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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 18, 2019


Mount Sinai study reveals new genetic link to heart disease
A collaboration involving the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, the German Heart Center Munich, AstraZeneca, and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has demonstrated that more than 30 percent of heart disease risk stems from genetic factors, much more than was previously understood.
CNIO researchers describe new functions of protein that plays key role in some tumors and rare diseases
Cohesin is a protein complex that plays a key role in cell division; its role in 3D genome structure was described in recent years.
NRL researchers find insights into the formation of the solar system in ancient comet dust
Researchers at the US Naval Research Laboratory have discovered a remnant of ancient dust inside a primitive meteorite.
Study finds alcohol and tobacco appear frequently in UK reality television
A new study in the Faculty of Public Health's Journal of Public Health, published by Oxford University Press, finds that tobacco and alcohol usage are extremely common in British reality television shows.
Record-low fertility rates linked to decline in stable manufacturing jobs
New research by University of Wisconsin-Madison sociologist Nathan Seltzer identifies a link between the long-term decline in manufacturing jobs -- accelerated during the Great Recession -- and reduced fertility rates.
IDIBELL researchers relate the amplification of a chromosomal region with resistance to to a chemotherapeutic drug in breast cancer
IDIBELL researchers relate the amplification of a chromosomal region with resistance to a chemotherapeutic drug in breast cancer.
New AI system manages road infrastructure via Google Street View
A program to monitor street signs automatically via Google Street View will save time and money for municipal authorities.
Health policies key factor in hospitalization of seniors
Government policy and infrastructure have a substantial impact on hospitalization of older adults, according to a University of Waterloo study.
Locally-based Haitian social entrepreneurs empower disaster-stricken villages
The Academy of Management Journal has just published a paper titled Collective emotions in institutional creation work, which has been produced at Aalto University School of Business in collaboration with the University of Birmingham.
Gold adds the shine of reversible assembly to protein cages
An international team including researchers from the University of Tsukuba has shown the reversible self-assembly of protein cages using gold ions to direct the process.
Latest artificial intelligence research from China in Big Data
China is among the leaders in the rapidly advancing artificial intelligence field, and its broad range of cutting-edge research expertise is on display in this special issue on 'Artificial Intelligence in China' of Big Data.
Adequate protein intake associates with lower risk of frailty
Adequate intake of protein is associated with a reduced risk of frailty and prefrailty in older women, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital.
Survivors of breast cancer face increased risk of heart disease
Thanks to advanced medical treatments, women diagnosed with breast cancer today will likely survive the disease.
Terminally ill who request doctors make decisions undergo more aggressive final treatments
Terminally ill patients who request that physicians make decisions on their behalf are more likely to receive aggressive treatments in the weeks before they die, according to a Rutgers study.
Coral bleaching causes a permanent change in fish life
Repeat coral bleaching caused by rising sea temperatures has resulted in lasting changes to fish communities, according to a new long-term study in the Seychelles.
New study shows how environmental disruptions affected ancient societies
A new study shows that over the past 10,000 years, humanity has experienced a number of foundational transitions, or 'bottlenecks.' During these periods of transition, the advance or decline of societies was related to energy availability in the form of a benign climate and other factors.
Does greater immersion in virtual reality lead to a better experience?
Contrary to current industry trends to develop more immersive virtual reality systems, a new study found that a more immersive environment or the presence of real-world distractions could have surprising effects on a participant's recall, description of the virtual encounter, and how positive they feel about the experience.
New drug compound could tackle major life-limiting kidney disease
Scientists from the University of Sheffield are part of an international collaboration to develop a new class of drugs to treat a common genetic kidney disease which is a major cause of kidney failure.
Fossil teeth reveal ancient hyenas in the Arctic
Modern hyenas are known as hunters and scavengers in Asian and African ecosystems such as the savanna.
Study: Marijuana use increases, shifts away from illegal market
A new article published by researchers from University of Puget Sound and University of Washington reports that, based on analysis of public wastewater samples in at least one Western Washington population center, cannabis use both increased and substantially shifted from the illicit market since retail sales began in 2014.
