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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 17, 2019


Wheat myth debunked
Common opinion has it that modern wheat is so reliant on fertiliser and crop protection agrochemicals that the plants now lack the hardiness needed to remain productive under harsher environmental conditions.
Poor oral health linked to a 75% increase in liver cancer risk, new study finds
Poor oral health is associated with a 75% increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, new research published in UEG Journal has found.
Sleep history predicts late-life Alzheimer's pathology
Sleep patterns can predict the accumulation of Alzheimer's pathology proteins later in life, according to a new study of older men and women published in JNeurosci.
U-M researchers testing ways to make aspen-dominated forests resilient to climate change
In an aspen-dominated hardwood forest at the northern tip of the state's Lower Peninsula, University of Michigan scientists are testing ways to make the region's forests more resilient to climate change.
The brain consumes half of a child's energy -- and that could matter for weight gain
In a new paper published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 'A hypothesis linking the energy demand of the brain to obesity risk,' co-authors Christopher Kuzawa of Northwestern University and Clancy Blair of New York University School of Medicine, propose that variation in the energy needs of brain development across kids -- in terms of the timing, intensity and duration of energy use -- could influence patterns of energy expenditure and weight gain.
New time-banking system utilizes blockchain tech to measure one's value to society
Citizens from the island of Aneityum in the Republic of Vanuatu are working with faculty from Binghamton University, State University of New York to test their true value as humans.
Social media use contributing to poor mental health in Indonesia, research finds
Social media use is contributing to poor mental health in Indonesia, research presented in a paper by Sujarwoto Sujarwoto, Gindo Tampubolon and Adi Cilik Pierewan has found.
Researchers call for personalized approach to aging brain health
University of Arizona psychologist Lee Ryan and her collaborators have proposed a precision aging model designed to help researchers better understand and treat age-related cognitive decline on an individual level.
New study shows gender pay gap is still issue for airline staff
The gender pay gap within airlines is often attributed to the fact that men frequently carry out high technically skilled jobs such as pilots and mechanics, whereas women commonly work in customer service roles like cabin crew.
Facebook posts better at predicting diabetes, mental health than demographic info
Analyzing language shows that identifying certain groups of words significantly improves upon predicting some medical conditions in patients
New study examines the association between race, ethnicity and exclusionary discipline practices
Discipline and how it is administered in schools across the US continues to be a hotly debated topic.
Study finds personal care products send a child to the emergency room every two hours
A new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital found that 64,686 children younger than five years of age were treated in US emergency departments for injuries related to personal care products from 2002 through 2016 -- that is the equivalent of about one child every two hours.
Cognitive decline may accelerate after heart attack, angina
Adults with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) are at higher risk for faster cognitive decline in the long-term, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
A single gut enterotype linked to both inflammatory bowel disease and depression
In 2012, Professor Jeroen Raes (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology) launched the Flemish Gut Flora Project.
Schizophrenia: Adolescence is the game-changer
Schizophrenia may be related to the deletion syndrome. However, not everyone who has the syndrome necessarily develops psychotic symptoms.
Most metastatic colorectal cancers have spread before diagnosis, Stanford researchers say
Up to 80% of metastatic colorectal cancers are likely to have spread to distant locations in the body before the original tumor has exceeded the size of a poppy seed, according to a study of nearly 3,000 patients by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Global commodities trade and consumption place the world's primates at risk of extinction
A recent study published in the peer-reviewed journal PeerJ -- the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences highlights the fact that the economic benefits of commodity export for primate habitat countries has been limited relative to the extreme environmental costs of pollution, habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity, continued food insecurity and the threat of emerging diseases.
Rules of brain architecture revealed in large study of neuron shape & electrophysiology
A new study from the Allen Institute for Brain Science describes a large profile of mouse neuron types based on two important characteristics of the cells: their 3D shape and their electrical behavior.
Lumping all Hispanic Americans together masks the differences in cancer outcomes
When separated out, the data can help tailor better screening and treatment programs, especially for stomach and liver cancers.
Researchers from IKBFU study nanoparticles synthesized by method of electric explosion
Physicists from the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University conduct a study on nanomaterials that have been synthesized by the method of the electric explosion.
Introduced a new paradigm of cell transplantation with scaffold microrobots
Professor Hongsoo Choi's team developed a microrobot that can precisely transplant stem cells in various in vivo and vitro environments.
Three quarters of Americans concerned about burnout among healthcare professionals
Nearly three-quarters (74%) of Americans are concerned about burnout among healthcare professionals, according to new survey data released today by ASHP (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists).
