
Researchers have discovered what happens in the brain as people learn how to perform tasks, which could lead to improved lives for people with brain injuries.
Clarifying the economic value of adjusting the power consumption
The economic value of demand response that adjusts the power consumption has not been clarified.
Sellers on classified ad websites favor buyers from affluent neighborhoods
New Rice University research has found that people selling stuff on classified ad websites prefer dealing with buyers from affluent neighborhoods.
Xpert Ultra test for diagnosing TB now included in Cochrane Review
Tuberculosis causes more deaths globally than any other infectious disease and is a top 10 cause of death worldwide.
Medical marijuana does not reduce opioid deaths, Stanford study finds
Legalizing medical marijuana does not reduce the rate of fatal opioid overdoses, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Stanford researchers synthesize healing compounds in scorpion venom
Stanford chemists have identified and synthesized two new healing compounds in scorpion venom that are effective at killing staph and tuberculosis bacteria.
In romantic relationships, people do indeed have a 'type'
Researchers at the University of Toronto show that people do indeed have a 'type' when it comes to dating, and that despite best intentions to date outside that type -- for example, after a bad relationship -- some will gravitate to similar partners.
Courts' sentencing of Hispanic defendants differs by destination, citizenship, year
A new study examined whether federal courts in areas where Hispanics have historically immigrated handed out sentences differently than federal courts in areas that are new destinations for Hispanic immigration, and how those sentences differed by citizenship.
Cyber of the fittest: Researchers develop first cyber agility framework to measure attacks
The framework proposed by the researchers will help government and industry organizations visualize how well they out-maneuver attacks over time.
Fiber-optic probe can see molecular bonds
Engineers at UC Riverside have developed the world's first portable, inexpensive, optical nanoscopy tool that integrates a glass optical fiber with a silver nanowire condenser.
Rheumatoid arthritis -- can its onset be delayed or prevented?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that leads to significant health issues as well as high treatment costs.
BU researchers develop new metamaterial that can improve MRI quality and reduce scan time
New magnetic metamaterial could be used as an additive technology to increase the imaging power of lower-strength MRI machines, increasing the number of patients seen by clinics and decreasing associated costs, without any of the risks that come with using higher-strength magnetic fields.
How electrical stimulation reorganizes the brain
Recordings of neural activity during therapeutic stimulation can be used to predict subsequent changes in brain connectivity, according to a study of epilepsy patients published in JNeurosci.
New microneedle technique speeds plant disease detection
Researchers have developed a new technique that uses microneedle patches to collect DNA from plant tissues in one minute, rather than the hours needed for conventional techniques.
Combating mosquito-borne diseases with bacteria
Viruses, spread through mosquito bites, cause human illnesses such as dengue fever, Zika and yellow fever.
2019 'dead zone' may be the second largest on record
A recent forecast of the size of the 'Dead Zone' in the northern Gulf of Mexico for late July 2019 is that it will cover 8,717-square-miles of the bottom of the continental shelf off Louisiana and Texas.
Multicolored light twists in new knotted ways
ICFO researchers report on the discovery of a new type of optical singularity with the topology of a knot.
Scientists discover unlikely culprit for fertilizing North Pacific Ocean: Asian dust
The vast subtropical 'gyres' -- large systems of rotating currents in the middle of the oceans -- cover 40% of the Earth's surface and have long been considered biological deserts with stratified waters that contain very little nutrients to sustain life.
Sexual-orientation study
A new study from Professor Doug VanderLaan's lab in UofT Mississauga's Department of Psychology looking at biological mechanisms that are often thought to influence male sexual orientation was published in the latest edition of PNAS.
BU finds iron may not improve fertility
A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers finds that there is no consistent association between consuming iron and becoming pregnant.
Unhealthy gut promotes spread of breast cancer, study finds
An unhealthy, inflamed gut causes breast cancer to become much more invasive and spread more quickly to other parts of the body, new research from the University of Virginia Cancer Center suggests.
NASA catches development of Tropical Cyclone 02A
Visible imagery from NASA's Terra satellite provided confirmation of the development of Tropical Cyclone 02A in the Arabian Sea, Northern Indian Ocean.