One day of employment a week is all we need for mental health benefits -- study
Latest research finds up to eight hours of paid work a week significantly boosts mental health and life satisfaction.
Yale-led study reveals biology of leptin, the hunger hormone
In a new study, Yale researchers offer insight into leptin, a hormone that plays a key role in appetite, overeating, and obesity.
Speeding up the journey towards clean energy through photocatalyst optimization
Osaka University researchers studied the photocatalytic activity of oxyhalide materials and were able to demonstrate a relationship between parameters measured by time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and oxygen generation.
Gut microbes associated with temperament traits in children
Scientists in the FinnBrain research project of the University of Turku discovered that the gut microbes of a 2.5-month-old infant are associated with the temperament traits manifested at six months of age.
Women's awareness of alcohol's role in breast cancer risk is poor
Women's awareness of alcohol's role in boosting breast cancer risk is poor, indicates research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
ELSI researchers use biological evolution to inspire machine learning
Evolution allows life to explore almost limitless diversity and complexity.
Preoperative management of inflammation may stave off cancer recurrences
A new study out of the Cancer Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center suggests that that traditional cancer treatments can paradoxically promote new tumor growth.
Study shows experimental drug can encourage bone growth in children with dwarfism
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Australia and seven other medical institutions report that an experimental drug called vosoritide, which interferes with certain proteins that block bone growth, allowed the average annual growth rate to increase in a study of 35 children and teenagers with achondroplasia, a form of dwarfism.
Afraid of food? The answer may be in the basal forebrain
A brain circuit in the mouse basal forebrain that is involved in perceiving the outside world, connects with and overrides feeding behaviors regulated by the hypothalamus.
Quantum music to my ears
It sounds like an old-school vinyl record, but the distinctive crackle in the music streamed into Chris Holloway's laboratory is atomic in origin.
Many parents struggle for years to adjust after learning a child's sexual orientation
Two years after their child 'comes out' as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB), many parents still say that it is moderately or very hard for them to adjust to the news, according to a study published today.
UToledo research links fracking to higher radon levels in Ohio homes
A new study at The University of Toledo connects the proximity of fracking to higher household concentrations of radon gas, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the US.
Reducing brain inflammation could treat tinnitus and other hearing loss-related disorders
Inflammation in a sound-processing region of the brain mediates ringing in the ears in mice that have noise-induced hearing loss, according to a study publishing June 18, 2019, in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Shaowen Bao of the University of Arizona, and colleagues.
Wearable device reveals how seals prepare for diving
A wearable noninvasive device based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to investigate blood volume and oxygenation patterns in freely diving marine mammals, according to a study publishing June 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by J.
The fellowship of the wing: Pigeons flap faster to fly together
New research publishing June 18 in the open-access journal, PLOS Biology, led by Dr.
'Hot spots' increase efficiency of solar desalination
Rice University researchers showed they could boost the efficiency of their nanotechnology-enabled solar membrane desalination system by more than 50% simply by adding inexpensive plastic lenses to concentrate sunlight into 'hot spots.'
Surgery to straighten a deviated septum improves quality of life
Surgery to straighten a deviated nasal septum, also known as septoplasty, is worthwhile.
Food neophobia may increase the risk of lifestyle diseases
Your parents were right: you should always try all foods!
Automated cryptocode generator is helping secure the web
In a paper presented at the recent IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, MIT researchers detail a system that, for the first time, automatically generates optimized cryptography code that's usually written by hand.
Apparent increase in tobacco smoking in minority teens after college affirmative action bans
Self-reported rates of cigarette smoking increased in minority 11th and 12th graders after affirmative action bans were implemented in their state, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Atheendar Venkataramani of the University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues.
Uncovering hidden protein structures
Combining research-oriented teaching and interdisciplinary collaboration pays off: Researchers at the University of Konstanz develop a novel spectroscopic approach to investigate hitherto difficult-to-observe protein structures.
