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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 27, 2019


Protein offers protection against nerve degeneration in ALS model
Increasing the levels of the anti-aging protein hormone Klotho improves the neurological deficits and prolongs life span in an experimental model with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).
Artificial intelligence controls robotic arm to pack boxes and cut costs
Rutgers computer scientists used artificial intelligence to control a robotic arm that provides a more efficient way to pack boxes, saving businesses time and money.
NJIT conducts the largest-ever simulation of the Deepwater Horizon spill
A team of New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) researchers is conducting the largest-ever simulation of the Deepwater Horizon spill to determine more precisely where hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil dispersed following the drilling rig's explosion in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010.
Mimicking the ultrastructure of wood with 3D-printing for green products
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have succeeded in 3D printing with a wood-based ink in a way that mimics the unique 'ultrastructure' of wood.
Astronomers make history in a split second
In a world first, an Australian-led international team of astronomers has determined the precise location of a powerful one-off burst of cosmic radio waves.
Old at heart: Solution to red giants' age paradox
Four years ago, several red giant stars were discovered to pose a paradox: even though they are built from old stellar material, their large masses indicate a younger age.
Using artificial intelligence to deliver personalized radiation therapy
New Cleveland Clinic-led research shows that artificial intelligence (AI) can use medical scans and health records to personalize the dose of radiation therapy used to treat cancer patients.
Order from chaos: Australian vortex studies are first proof of decades-old theory
Two Australian studies published this week offer the first proof of a 70-year-old theory of turbulence.
New AI tool captures top players' strategies in RNA video game
A new artificial-intelligence tool captures strategies used by top players of an internet-based videogame to design new RNA molecules.
Nuclear stress test helps identify heart attack risk in people with diabetes
Abnormal results on a nuclear stress test are associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiac-related deaths, especially among people with diabetes, according to a new multi-center study.
Patients see multiple clinicians on one visit, thanks to new scheduling protocol
A new patient-centered scheduling protocol is improving the quality, efficiency and convenience of multiprovider health care, according to a recently published paper from the University of Texas at Austin.
Study shows that financial crises lower life satisfaction
Financial crises not only result in severe disruptions to the economic system, they also affect people's life satisfaction.
Helping select the cells with the most potential
Little is known about the mechanisms by which mammalian cells grow and differentiate during the handful of days between fertilization of the egg and implantation of the blastocyst in the uterus.
Functional hair follicles grown from stem cells
Scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys have created natural-looking hair that grows through the skin using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major scientific achievement that could revolutionize the hair growth industry.
Some crocs of the past were plant eaters
Based on careful study of tooth remains, researchers have found that ancient groups of crocodyliforms -- the group including living and extinct relatives of crocodiles and alligators -- were not the carnivores we know today, as reported in the journal Current Biology on June 27, 2019.
New method reveals how well TB antibiotics reach their targets
Scientists have developed a new technique that enables them to visualise how well antibiotics against tuberculosis (TB) reach their pathogenic targets inside human hosts.
New insights into membrane trafficking regulated by ER fusion protein
Prof. HU Junjie from the Institute of Biophysics and his collaborators reported that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fusogen atlastin (ATL) was involved in regulating cargo mobility and COPII formation in the ER.
Reducing overtesting in the emergency department could save millions
A new study finds there's excessive imaging testing being performed in the emergency department.
Too many antioxidants may cause lung cancer spread
A new study explains why lung cancer spreads faster in patients with certain genetic changes, and suggests that taking vitamin E, long thought of as preventive, may cause the same spread.
Technology allows researchers to see patients' real-time pain while in the clinic
Many patients, especially those who are anesthetized or emotionally challenged, cannot communicate precisely about their pain.
Risk prediction model may help determine if a lung nodule will progress to cancer
A risk prediction model developed using clinical and radiological features could stratify individuals presenting with a lung nodule as having high or low risk for lung cancer.
'Mystical' psychedelic compound found in normal brains
A study in rats has revealed the presence of naturally occurring DMT, an increasingly popular hallucinogen.
Researchers grow active mini-brain-networks
Cerebral organoids are artificially grown, 3D tissue cultures that resemble the human brain.
Heart-healthy effects of soy consistent over time, University of Toronto meta-study finds
Researchers at the University of Toronto have found a consistent cholesterol-lowering effect for soy protein, with pooled data from dozens of clinical trials that span the last two decades.
A snapshot in time: Study captures fleeting cell differences that can alter disease risk
In cinema and science fiction, one small change in the past can have major, sometimes life-changing effects in the future.
A new way to make droplets bounce away
MIT researchers have found a way to minimize the contact between falling droplets and surfaces they land on, which could help to improve everything from preventing ice buildup on airplane wings to making waterproof fabrics more effective.