AI software reveals the inner workings of short-term memory
Research by neuroscientists at the University of Chicago shows how short-term, working memory uses networks of neurons differently depending on the complexity of the task at hand.
Sex, lice and videotape
University of Utah biologists demonstrated real-time adaptation in their lab that triggered reproductive isolation in just four years.
How to improve care for patients with disabilities? We need more providers like them
When it comes to patients with disabilities, the chance of getting a clinician 'like them' is extremely low, which may lead to patients' reluctance to seek care or follow prescribed interventions and treatments.
Mysterious holes in Antarctic sea ice explained by years of robotic data
Why did a giant hole appear in the sea ice off Antarctica in 2016 and 2017, after decades of more typical sea ice cover?
A bubbly new way to detect the magnetic fields of nanometer-scale particles
The method provides manufacturers with a practical way to measure and improve their control of the properties of magnetic nanoparticles for a host of medical and environmental applications.
'Green Revolution' in RNAi tools and therapeutics
A team from Nanjing University in China reported that the small silencing RNA sequences against HBsAg generated in edible lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) can specifically bind and inhibit gene expression in p21-HBsAg knock-in transgenic mice and improve liver injury at a relatively low level when compared to synthetic siRNAs.
Does obesity increase risk of being a bullying victim, perpetrator, or both?
A new study has shown that obese adolescents are not only significantly more likely to experience bullying, but they are also more likely to be both victims and perpetrators of bullying compared to their healthy weight peers.
Scientists discover gene that could help us grow crops faster
Plant scientists at the universities of Cambridge and Bordeaux have discovered a gene that they hope can be used to widen a nutrient trafficking bottleneck and potentially increase crop yields.
Radiation treatment increases cardiac risk for lung cancer patients
As advances in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) extend patients' lives, more of these patients are facing a different threat: adverse cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and heart failure.
New study shows how climate change could affect impact of roundworms on grasslands
The researchers found in extreme drought conditions that predator nematodes significantly decreased, which led to the growth of root-feeding nematodes.
Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach
A new, more accessible and much cheaper approach to surveying the topology and strength of interstellar magnetic fields -- which weave through space in our galaxy and beyond, representing one of the most potent forces in nature -- has been developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Survey: Majority of current gun owners support the sale of personalized guns
A new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that almost four out of five current gun owners support the sale of both traditional and personalized guns through licensed dealers.
Do magazines exaggerate fertility at advanced reproductive age?
A new study has shown that popular magazines commonly feature older pregnant celebrities on their covers with no mention of the risks of advanced maternal age pregnancy or the advanced reproductive technologies and methods needed to achieve these pregnancies.
Magnetism: An unexpected push for the hydrogen economy
For the first time, scientists have applied a magnetic field that directly enhanced the production of hydrogen via water splitting.
Last-ditch attempt to warn of coalmine harm
Groundwater experts from around Australia have repeated calls for further investigations into the potential effects on heritage groundwater reserves in central Queensland if the giant Adani Carmichael coalmine gets the final regulatory go-ahead this week.
Molecular chatter makes for a 'hot tumor'
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has deciphered a complex molecular conversation between cancer and immune cells that is key to orchestrating the successful invasion of tumors by T cells that kill cancer cells.
DNA base editing induces substantial off-target RNA mutations
Researchers from Dr. YANG Hui's Lab at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and collaborators from the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology of CAS and Sichuan University demonstrated that DNA base editors generated tens of thousands of off-target RNA single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and these off-target SNVs could be eliminated by introducing point mutations to the deaminases.
Waning potency of pertussis vaccine a significant contributor to recent whooping cough outbreaks
New Kaiser Permanente study suggests under-vaccination is only one factor contributing to whooping cough outbreaks.
A $12 pill test could save the lives of first-timers
Pill testing services at music festivals may be most effective in reducing harm for people trying ecstasy for the first time, but less so for prior users.
Mount Sinai study reports asthma control in older patients and shows lower ED visits
Mount Sinai was part of the largest clinical trial for asthma self-management support in older patients, which resulted in improved control and quality of life, and fewer emergency department visits.
Chickenpox vaccination lowers risk of pediatric shingles
Kaiser Permanente-led study of more than 6 million children showed routine varicella vaccine considerably lessened likelihood of painful shingles disease.