Leaving microbes out of climate change conversation has major consequences, experts warn
An international group of leading microbiologists have issued a warning, saying that not including microbes -- the support system of the biosphere -- in the climate change equation will have major negative flow-on effects.
Foreign investment limits cost Canadian economy almost $10 billion a year says new study
Canada is stunting its own economy and blocking businesses from reaping the benefits of innovation by clinging to protectionist policies that curb foreign investment, a new study from the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management says.
Drug boosts growth in youngsters with most common form of dwarfism, new study finds
A drug that helps regulate bone development has boosted growth rates in children with achondroplasia -- the most common type of dwarfism -- in a trial by Melbourne's Murdoch Children's Research Institute.
Witnessing uncivil behavior
When people witness poor customer service, a manager's intervention can help reduce hostility toward the company or brand, according to WSU research.
Cool halo gas caught spinning like galactic disks
A group of astronomers from University of California, Santa Barbara has discovered cool halo gas spinning in the same direction as galactic disks in typical star-forming galaxies.
Rebirth of the Japanese black tea market: challenges for entrepreneurial green tea farmers
We investigated the history of Japanese black tea, its decline, the manufacturing technology and the components of tea.
Inhaling air pollution-like irritant alters defensive heart-lung reflex for hypertension
Using a rat model for high blood pressure (hypertension), a common chronic cardiovascular condition, a University of South Florida team found that preexisting hypertension altered normal reflexes in the lungs to affect autonomic regulation of the heart when an irritant mimicking air pollution was inhaled.
A new manufacturing process for aluminum alloys
Using a novel Solid Phase Processing approach, a research team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory eliminated several steps that are required during conventional extrusion processing of aluminum alloy powders, while also achieving a significant increase in product ductility.
New methods from material sciences in physics find their way into cancer research
A new study on the behavior of water in cancer cells shows how methods usually limited to physics can be of great use in cancer research.
Good physical fitness in middle age linked to lower chronic lung disease risk
Good heart and lung (cardiorespiratory) fitness in middle age is associated with a lower long term risk of chronic lung disease (COPD), suggests Danish research published online in the journal Thorax.
Origin of life - A prebiotic route to DNA
DNA, the hereditary material, may have appeared on Earth earlier than has been assumed hitherto.
Researchers link gene to cannabis abuse
New research from the national psychiatric project, iPSYCH, shows that a specific gene is associated with an increased risk of cannabis abuse.
Redundancies in T cells
Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered redundancies in the biochemical signalling pathways of immune cells.
New insight from Great Barrier Reef coral provides correction factor to climate records
Newly developed geological techniques help uncover the most accurate and high-resolution climate records to date, according to a new study.
Researchers identify compounds that starve melanoma cancer cells of energy
Researchers have found a possible counterpunch to the drug resistance of melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer.
Researchers identify potential modifier genes in patients with charcot-marie-tooth disease
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neurological disorder affecting peripheral motor and/or sensory nerves in humans.
Cell structure linked to longevity of slow-growing Ponderosa Pines
Slow-growing ponderosa pines may have a better chance of surviving longer than fast-growing ones, especially as climate change increases the frequency and intensity of drought, according to new research from the University of Montana.
New clues on tissue damage identified in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus
Research supported by the Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP) on Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (RA/SLE) provides new insights into tissue damage for these autoimmune conditions.
View of the Earth in front of the Sun
An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has discovered two new Earth-like planets near one of our closest stars.
Microfluidics device captures circulating cancer cell clusters
About 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastases, when tumors spread to other vital organs, and a research group recently realized that it's not individual cells but rather distinct clusters of cancer cells that circulate and metastasize to other organs.
Now your phone can become a robot that does the boring work
Purdue University researchers have developed a smartphone app that allows a user to easily program any robot to perform a task, dramatically bringing down the costs of building and programming mobile robots.
Suicide rates among US adolescents, young adults continue to increase
A detailed analysis of recent national data on suicide rates among young people ages 15 to 24 reports 6,241 suicides in 2017, and suicide rates at ages 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 that have increased to their highest point since 2000.
