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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 11, 2019


Marine oil snow
Marine snow is the phenomena of flakes of falling organic material and biological debris cascading down a water column like snowflakes.
The Lancet: One in five people living in an area affected by conflict has a mental health condition
One in five people (22%) living in an area affected by conflict has depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and about 9% of conflict-affected populations have a moderate to severe mental health condition, according to an analysis of 129 studies published in The Lancet.
Bringing mental health care into pediatricians' offices works, finds 5-year study
A five-year study at Boston Children's Hospital reports success with a program it started in 2013 to bring much-needed behavioral health services directly into primary care pediatricians' offices.
Women caught in a pickle by their own immune systems
A team of scientists at Arizona State University is presenting a new hypothesis to explain why there are differences between women and men when it comes to human diseases.
Novel agent reactivates an immune call by LIF blockade
Promising new therapy with a dual mechanism of action to eliminate cancer stem cells and activate the immune system now in clinical development.
Uncovering the hidden history of a giant asteroid
A massive 'hit-and-run' collision profoundly impacted the evolutionary history of Vesta, the brightest asteroid visible from Earth.
USPSTF recommendation on screening for HIV infection
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for HIV infection in adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65; in those younger or older at increased risk of infection; and in all pregnant people.
Heart valve procedure safe for patients with common heart defect
A new analysis conducted by investigators at the Cedars-Sinai Smidt Heart Institute shows for the first time that patients with a common heart defect who undergo catheter-based valve replacement procedures have the same survival and complication rates as patients without the defect who undergo the same procedure.
River sediment speaks to changing climate
Studying the sediment of a mountain river can reveal thousands of years or more of a waterway's history, including new threats from more frequent wildfires and increased precipitation brought by climate change.
Preventive drug therapy may increase right-sided heart failure risk in patients who receive heart devices
Patients treated preemptively with drugs to reduce the risk of right-sided heart failure after heart device implantation may experience the opposite effect and develop heart failure and post-operative bleeding more often than patients not receiving the drugs.
Fracking causes some songbirds to thrive while others decline
A paper soon to appear in The Condor: Ornithological Applications, published by Oxford University Press, finds that some songbird species benefit from the spread of fracking infrastructure while others suffer.
Light-powered nano-organisms consume CO2, create eco-friendly plastics and fuels
University of Colorado Boulder researchers have developed nanobio-hybrid organisms capable of using airborne carbon dioxide and nitrogen to produce a variety of plastics and fuels, a promising first step toward low-cost carbon sequestration and eco-friendly manufacturing for chemicals.
The new technology will significantly enhance energy harvest from PV modules
The whole world is inevitably moving towards a more sustainable lifestyle.
New energy-efficient algorithm keeps UAV swarms helping longer
A new energy-efficient data routing algorithm could keep unmanned aerial vehicle swarms flying longer, report an international team of researchers this month in the journal Chaos.
Curbing your enthusiasm for overeating
Signals between our gut and brain control how and when we eat food.
Skinny cod and grey seal reveals troubling changes to food web in the Baltic Sea
The prime predators of the Baltic Sea at the top of the food web are losing weight, according to a new study that links the deteriorating health of gray seals and cod with changes in bottom-living crustaceans, isopods and amphipods.
Holistic view of planning energy self-sufficient communities
By using energy-efficient buildings and distributing means of energy generation throughout buildings, sustainable communities can achieve a yearly net zero energy balance.
Tracking major sources of energy loss in compact fusion facilities
Analysis of energy loss in low-aspect ratio tokamaks opens a new chapter in the development of predictions of transport in such facilities.
Models suggest faults are linked through California's Imperial Valley
New mechanical modeling of a network of active strike-slip faults in California's Imperial Valley suggests the faults are continuously linked, from the southern San Andreas Fault through the Imperial Fault to the Cerro Prieto fault further to the south of the valley.
Learning from nature's bounty: New libraries for drug discovery
Natural products make some of our most potent medicines, among which macrocycles with their large carbon-rich ring systems are one class.
Researchers find physical activity in preschool years can affect future heart health
Physical activity in early childhood may have an impact on cardiovascular health later in life, according to new research from McMaster University, where scientists followed the activity levels of hundreds of preschoolers over a period of years.
New to science New Zealand moths link mythological deities to James Cameron's films
In an unexpected discovery, two species of macro-moths were described as new species endemic to the South Island, New Zealand.