Science snapshots: New nitrides, artificial photosynthesis, and TMDC semiconductors
From Berkeley Lab: groundbreaking study maps out paths to new nitride materials; new framework for artificial photosynthesis; TMDCs don't have to be perfect to shine bright.
More heart failure patients may benefit from CRT defibrillator
Certain groups of heart failure patients may see improved heart function with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) if traditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment does not work, according to research published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds dry air affecting Tropical Cyclone Vayu
Tropical Cyclone Vayu was fading as it neared the coast of southwestern Pakistan and northwestern India.
From surfer shorts to surgical drapes
Human exposure to unnecessary and potentially harmful chemicals could be greatly reduced if manufacturers add chemicals only when they are truly essential in terms of health, safety and functioning of society.
U of Guelph study finds health professionals need to be cautious on social media
Posting a single negative comment to Facebook may hinder health professionals' credibility with current or potential patients, a new University of Guelph study reveals.
Preventing drugs from being transported
A research team has investigated the transport mechanism of a bacterial membrane protein using an artificially produced antibody fragment.
Dinoflagellate plankton glow so that their predators won't eat them
Some dinoflagellate plankton species are bioluminescent, with a remarkable ability to produce light to make themselves and the water they swim in glow.
A new 2D magnet draws future devices closer
EPFL scientists have discovered a new type of 2D magnetic material that can be integrated into spintronic devices.
Preventing hepatitis C transmission from mothers to babies
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission from mothers to babies could largely be prevented if Canada recommended universal screening for HCV in pregnancy, argues a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Promising esophageal reconstruction based on engineered constructs
The loss of complete segments of the esophagus often results from treatments for esophageal cancer or congenital abnormalities, and current methods to re-establish continuity are inadequate.
Harvard chemists' breakthrough in synthesis advances a potent anti-cancer agent
Chemists at Harvard University and Eisai have achieved what a new paper calls a 'landmark in drug discovery' with the total synthesis of 11.5g of halichondrin.
9,000 years ago, a community with modern urban problems
Some 9,000 years ago, residents of one of the world's first large farming communities were also among the first humans to experience some of the perils of modern urban living.
Researchers solve mystery of how gas bubbles form in liquid
Findings show how to make confined bubbles develop uniformly, instead of in their usual scattershot way.
Hypertension drug may hold promise for Alzheimer's disease
The blood pressure drug nilvadipine increased blood flow to the brain's memory and learning center, without affecting other brain regions among people with Alzheimer's disease.
Boaty McBoatface mission gives new insight into warming ocean abyss
The first mission involving the autonomous submarine vehicle Autosub Long Range (better known as 'Boaty McBoatface') has for the first time shed light on a key process linking increasing Antarctic winds to rising sea temperatures.
100-year-old physics model replicates modern Arctic ice melt
A nearly 100-year-old physics model captures the essential mechanism of pattern formation and geometry of Arctic melt ponds.
Tuning into the LCDs of tomorrow: Exploring the novel IGZO-11 semiconductor
Indium-gallium-zinc oxide ceramics are used as the backplane for flat-panel displays, this was made possible through substantial synergistic contributions coming from the powerhouse that is Japan.
Breakthrough in understanding how human eyes process 3D motion
Scientists at the University of York have revealed that there are two separate 'pathways' for seeing 3D motion in the human brain, which allow people to perform a wide range of tasks such as catching a ball or avoiding moving objects.
LGBTQ awareness lacking among American neurologists, new survey finds
A first-of-its-kind survey of American neurologists reveals that more than half carry the mistaken belief that a patient's sexual orientation and gender identity have no bearing on treatment of neurologic illness.
Past climate change: A warning for the future?
A new study of climate changes and their effects on past societies offers a sobering glimpse of social upheavals that might happen in the future.
Underenrollment in clinical trials: Patients not the problem
The authors of the study published this month in the Journal of Clinical Oncology investigated why many cancer clinical trials fail to enroll enough patients.
Performance improves when the enemy of an enemy is a friend
New research from Northwestern University finds that balanced professional networks are more important than individual talent when it comes to high-risk decision-making.
RNR 'switch' offers hope in battling antibiotic resistant bacteria
New research from Cornell University offers a new pathway for targeting pathogens in the fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Repurposing existing drugs or combining therapies could help in the treatment of autoimmune diseases
Research has found that re-purposing already existing drugs or combining therapies could be used to treat patients who have difficult to treat autoimmune diseases.