Parental support is key when autistic adolescents want to learn to drive
Autistic adolescents need the support of their parents or guardians to prioritize independence so that they are prepared for learning to drive, according to a study of specialized driving instructors who have worked specifically with young autistic drivers.
Methods in belowground botany
Plant root systems play a crucial role in ecosystems, radically impacting everything from nutrient cycling to species composition.
Brain anatomy links cognitive and perceptual symptoms in autism
Neuroscientists at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) and University College London have found an anatomical link between cognitive and perceptual symptoms in autism.
Dinosaur bones are home to microscopic life
Scientists went looking for preserved collagen, the protein in bone and skin, in dinosaur fossils.
Risky business: New data show how manatees use shipping channels
A new publication in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science tracks West Indian manatee movements through nearshore and offshore ship channels in the north-central Gulf of Mexico.
Yogurt may help to lower pre-cancerous bowel growth risk in men
Eating two or more weekly servings of yogurt may help to lower the risk of developing the abnormal growths (adenomas) which precede the development of bowel cancer -- at least in men -- finds research published online in the journal Gut.
Scientists challenge notion of binary sexuality with naming of new plant species
A collaborative team of scientists from the US and Australia has named a new plant species from the remote Outback.
Alcohol advertisements influence intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations
College students who viewed alcohol advertisements that included objectified images of women were less likely than others to report intentions to intervene in alcohol-facilitated sexual assault situations.
A warming Midwest increases likelihood that farmers will need to irrigate
If current climate and crop-improvement trends continue into the future, Midwestern corn growers who today rely on rainfall to water their crops will need to irrigate their fields, a new study finds.
Dormant neural stem cells in fruit flies activate to generate new brain cells
Researchers in Singapore have discovered the mechanism behind how neural stem cells in fruit flies are activated to stimulate the generation of new brain cells.
Crocs' climate clock: Ancient distribution of Crocs could reveal more about past climates
Underneath their tough exteriors, some crocodilians have a sensitive side that scientists could use to shine light on our ancient climate, according to new findings published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Researchers lay out plan for managing rivers for climate change
New strategies for river management are needed to maintain water supplies and avoid big crashes in populations of aquatic life, researchers argue in a perspective piece published today in Nature.
Democrats and Republicans agree: Take politics out of health policymaking
It's no secret that Americans are politically divided, but a new report offers hope that Democrats and Republicans find common ground on at least one issue: the role of 'evidence' in developing and shaping health laws.
Antidepressants can reduce the empathic empathy
Depression is a disorder that often comes along with strong impairments of social functioning.
Changes in obesity among low-income children enrolled in WIC
This study looked at changes in overweight and obesity among low-income young children enrolled in the food assistance Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) from 2010 to 2016.
A dietary supplement improves skills of an atypical Rett syndrome patient
Administration of the amino acid L-serine, a dietary supplement, contributes to the improvement of the communicative and motor skills of a patient with a mutation that alters glutamate receptors.
Molecular switch for 'exhaustion mode' of immune cells discovered
Tumors and certain viral infections pose a challenge to the human body which the immune system typically fails to hand.
Collaborative research charts course to hundreds of new nitrides
A groundbreaking research effort involving scientists at NREL; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); University of Colorado, Boulder (CU); and other partner institutions around the country recently published 'A Map of the Inorganic Ternary Metal Nitrides,' which appears in Nature Materials.
Scientists discover a powerful antibody that inhibits multiple strains of norovirus
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health and their colleagues at the University of Texas at Austin and the National Institutes of Health Vaccine Research Center have discovered an antibody that broadly inhibits multiple strains of pandemic norovirus, a major step forward in the development of an effective vaccine for the dreaded stomach virus.
Sea otters have low genetic diversity like other threatened species, biologists report
Sea otters have very low genetic diversity, a UCLA-led team of life scientists reports June 18 in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.
How to keep fish in the sea and on the plate
Temporary bans on fishing can be better than permanent ones as a way of allowing fish stocks in an area to recover, while still providing enough to eat, a research team has found.