What if dark matter is lighter? Report calls for small experiments to broaden the hunt
Theorized dark matter particles haven't yet shown up where scientists had expected them.
Structuring sweetness: What makes Stevia 200 times sweeter than sugar
New research from Washington University in St. Louis reveals the molecular machinery behind the high-intensity sweetness of the stevia plant.
iPhone plus nanoscale porous silicon equals cheap, simple home diagnostics
A Vanderbilt researchers is combining her research on low-cost, nanostructured thin films with a device most American adults already own.
A new picture of dengue's growing threat
New research shows the expanded risk of dengue virus infection through 2080, with detailed maps for 2020, 2050 and 2080.
Mass anomaly detected under the moon's largest crater
A mysterious large mass of material has been discovered beneath the largest crater in our solar system -- the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin -- and may contain metal from the asteroid that crashed into the Moon and formed the crater, according to a Baylor University study.
Pneumonia mapped in largest genomic survey of any disease-causing bacterium
Researchers have mapped the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia around the world and revealed how these bacteria evolve in response to vaccination.
Who's 'Treat All' HIV recommendation led to increases in art initiation in Africa
A new study by CUNY SPH researchers found that the adoption of the WHO's 2015 'Treat All' recommendation was followed by large increases in rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in six sub-Saharan African countries.
Study illustrates gaps in knowledge and lack of support for girls during puberty
A study examined girls' transitions through puberty in Madagascar and ways in which menstruation influences their educational experiences and future sexual and reproductive health.
Exploring the causes of persistent corruption
IIASA researchers used a novel approach to explore the key processes and conditions that determine corruption levels.
Researchers find triple as many Legionnaire's cases as previously reported
The first New Zealand-wide study of the burden of Legionnaire's disease has found triple the number of cases of this form of pneumonia than previously reported.
Past climate change pushed birds from the northern hemisphere to the tropics
Researchers have shown how millions of years of climate change affected the range and habitat of modern birds, suggesting that many groups of tropical birds may be relatively recent arrivals in their equatorial homes.
The cholera bacterium's 3-in-1 toolkit for life in the ocean
The cholera bacterium uses a grappling hook-like appendage to take up DNA, bind to nutritious surfaces and recognize 'family' members, EPFL scientists have found.
Breakthrough in chronic wasting disease research reveals distinct deer, elk prion strains
Researchers have developed a new gene-targeted approach to study chronic wasting disease in mice, allowing opportunities for research that has not previously existed.
Drinking alcohol even at conception damages placenta development
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have disastrous consequences for the developing fetus, leading to low birth weight and fetal alcohol syndrome.
Study drug delays type 1 diabetes in high risk children and adults
A drug that targets the immune system can delay the onset of type 1 diabetes an average of two years in children and adults at high risk, according to findings from TrialNet's Teplizumab (anti-CD3) Prevention Study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Touted as 'development,' land grabs hurt local communities, and women most of all
Large-scale land transactions in which nations sell huge, publicly owned parcels to foreign and domestic corporations negatively affect local women more than men, a new study shows.
Secondary students' sexual health survey
Sexually active Australian secondary students tend to engage in responsible sexual behaviour but there is still room to improve knowledge and education for this group, according to a nationwide survey conducted by La Trobe University.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Climate Crisis
There's no greater threat to humanity than climate change. What can we do to stop the worst consequences? This hour, TED speakers explore how we can save our planet and whether we can do it in time. Guests include climate activist Greta Thunberg, chemical engineer Jennifer Wilcox, research scientist Sean Davis, food innovator Bruce Friedrich, and psychologist Per Espen Stoknes.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#527 Honey I CRISPR'd the Kids
This week we're coming to you from Awesome Con in Washington, D.C. There, host Bethany Brookshire led a panel of three amazing guests to talk about the promise and perils of CRISPR, and what happens now that CRISPR babies have (maybe?) been born. Featuring science writer Tina Saey, molecular biologist Anne Simon, and bioethicist Alan Regenberg. A Nobel Prize winner argues banning CRISPR babies won’t work Geneticists push for a 5-year global ban on gene-edited babies A CRISPR spin-off causes unintended typos in DNA News of the first gene-edited babies ignited a firestorm The researcher who created CRISPR twins defends...