Study reveals new genomic roots of ecological adaptation in polar bear evolution
Scientists from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Vanderbilt University and Clark University have shed new light on the genomic foundation of the polar bear's ecological adaption by pinpointing rapid changes in the bear's gene copy numbers in response to a diet shifting from vegetation to meat.
UCF is part of NASA Cassini mission that reveals new details about Saturn's rings
In a new paper that appeared in Science on Friday and includes two University of Central Florida co-authors, researchers are offering glimpses into the nature and composition of Saturn's legendary rings by using data from some of the closest observations ever made of the main rings.
Is sexting associated with sexual behaviors, mental health among teens?
This study, called a systematic review and meta-analysis, combined the results of 23 studies with nearly 42,000 participants to summarize associations between sexting by adolescents, sexual behavior and mental health risk factors.
3D printed tissues and organs without the scaffolding
A research team led by Eben Alsberg, the Richard and Loan Hill Professor of Bioengineering and Orthopaedics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, has developed a process that enables 3D printing of biological tissues without scaffolds using 'ink' made up of only stem cells.
Young adults who live near medical marijuana dispensaries use more often
Medical marijuana is legal in some form in 33 states, but relatively little is known about the availability of marijuana and use among younger people.
Research highlights possible targets to help tackle Crohn's disease
There is no precise cure for digestive condition Crohn's disease, and causes are believed to vary.
Biting backfire: Some mosquitoes actually benefit from pesticide application
The common perception that pesticides reduce or eliminate target insect species may not always hold.
Breakthrough paves way for new Lyme disease treatment
Virginia Tech biochemist Brandon Jutras has discovered the cellular component that contributes to Lyme arthritis, a debilitating and extremely painful condition that is the most common late stage symptom of Lyme disease.
Climate change threatens commercial fishers from Maine to North Carolina
Most fishing communities from North Carolina to Maine are projected to face declining fishing options unless they adapt to climate change by catching different species or fishing in different areas, according to a study in the journal Nature Climate Change.
Testing therapies on mini-tumors of head and neck cancer
Head and neck cancer is an aggressive type of cancer that often recurs, despite patients undergoing harsh treatments.
Topical cream shows promise in treatment of skin pigmentation disease, vitiligo
A nationwide phase II clinical trial, coordinated out of Tufts Medical Center in Boston, has found that a topical cream was extremely effective in reversing the effects of vitiligo, a relatively common autoimmune disease that causes loss of skin pigmentation.
Meteors help Martian clouds form
Researchers think they've solved the long-standing mystery of how Mars got all of its clouds.
From function to form
Researchers use new method to predict structures for four proteins and one RNA molecule from humans, bacteria and yeast In a marked departure from previous work, the new method uses synthetic mutations in the DNA sequence rather than naturally occurring variations in DNA 3D structures of biomolecules yield valuable clues about protein function that can illuminate the effects of individual genetic differences and shed light on basic mechanisms of disease
Bees required to create an excellent blueberry crop
Getting an excellent rabbiteye blueberry harvest requires helpful pollinators -- particularly native southeastern blueberry bees -- although growers can bring in managed honey bees to do the job, according to Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 17, 2019
New builders' tool by ORNL assesses design performance before construction begins; new pressure technique to manipulate magnetism in thin films could enhance electronic devices; ORNL outlines quantum sensing advances for better airport scanning, other applications.
Bright lights outdoors may help treat lazy eye in children
Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is a loss of vision that affects two to five percent of children across the world and originates from a deficit in visual cortical circuitry.
What influences critical care doctors in withdrawing life support for patients with brain injury?
Decisions to withdraw life support treatments in critically ill patients with severe brain injury are complicated, are based on many factors, and are usually made by critical care physicians and families in the intensive care unit.
Tracking life's first step: Two molecules 'awaken' brand new genome
Within hours after fertilization, a unique genome forms from chromosomes contributed by the egg and sperm.
How certain antibiotic combinations could defeat 'superbugs'
In hospitalized patients with bacterial infections, heteroresistance is more widespread than previously appreciated.
NASA scientists find sun's history buried in moon's crust
The Sun's rotation rate in its first billion years is unknown.
Stem cells reprogrammed into neurons could reveal drugs harmful to pregnancy
Soham Chanda, an assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, has designed a new experimental system that can rapidly assess the pathogenic effects of a drug on a baby's developing brain.