Size matters: New data reveals cell size sparks genome awakening in embryos
Transitions are a hallmark of life, and so there is a transition during early development when an embryo undergoes biochemical changes, switching from being controlled by maternal molecules to being governed by its own genome.
Emerging device by the fusion of IGZO and ferroelectric-HfO2
Ferroelectric FET (FeFET) is a promising memory device because of its low-power, high-speed and high-capacity.
Atrial fibrillation linked to increased risk of dementia, even in stroke-free patients
Atrial fibrillation is linked to an increased risk of dementia, even in people who have not suffered a stroke, according to the largest study to investigate the association in an elderly population published in the European Heart Journal.
Scientists identify plant that flowers in Brazilian savanna one day after fire
Rapid resprouting and flowering of Bulbostylis paradoxa is proof of the Cerrado biome's superb resilience and its capacity to evolve through fire.
Collegiate affirmative action bans tied to rise in smoking among minority high schoolers
College affirmative action bans may adversely affect the health of underrepresented minority high school students, according to the results of a new study from researchers at Penn Medicine.
Egg-sucking sea slug from Florida's Cedar Key named after Muppets creator Jim Henson
Feet from the raw bars and sherbet-colored condominiums of Florida's Cedar Key, researchers discovered a new species of egg-sucking sea slug, a rare outlier in a group famous for being ultra-vegetarians.
New evidence supports the presence of microbes in the placenta
Researchers report visual evidence supporting the presence of bacteria within the microarchitecture of the placental tissue.
Study shows healthcare workers often care for patients while ill
Large numbers of healthcare workers risk transmitting respiratory viruses to patients and co-workers by attending work even when they have symptoms, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal for the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Researchers find genetic cause for fatal response to Hepatitis A
Researchers have identified a genetic mutation that caused an 11-year-old girl to suffer a fatal reaction to infection with the Hepatitis A virus (HAV).
A new force for optical tweezers awakens
When studying biological cells using optical tweezers, one main issue is the damage caused to the cell by the tool.
Changing how we predict coral bleaching
A remote sensing algorithm offers better predictions of Red Sea coral bleaching and can be fine tuned for use in other tropical marine ecosystems.
Cell division at high speed
When two proteins work together, this worsens the prognosis for lung cancer patients: their chances of survival are particularly poor in this case.
Zipingpu Reservoir reveals climate-tectonics interplay around 2008 Wenchuan earthquake
A new study led by Prof. JIN Zhangdong from the Institute of Earth Environment (IEE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences provided a new insight on the interplay between climate and tectonics from a sediment record in the Zipingpu Reservoir around the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
How hepatitis B and delta viruses establish infection of liver cells
Princeton University researchers have developed a new, scalable cell culture system that allows for detailed investigation of how host cells respond to infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and delta virus (HDV).
Hydrogenation of white phosphorus leads way to safer chemical technology
White phosphorus is well-known for being a highly toxic compound with suffocating scent.
Appearance of deep-sea fish does not signal upcoming earthquake in Japan
The unusual appearance of deep-sea fish like the oarfish or slender ribbonfish in Japanese shallow waters does not mean that an earthquake is about to occur, according to a new statistical analysis.
Monitoring biodiversity with sound: How machines can enrich our knowledge
For a long time, ecologists have relied on their senses when it comes to recording animal populations and species diversity.
Dark centers of chromosomes reveal ancient DNA
Geneticists exploring the dark heart of the human genome have discovered big chunks of Neanderthal and other ancient DNA.
New evidence shows rapid response in the West Greenland landscape to Arctic climate shifts
Evidence from an Arctic ecosystem experiencing rapid climate change reveals surprisingly tight coupling of environmental responses to climate shifts.
Study: How arousal impacts physiological synchrony in relationships
A team of researchers led by a member of the Colorado School of Public Health faculty at the Anschutz Medical Campus examined what type of social interaction is required for people to display physiological synchrony --mutual changes in autonomic nervous system activity.
Good viruses and bad bacteria: A world-first green sea turtle trial
A world-first study at James Cook University in Australia has found an alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections in green sea turtles.

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