Laboratory testing suggests human lung tissue unimpacted by blu vapor
A new study by Imperial Brands, owners of leading vape brand blu, contributes to the increasing evidence base substantiating vaping's harm reduction potential compared to smoking.
A 'one-two punch' to wipe out cancerous ovarian cells
Researchers from the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) have developed a two-step combination therapy to destroy cancer cells.
Research moves closer to brain-machine interface autonomy
A University of Houston biomedical engineer reports in eNeuro that a brain-computer interface, a form of artificial intelligence, can sense when its user is expecting a reward by examining the interactions between single-neuron activities and the information flowing to these neurons.
Women with obesity prior to conception are more likely to have children with obesity
A systematic review and meta-analysis identified significantly increased odds of child obesity when mothers have obesity before conception, according to a study published June 11, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Nicola Heslehurst of Newcastle University in the UK, and colleagues.
Love songs from paradise take a nosedive
The Galápagos Islands finches named after Charles Darwin are starting to sing a different tune because of an introduced pest on the once pristine environment.
Checkmate for hepatitis B viruses in the liver
Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University of Munich, working in collaboration with researchers at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and the University Hospital Heidelberg, have for the first time succeeded in conquering a chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus in a mouse model.
Plot twist: Straightening single-molecule conductors improves their performance
Researchers at Osaka University synthesized nanowires made of a single molecule of oligothiophene up to 10 nanometers in length.
Want effective policy? Ask the locals
Based on a survey of over 100,000 respondents in 37 countries, researchers at Kyushu University in Japan report that regional economic, developmental, and cultural factors greatly influence the relationships among self-reported levels of energy affordability, life satisfaction, health, and economic inequality.
Promising treatment option for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
A study, published today in PNAS, has found a potential treatment for patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS).
Citizen scientists re-tune Hubble's galaxy classification
Hundreds of thousands of volunteers have helped to overturn almost a century of galaxy classification, in a new study using data from the longstanding Galaxy Zoo project.
Drug to treat malaria could mitigate hereditary hearing loss
The ability to hear depends on proteins to reach the outer membrane of sensory cells in the inner ear.
Genetic marker linked to increased risk of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
This is the first real effort to have a genome wide search for genes predisposing to diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Cardiovascular diseases -- Promoting self-healing after heart attack
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers led by Oliver Söhnlein have shown that a protein which stimulates the resolution of inflammatory reactions enhances cardiac repair following heart attack in both mice and pigs.
Big picture genetic scoring approach reliably predicts heart disease
Polygenic risk scores -- genetic risk scores that take into account variations in a person's entire DNA -- are able to predict coronary artery disease in those who have not yet had heart attacks.
How nurses bring clarity to the nature of social change
History provides an enhanced understanding of the factors that inform social policy.
Penn engineers design nanostructured diamond metalens for compact quantum technologies
By finding a certain kind of defect inside a block of diamond and fashioning a pattern of nanoscale pillars on the surface above it, Penn Engineering researchers can now control the shape of individual photons emitted by the defect.
An unnatural way to make natural products
Researchers have developed an innovative new process for synthesizing isoprenoids, which are chemical compounds used in countless pharmaceutical and consumer products.
How fathers, children should spend time together
Fathers who spend lots of time helping out with child care-related tasks on workdays are developing the best relationships with their children.
Why Noah's ark won't work
Many species will need large population sizes to survive climate change and ocean acidification, a new study finds.
Tiny light box opens new doors into the nanoworld
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nanolevel.
New family on the block: A novel group of glycosidic enzymes
A group of researchers from Japan has recently discovered a novel enzyme from a soil fungus.
Dolphins form friendships through shared interests just like us, study finds
When it comes to making friends, it appears dolphins are just like us and form close friendships with other dolphins that have a common interest.
Early life stress plus overexpressed FKBP5 protein increases anxiety behavior
A new preclinical study by University of South Florida neuroscientists finds that anxiety-like behavior increases when early life adversity combines with high levels of FKBP5 -- a protein capable of modifying hormonal stress response.
NASA takes Tropical Cyclone's Vayu's temperature
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northern Indian Ocean and took the temperature of Tropical Cyclone Vayu as it moved northward in the Arabian Sea.
Lower rates of opioid prescriptions in states that implemented medical cannabis use laws
Using data from privately-insured adults, new findings from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston revealed that there is a lower level of opioids prescribed in states that have allowed the use of medical marijuana.