Tanning industry uses promos, cheap prices to lure adolescents and young adults
Everyone knows cigarette smoking causes cancer and as a result, prices and advertising are closely regulated to discourage youth from starting.
VINO's O2Amp Oxy-Iso glasses ineffective at curing colour-blindness
In their new study, they find that the O2Amp 'Oxy-Iso' glasses, marketed by the US company VINO Optics, neither improve the color vision of people with color-blindness nor correct their color-blindness.
A new tool makes it possible to adapt treatment for patients with cardiogenic shock
Cardiogenic shock is a possible complication of serious heart attack involving an associated mortality rate of approximately 50% of all cases.
Seaweed feed additive cuts livestock methane but poses questions
Supplementing cattle feed with seaweed could result in a significant reduction in methane belched by livestock, according to Penn State researchers, but they caution that the practice may not be a realistic strategy to battle climate change.
How to reinvigorate exhausted immune cells and stop cancer along the way
In cancer and chronic infections immune balance can be disrupted, resulting in immune system dysfunction or 'exhaustion.' An important protein called TOX, which varies in amount in different immune cell types, controls the identity of the cells that become exhausted.
Farm-like indoor microbiota may protect children from asthma also in urban homes
A child's risk of developing asthma is the lower the more the microbiota of the child's home resembles that of a farm house.
Penn engineers demonstrate superstrong, reversible adhesive that works like snail slime
Snails can anchor themselves in place using a structure known as an epiphragm.
Gender bias continues in recognition of physicians and nurses
A new study has shown that patients are significantly more likely to correctly identify male physicians and female nurses, demonstrating continuing gender bias in the health care environment.
First lung map uncovers new insights into asthma
For the first time, researchers have mapped the building blocks of the human lungs and airways, in both asthma patients and normal people.
Nurses more likely to test for HIV when practice setting supports routine screening
Nurse practitioners are more likely to conduct HIV screenings if they feel that their colleagues support routine screenings, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Immune system can slow degenerative eye disease, NIH-led mouse study shows
A new study shows that the complement system, part of the innate immune system, plays a protective role to slow retinal degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited eye disease.
Study shows 70% of patients lack advance directives before elective surgery
Only 30% of elective surgery patients in a recent study had Advance Directives documenting their wishes regarding emergency medical care.
Researchers question implanting IVC filters on prophylactic basis before bariatric surgery
Temple's Dr. Riyaz Bashir led a research team that sought to compare the outcomes associated with patients receiving prophylactic inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) prior to bariatric surgery to those who did not receive IVCFs.
Dundee lab solves HOIL-1 mystery
The mysterious function of a key protein has been revealed following a breakthrough by University of Dundee scientists.
Healthy blood vessels may delay cognitive decline
High blood pressure may affect conditions such as Alzheimer's disease by interfering with the brain's waste management system, according to new research in rats published in JNeurosci.
Do video games drive obesity?
Are children, teenagers and adults who spend a lot of time playing video games really more obese?
'Self-healing' polymer brings perovskite solar tech closer to market
A protective layer of epoxy resin helps prevent the leakage of pollutants from perovskite solar cells (PSCs), report scientists from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST).
Managing the risk of aggressive dog behavior
Aggressive behavior in pet dogs is a serious problem for dog owners across the world, with bite injuries representing a serious risk to both people and other dogs.
Breastmilk antibody protects preterm infants from deadly intestinal disease
Human and mouse experiments show that an antibody in breastmilk is necessary to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis -- an often deadly bacterial disease of the intestine.
Study underscores role of menthol cigarettes in smoking cessation
Researchers cite Big Tobacco's marketing stronghold on African-American smokers among reasons why this group is 12% less likely to quit.
GPs should not use inflammatory marker tests to rule out serious conditions, study finds
Blood tests that detect inflammation, known as inflammatory marker tests, are not sensitive enough to rule out serious underlying conditions and GPs should not use them for this purpose, according to researchers from the University of Bristol's Centre for Academic Primary Care, University of Exeter and the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West (NIHR CLAHRC West).
Climate change had significant impact on Amazon communities before arrival of Europeans
Climate change had a significant impact on people living in the Amazon rainforest before the arrival of Europeans and the loss of many indigenous groups, a new study shows.
Rinsing system in stomach protects the teeth of ruminants
When they graze, goats, sheep and cows often ingest bits of earth that can be damaging to their teeth.
Study finds bleeding after minimally invasive pad treatments can increase risk of death
Major bleeding occurs in about 4% of surgical procedures to treat blockages in the arteries of the lower leg and leads to an increased risk of in-hospital deaths, according to a new study published in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.