Low-carb 'keto' diet ('Atkins-style') may modestly improve cognition in older adults
In a pilot study of 14 older adults with mild cognitive problems suggestive of early Alzheimer's disease, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet may improve brain function and memory.
Meals on Wheels drivers good early warning system for senior's health and safety issues
Meal delivery drivers bringing food to homebound seniors can be an effective early-warning system for health and safety problems, according to a new study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society by researchers at the West Health Institute, Brown University and Meals on Wheels America.
Scientists discover how plants breathe -- and how humans shaped their 'lungs'
Eperts led by the Institute for Sustainable Food at the University of Sheffield reveal how plants provide a steady flow of air to every cell.
Mutational 'hotspots' in cancer genomes may not necessarily drive cancer growth
A study by investigators from the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center has found that, contrary to common assumptions, the fact that a specific genetic mutation frequently arises in particular tumors may not signify that the mutation drives cancer development and progression.
Health disparity for blacks exists within lung screening guidelines
Guidelines that determine which smokers qualify for CT scans are excluding a significant number of African Americans who develop lung cancer, according to a study released today in JAMA Oncology.
LGBTQ Asian-Americans seen as more 'American'
For Asian-Americans who are gay or lesbian, their sexual orientation may make them seem more 'American' than those who are presumed straight.
'Shooting stars' during cell development impact risk for disease
Fleeting differences in gene expression between individuals that occur at different points in time during cell development may have consequences on the ultimate risk for disease in mature tissues and cell types.
Computational tool predicts how gut microbiome changes over time
A new computational modeling method uses snapshots of which types of microbes are found in a person's gut to predict how the microbial community will change over time.
3D body mapping could identify, treat organs, cells damaged from medical conditions
A Purdue University team has come up with 3D body mapping technology to help treat organs and cells damaged by cancer and other medical issues.
Children living in countryside outperform children living in metropolitan area in motor skills
Residential density is related to children's motor skills, engagement in outdoor play and organised sports. that Finnish children living in the countryside spent more time outdoors and had better motor skills than their age peers in the metropolitan area.
Some extinct crocs were vegetarians
Based on careful study of fossilized teeth, scientists Keegan Melstom and Randall Irmis at the Natural History Museum of Utah at the University of Utah have found that multiple ancient groups of crocodyliforms -- the group including living and extinct relatives of crocodiles and alligators -- were not the carnivores we know today.
One in five haematological cancer patients suffer blood clots or bleeding
In the years following haematological cancer, one in five survivors suffer a blood clot or bleeding which requires hospital treatment.
Deciphering how the brain encodes color and shape
There are hundreds of thousands of distinct colors and shapes that a person can distinguish visually, but how does the brain process all of this information?
Society pays heavy price for failure to diagnose and treat conduct disorder
A new Nature Reviews article suggests much more needs to be done to improve diagnosis and treatment for children with behaviour problems.
NIST presents first real-world test of new smokestack emissions sensor designs
In collaboration with industry, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have completed the first real-world test of a potentially improved way to measure smokestack emissions in coal-fired power plants.
Trees for water quality credits
In a new study, UC Santa Barbara Bren School professor Arturo Keller links reforestation to water quality credits.
NASA's TESS mission finds its smallest planet yet
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered a world between the sizes of Mars and Earth orbiting a bright, cool, nearby star.
What agility and agile mean for you
SIOP has published a new white paper that explores critical elements for organizational effectiveness amid turbulence.
Is use of social media, photo editing apps associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery?
An online survey study suggests how people feel about cosmetic surgery may be associated with what social media and photo editing apps they use.
New research raises prospect of better anti-obesity drugs
Scientists have found a group of brain cells that influence body mass in two ways, by controlling how much we eat as well as how much energy we burn.
Elevated first trimester blood pressure increases risk for pregnancy hypertensive disorders
Elevated blood pressure in the first trimester of pregnancy, or an increase in blood pressure between the first and second trimesters, raises the chances of a high blood pressure disorder of pregnancy, according to a study funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Researchers find fecal marker could help diagnose early signs of chronic gut conditions
Small molecules found in fecal matter could provide clues to the early inflammation found in chronic gut conditions, such as intestinal bowel disease (IBD), and serve as new biomarkers for diagnosis, according to a study led by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
Goat milk formula could benefit infant gut health: Study
Research suggests goat milk infant formula has similar prebiotic properties to breast milk and could play a role in supporting healthy gut function in infants.
Applying pressure is way toward generating more electricity from waste heat
The ability of a thermoelectric material to produce electricity from waste heat was improved more than twofold by a Japan-based research team led by Osaka University.