Finnish healthcare and social welfare system provides a variety of e-services to citizens
Major progress has been made in the range of available eHealth services in Finland.
LED-ing the way: A clean and convenient method to oxidize plastic surfaces for industry
A Japanese research team at Osaka University used chlorine dioxide to oxidize polypropylene.
How bosses react influences whether workers speak up
Speaking up in front of a supervisor can be stressful -- but it doesn't have to be, according to new research from a Rice University psychologist.
Gender affects the correlation between depression and weight in children and adolescents
The results of a large community-based study have shown that the probability of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents with high, low, or normal body mass index differs according to gender.
Singapore research team finds info in a third of eczema apps inconsistent with guidelines
A third of eczema management mobile applications provide information that does not agree with international treatment and condition guidelines, a study led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has found.
From face to DNA: New method aims to improve match between DNA sample and face database
Predicting what someone's face looks like based on a DNA sample remains a hard nut to crack for science.
Almost 400 medical practices found ineffective in analysis of 3,000 studies
Scientists have identified nearly 400 established medical practices that have been found to be ineffective by clinical studies published across three top medical journals.
Motorized scooter head injuries on the rise, Rutgers study finds
Facial and head injuries from riding electric scooters have tripled over the past decade, according to a Rutgers study.
The circadian-hypoxia link in cardioprotection
Throughout the evolutionary time, all organisms and species on Earth evolved with an adaptation to consistent oscillations of sunlight and darkness, now recognized as circadian rhythm.
Beewolves use a gas to preserve food
Scientists from the Universities of Regensburg and Mainz and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology discovered that the eggs of the European beewolf produce nitric oxide.
First cyber agility framework to train officials developed to out-maneuver cyber attacks
To help train government and industry organizations on how to prevent cyberattacks, as part of a research project for the US Army, scientists at The University of Texas at San Antonio, developed the first framework to score the agility of cyber attackers and defenders.
Electronic consultations can streamline, simplify care in allergy and immunology
A study from Massachusetts General Hospital researchers finds that electronic consultations in allergy and immunology can simplify the process of providing the most appropriate care, often reducing the need for in-person specialist visits.
'Shield' of sea creature inspires materials that can handle their own impact
Engineers have discovered what allows the tail appendage of the mantis shrimp to absorb the blows of its feisty self, with the goal of applying these lessons to protective gear.
Superweed resists another class of herbicides, study finds
We've all heard about bacteria that are becoming resistant to multiple types of antibiotics.
Burt's Bees presents research on the proven power of naturals at the 2019 WCD
Burt's Bees, a leading provider of personal care products committed to natural skin care solutions, today announced research supporting new findings related to the skin's composition and the role of nature-based regimens to protect the skin against common environmental stressors.
New microorganism for algae biomass to produce alternative fuels
Professor Gyoo Yeol Jung and his research team utilized algae that grow three times faster than starch crops and succeeded in producing biofuel and biochemicals.
Immunotherapy and diabetes: A game of hide and seek?
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are emerging as an effective treatment for certain cancers, but in rare cases can cause autoimmune diseases.
Hybrid device may help doctors treat strokes more quickly
Stroke, one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is normally caused by poor blood flow to the brain, or cerebral ischemia.
Veteran-directed care program is effective
A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System researchers finds that a program that gives veterans flexible budgets for at-home caregivers is at least as effective as other veteran purchased-care services.
Home care health workers frequently verbally abused by clients and their families
Home care (domiciliary) health workers are frequently verbally abused by clients and their families, finds research published online in Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Novel denoising method generates sharper photorealistic images faster
A global team of computer scientists from MIT, Adobe, and Aalto University has developed an innovative method for producing higher-quality images and scene designs in much less time by using a deep-learning-based approach that considerably cuts the noise in images.
Male victims of domestic abuse face significant barriers to getting help
Men who experience domestic violence and abuse face significant barriers to getting help and access to specialist support services, according to a study by researchers at the University of Bristol's Centre for Academic Primary Care and Centre for Gender and Violence Research published in BMJ Open today.
USPSTF recommends PrEP to prevent HIV infection in people at high risk
In a new recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to people at high risk of acquiring HIV to decrease their risk of infection with the virus that causes AIDS.
Catalog of north Texas earthquakes confirms continuing effects of wastewater disposal
A comprehensive catalog of earthquake sequences in Texas's Fort Worth Basin, from 2008 to 2018, provides a closer look at how wastewater disposal from oil and gas exploration has changed the seismic landscape in the basin.