The evolution of puppy dog eyes
Dogs have evolved new muscles around the eyes to better communicate with humans.
Researchers identify enzyme that suppresses immune system in breast cancer
Duke Cancer Institute researchers outlined a potential way to uncloak breast cancer tumors to the body's immune system.
3D reconstruction of craniums elucidates the evolution of New World monkeys
Computed tomography scans of fossils from two extinct species point to evolutionary adaptations and kinship with extant howler, spider and woolly monkeys.
Antioxidant puts up fight, but loses battle against protein linked to Alzheimer's disease
New research may explain why an antioxidant that protects the brain is also associated with deterioration in areas susceptible to Alzheimer's disease.
Molecular analysis could improve the early detection and prevention of endometrial cancer
Researchers from IDIBELL and ICO lead the proposal to evaluate genomic analyzes in cervical cytologies to improve the detection of cancer of the uterine cavity.
Your circle of friends, not your Fitbit, is more predictive of your health
To get a better reading on your overall health and wellness, you'd be better off looking at the strength and structure of your circle of friends, according to a new study in the Public Library of Science journal, PLOS ONE.
Vest helps athletes keep their cool
A new cooling vest for sports athletes may ensure everyone can compete safely in sweltering summer conditions such as the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics, reports a new paper published in Frontiers in Physiology.
Immuno-PET precisely diagnoses IBD inflammation without invasive procedures
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease can be quickly and precisely diagnosed using a new type of nuclear medicine scan.
Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.
Lynx in Turkey: Noninvasive sample collection provides insights into genetic diversity
A team of scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) collected data and samples (feces, hair) from the Caucasian Lynx (Lynx lynx dinniki), in a region of Anatolian Turkey over several years.
Study compares cognitive outcomes in patients with MS based on disease onset
Adults who had pediatric-onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) before they were 18 were more likely to have greater cognitive consequences than patients who developed MS as adults.
Innovative technique uses sensory nanoparticles to detect disease
Like dipping a donut hole in powdered sugar, nanoparticles collect a unique coating of proteins from the blood.
UQ researcher carving a new path for skier safety
A spectacular stack on a ski slope in Canada has led to a University of Queensland researcher determining a simple modification that could improve skier safety on the snow.
Columbia researcher studies how climate change affects crops in India
In a paper published in Environmental Research Letters, Columbia Researcher Kyle Davis found that the yields from grains such as millet, sorghum, and maize are more resilient to extreme weather in India; their yields vary significantly less due to year-to-year changes in climate and generally experience smaller declines during droughts.
Researchers report longest duration of therapeutic gene expression
A therapeutic gene delivered into the spinal canal of infant rhesus monkeys was still being expressed after nearly 4 years, with no evidence of acute or chronic neuronal tox-icity, according to a new study published in Human Gene Therapy.
Scientists unearth green treasure -- albeit rusty -- in the soil
Cornell University engineers have taken a step in understanding how iron in the soil may unlock naturally occurring phosphorus bound in organic matter, which can be used in fertilizer, so that one day farmers may be able to reduce the amount of artificial fertilizers applied to fields.
Gold for iron nanocubes
Hybrid Au/Fe nanoparticles can grow in an unprecedentedly complex structure with a single-step fabrication method.
Gender pay gap shrinking for some female university presidents
While serious economic and societal issues continue to swirl around the gender pay gap, new research published in the INFORMS journal Organization Science shows one area where this inequality is starting to disappear -- higher education.
Cold weather increases the risk of fatal opioid overdoses
While the precise reasons are unclear, an analysis of overdose deaths in Rhode Island and Connecticut showed that cold snaps raised the risk of fatal opioid overdoses by 25%.
Scientists reveal reversible super-glue inspired by snail mucus
Inspired by snail biology, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania, Lehigh University and the Korea Institute of Science and Technology have created a super-glue-like material that is 'intrinsically reversible.' In other words, it can easily come unglued.
Evidence of hiring discrimination against nonwhite groups in 9 countries examined
A new meta-analysis on hiring discrimination by Northwestern University sociologist Lincoln Quillian and his colleagues finds evidence of pervasive hiring discrimination against all nonwhite groups in all nine countries they examined.
New study suggests automation will not wipe out truck-driving jobs
While stories in the media present automation as having the potential to eliminate large swaths of jobs in the near future, a new study by researchers Maury Gittleman and Kristen Monaco argues otherwise.

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