Reducing delays in identifying visceral leishmaniasis
Women in Indian states with endemic visceral leishmaniasis -- also known as Kala Azar -- should be encouraged to seek care for persistent fever without delay.
Multiple sclerosis: Endogenous retrovirus HERV-W key to nerve tissue damage
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting brain and spinal cord.
Drag-and-drop data analytics
Northstar, an interactive data-science system developed by MIT and Brown University researchers, lets users drag-and-drop and manipulate data, and use a virtual data scientist tool to generate machine-learning models that run prediction tasks on datasets, on a user-friendly touchscreen interface.
Researchers discriminate between mutations that promote cancer growth and those that don't
Until now, researchers believed recurrent mutations (hotspot mutations) in cancer tumors were the important mutations (driver mutations) that promoted cancer progression.
Freeze frame: Researchers solve how cells unfold proteins
Using cryo-EM, researchers capture how Cdc48, harvested directly from yeast cells, unfolds proteins.
Researchers unlock mysteries of complex microRNA oncogenes
A new collaborative study, led by researchers at McGill University's Goodman Cancer Research Centre (GCRC), and published in the journal Molecular Cell, uncovers novel functions for polycistronic microRNAs and showing how cancers such as lymphoma twist these functions to reorganize the information networks that control gene expression.
Dementia study links gene with damage to brain connections
Insights into how a gene that increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease disrupts brain cells have been revealed by scientists.
Mum's workplace exposure to solvents may heighten child's autism risk
A mother's workplace exposure to solvents may heighten her child's risk of autism, suggests research published online in the journal Occupational & Environmental Medicine.
Evaluation of USPSTF lung cancer screening guidelines for African-American smokers
An observational study suggests the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) lung cancer screening guidelines may be too conservative for African-American smokers and that some eligibility criteria changes could result in more screenings of African-American smokers at high risk for lung cancer.
Cryo-electron microscopy at reveals structures of protein that maintains cell membranes
Using cutting-edge electron microscopy, researchers from Aarhus University have determined the first structures of a lipid-flippase.
The far-future ocean: Warm yet oxygen-rich
The higher the temperature, the less gases are dissolved in the water.
Two-in-one drug combining Herceptin with chemotherapy keeps women's breast cancers at bay
Guiding chemotherapy to a tumor by attaching it to the antibody-based target drug Herceptin (trastuzumab) is effective at treating women with breast cancer who have no other treatment options, a new clinical trial shows.
Climate impact of clouds made from airplane contrails may triple by 2050
In the right conditions, airplane contrails can linger in the sky as contrail cirrus -- ice clouds that can trap heat inside the atmosphere.
G20 leaders: Achieving universal health coverage should top your agenda
G20 leaders meeting in Japan this week should focus on fulfilling their obligations to improve and expand their nations' health care systems.
The Lancet Global Health: Mexico City Policy linked to 40% increase in abortions in sub-Saharan African countries reliant on US foreign aid
The most comprehensive study to measure the impact of the Mexico City policy between 1995 and 2014 finds that abortion rates rose substantially among women in sub-Saharan African countries with high exposure to the policy relative to countries less exposed.
FEFU scientists likely found way to grow new teeth for patients
A group of histologists and dentists from School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), teamed up with Russian and Japanese colleagues and found cells that are probably responsible for the formation of human dental tissue.
Extreme exercise can strain the heart without causing permanent damage
Researchers have found no evidence of elevated cardiac risk in runners who completed a 24-hour ultramarathon (24UM), despite the transient elevation of blood biomarkers that measure cardiac health.
Rethink environmental regulations in Africa, study urges
Conflict over resource extraction is rampant in sub-Saharan Africa, with small-scale miners violently pitted against multinational mining corporations -- and the state security forces that protect them -- for access.
Model predicts bat species with the potential to spread deadly Nipah virus in India
Since its discovery in 1999, Nipah virus has been reported almost yearly in Southeast Asia, with Bangladesh and India being the hardest hit.
Sea slugs use algae's bacterial 'weapons factory' in three-way symbiotic relationship
The sea slug Elysia rufescens fights predators by wielding toxic chemicals that it acquires from eating algae.
Despite the ACA, millions of Americans with cardiovascular disease still can't get care
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans, yet millions with CVD or cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) still can't access the care they need, even years after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
Seven-country study reveals viruses as new leading cause of global childhood pneumonia
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viruses now appear to be the main causes of severe childhood pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries, highlighting the need for vaccines against these pathogens, according to a study from a consortium of scientists from around the world, led by a team at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Researchers verify 70-year-old theory of turbulence in fluids
Pilots and air travellers know turbulence can be powerful, but science has struggled to fully explain the phenomenon.