Electronic inhaler monitoring reduces hospitalizations, ER visits in patients with COPD
In one of the first-of-its-kind studies, Cleveland Clinic researchers found that the use of electronic inhaler monitoring, in combination with a disease management program, is associated with reduced healthcare utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Global burden of mental health in conflict settings
People living in countries that have experienced armed conflict are five times more likely to develop anxiety or depression, a University of Queensland research collaboration has found.
EWG: Nitrate pollution of US tap water could cause 12,500 cancer cases each year
Nitrate pollution of US drinking water may cause up to 12,594 cases of cancer a year, according to a new peer-reviewed study by the Environmental Working Group.
The Estée Lauder companies showcases skin metabolomics at world congress of dermatology
The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. (NYSE: EL) Research & Development (R&D) team will present data focused on new findings in skin metabolomics, skin defense, ingredient science, and anti-aging research at the 2019 World Congress of Dermatology (WCD) in Milan, Italy from June 10 -15, 2019.
Tube anemone has the largest animal mitochondrial genome ever sequenced
Discovery by Brazilian and US researchers could change the classification of two species, which appear more akin to jellyfish than was thought.
Indoor tanning may be an addiction abetted by both genetic and psychiatric factors
A combination of elevated symptoms of depression along with modifications in a gene responsible for dopamine activity, important to the brain's pleasure and reward system, appear to influence an addiction to indoor tanning in young, white non-Hispanic women.
Genetics influence how protective childhood vaccines are for individual infants
A genome-wide search in thousands of children in the UK and Netherlands has revealed genetic variants associated with differing levels of protective antibodies produced after routine childhood immunizations.
21st century archaeology has rediscovered historical Cordoba
University of Cordoba researcher Antonio Monterroso Checa applied aerial laser LiDAR technology to draw out the ancient geomorphology of the city of Cordoba
Cancer survivors predicted to number over 22 million by 2030
There were more than 16.9 million Americans with a history of cancer on Jan.
Electric vehicles would be a breath of fresh air for Houston
Cornell University researchers are expressing hope for the future of Houston's breathable air, despite the city's poor rankings in the American Lung Association's 2019 'State of the Air' report.
The surprising role fibrinogen plays in regulating the body's response to disease
A finding from University of Alberta researchers is shining new light on the role fibrinogen has in regulating a natural defence mechanism in the body.
Persistent poverty affects one in five UK children
Persistent poverty affects one in five children in the UK, and is associated with poor physical and mental health in early adolescence, suggests research published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
New research shows dramatic increase in Ontario teens visiting an ED for self-harm
Adolescents who intentionally harm themselves by poisoning or injuring themselves are at risk for repeated self-harm or suicide.
Eating more vitamin K found to help, not harm, patients on warfarin
When prescribed the anticoagulant drug warfarin, many patients are told to limit foods rich in vitamin K, such as green vegetables.
Rare 'superflares' could one day threaten Earth
New research shows that the sun could experience a massive burst of energy called a superflare sometime in the next several thousand years.
Hawks' pursuit of prey has implications for capturing rogue drones
Hawks steer their pursuit of evasive prey using a feedback system that differs fundamentally from the missile-like interception system of falcons, according to a new study led by scientists at the University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, published today in Nature Communications.
Red blood cell donor pregnancy history not tied to mortality after transfusion
A new study has found that the sex or pregnancy history of red blood cell donors does not influence the risk of death among patients who receive their blood.
Parents' lenient attitudes towards drinking linked to greater alcohol use among children
Children are more likely to start drinking alcohol, drink more frequently and get drunk if their parents have a lenient attitude towards drinking, finds a study from researchers at the University of Cambridge and the University of East Anglia.
New vulnerability found in major human viruses
Discovery of a new feature of a large class of pathogenic viruses may allow development of new antiviral medications for the common cold, polio, and other illnesses, according to a new study publishing June 11, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Rana Abdelnabi and Johan Neyts of the University of Leuven, Belgium, and James Geraets and Sarah Butcher of the University of Helsinki and their colleagues.
New pathogens in beef and cow's milk products: More research required
In February 2019, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) presented findings on new infection pathogens that go by the name of 'Bovine Milk and Meat Factors' (BMMF).
'Sandwich' structure key to thin LSMO films retaining magnetic properties
The oxide ceramic material lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) retains its magnetic properties in atomically thin layers if it is 'sandwiched' between two layers of a different ceramic oxide, lanthanum strontium chromium oxide (LSCO).
Antibodies against HPV16 can develop up to 40 years before throat cancer is diagnosed
An international group of researchers has found that antibodies to the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) develop in the body between six to 40 years prior to a clinical diagnosis of throat cancer, and their presence indicates a strong increased risk of the disease.
An hour or two of outdoor learning every week increases teachers' job satisfaction
A Swansea University study has revealed how as little as an hour a week of outdoor learning has tremendous benefits for children and also boosts teachers' job satisfaction.
Inducing seizures to stop seizures
Surgery is the only way to stop seizures in 30 per cent of patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy.
Study: Intelligence community benefits from collaborations, but can do better
An analysis of US intelligence programs aimed at collaborating with academic and industry partners finds that these collaborations are valuable for addressing complex intelligence challenges.
Behind the magic: Making moving photos a reality
UW researchers have figured out how to take a person from a 2D photo or a work of art and make them run, walk or jump out of the frame.
Researchers reveal key role of pressure-sensing protein in lung edema
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago describe for the first time the role of a unique, pressure-sensing protein in the development of lung edema -- a condition in which chronic high vascular pressure in the lungs causes fluid from the bloodstream to enter the air spaces of the lungs.
First study of world's largest marine stingray reveals long-distance migration
Smalleye stingrays are the largest marine stingrays on record, reaching disc widths of up to 222 cm, and yet almost nothing is known about them.
Why you may be prone to hiring a liar, and not even know it
Researchers find that people don't always disapprove of deception. In fact, they perceive the ability to deceive as an asset in occupations that are stereotyped as high in 'selling orientation.'
How can governments fight antimicrobial resistance with policy?
Governments have a wide variety of policy options at their disposal to respond to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, but many of these approaches have not been rigorously evaluated, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Susan Rogers Van Katwyk of the University of Ottawa, Canada, and colleagues.
Strobe lighting at dance music festivals linked to tripling in epileptic fit risk
Strobe lighting at electronic dance music festivals may be linked to a tripling in the risk of epileptic fits in susceptible individuals, suggests research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Saturn's moon Mimas, a snowplough in the planet's rings
The Solar System's second largest planet both in mass and size, Saturn is best known for its rings.
Education, intelligence may protect cognition, but don't prevent Alzheimer's disease
In a search for clues to what may delay or prevent Alzheimer's disease, Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists report that smarter, more educated people aren't protected from the disease, but do get a cognitive 'head start' that may keep their minds functioning better temporarily.
Researchers develop tool to predict postoperative delirium severity
A new tool seeks to predict the severity of patients' postoperative delirium and help practitioners more effectively care for patients as they recover from elective surgery.
Brain activation provides individual-level prediction of bipolar disorder risk
Patterns of brain activation during reward anticipation may help identify people most at risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD), according to a study in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, published by Elsevier.
Are blood donor sex, pregnancy history and death of transfusion recipients associated?
Whether blood donors' sex and pregnancy history were associated with death for red blood cell transfusion recipients was investigated in this study that analyzed data from three study groups totaling more than 1 million transfusion recipients.
The sun may have a dual personality, simulations suggest
A deep dive into the sun's interior provides new clues to the forces that govern that star's internal clock.
An innovative electron microscope overturning common knowledge of 88 years history
In conventional electron microscopes, performing atomic-resolution observations of magnetic materials is particularly difficult because high magnetic fields are inevitably exerted on samples inside the magnetic objective lens.
Cause of hardening of the arteries -- and potential treatment -- identified
A team of UK scientists have identified the mechanism behind hardening of the arteries, and shown in animal studies that a generic medication normally used to treat acne could be an effective treatment for the condition.
Breakthrough in the discovery of DNA in ancient bones buried in water
Fresh evidence rewrites the understanding of the most intriguing archaeological burial site in western Finland.
Too many businesses failing to properly embrace AI into processes, not reaping benefits
Businesses actively embracing artificial intelligence and striving to bring technological advancements into their operations are reaping dividends not seen by companies who fail to properly adapt and adopt.
Research reveals sustainable method to produce lifesaving opiate antidotes at reduced cost
Overdose from opiates has skyrocketed. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, on average, 130 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose.
Rescuers often driven by emotion
Scientists from James Cook University and Royal Life Saving Society -- Australia have found reason can go out the window when people's family members, children and pets are in trouble in the water, and people should be better trained in water rescue skills.

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