Brain structure determines individual differences regarding music sensitivity
The white matter structure in the brain reflects music sensitivity, according to a study by the research group on Cognition and Brain Plasticity of the Institute of Neurosciences of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (UB-IDIBELL).
Pinpointing the extragalactic origin of a single fast radio burst
The origin of a single, transient radio pulse has been pinpointed to a distant galaxy several billion light years away, representing the first localization of a non-repeating fast radio burst (FRB).
Men ask most of the questions at scientific conferences; we can choose to change that
Even in a majority-women audience at an academic conference, men ask questions most of the time, researchers report on June 27, 2019 in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
What journalism professors are teaching students -- about their futures
A new study from Rice University and Rutgers University finds educators are encouraging aspiring journalists to look for work outside the news business.
Menstrual symptoms linked to nearly 9 days of lost productivity through presenteeism every year
Menstrual period symptoms may be linked to nearly nine days of lost productivity every year through presenteeism, suggests the largest study of its kind, published in the online journal BMJ Open.
The world needs a global system to detect and halt the spread of emerging crop diseases
Climate change and global trade drive the spread, emergence, and re-emergence of crop disease, and containment action is often inefficient, especially in low-income countries.
Experiment reverses the direction of heat flow
A study led by Brazilian scientists used quantum correlations to make heat flow from a colder to a hotter medium without adding external energy, affording a deeper understanding of the second law of thermodynamics.
UMN researcher studies hip fracture probability on women in late life
New University of Minnesota Medical School research evaluates the impact of multimorbidity on the probability of hip fractures.
Life data economics: calling for new models to assess the value of human data
After the collapse of the blockchain bubble a number of research organisations are developing platforms to enable individual ownership of life data and establish the data valuation and pricing models.
Infant mortality is higher for low-skilled parents
Infants of women with a short-term education are more likely to die within the first year of life.
New cuprate superconductor may challenge the classical wisdom
Superconductivity is one of the most mysterious phenomena in nature in that the materials can conduct electrical current without any resistance.
Safe, low-cost, modular, self-programming robots
Many work processes would be almost unthinkable today without robots.
Malaria hijacks your genes to invade your liver
Duke University researchers have identified more than 100 'hijacked' human genes that malaria parasites commandeer to take up residence inside their victim's liver during the silent early stages of infection, before symptoms appear.
People's motivations bias how they gather information
A new study suggests people stop gathering evidence earlier when the data supports their desired conclusion than when it supports the conclusion they wish was false.
UI researchers validate optimum composites structure created with additive manufacturing
Creating objects out of polymers using additive manufacturing techniques is perfect for a prototype, but not for structural materials that require strength or stiffness.
A Trojan horse? Immune cells ferry deadly fungus from mouse lung into the blood
A report today (June 27) in PLOS Pathogens shows how inhaled fungal spores exit the lung and trigger a fatal infection in mice.
Found: A sweet way to make everyday things almost indestructible
A natural 'armor' made of sugar shocked even scientists with its durability.
'Mother-of-pearl' inspired glass shatters the impact performance of alternatives
Inspired by the properties of nacre -- the opalescent biological composite found inside seashells -- researchers have engineered a new glass that's ductile yet tough, and highly impact-resistant.
Insects need empathy
In February, environmentalists in Germany collected 1.75 million signatures for a 'save the bees law.' Citizens can stop insect declines by halting habitat loss and fragmentation, producing food without pesticides and limiting climate change, say the authors of this Perspectives piece in Science.
Nutritional cues regulate pancreatic tumor's 'cell drinking'
Desperate for nutrients, rapidly growing pancreatic tumors resort to scavenging 'fuel' through an alternative supply route, called macropinocytosis.
Space station mold survives high doses of ionizing radiation
The International Space Station, like all human habitats in space, has a nagging mold problem.
How obesity re-wires the brain's neurological food suppression system
Overeating, by cutting the brain's natural brakes on food intake, may result in neurological changes that continue to fuel pathological eating and lead to obesity, reports a new study in mice.
Urinary tract and other infections may trigger different kinds of stroke
Several infections have been identified as possible stroke triggers, with urinary tract infections showing the strongest link with ischemic stroke.
Lightning bolt underwater
Electrochemical cells help recycle CO2. However, the catalytic surfaces get worn down in the process.
One simple change cut unnecessary imaging for cancer patients in half
Most 'nudges' seek to increase a behavior, but this is one of the few employed to reduce it.
Discovered: A new property of light
Researchers have discovered that light can possess a new property, self-torque.
Do you feel the other closer to you when she/he contingently responds to your action?
Researchers from University of Toyama and Toyohashi University of Technology have found that social contingency modulates one's perceptual representation of the environment.
Influence of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine jumps 25%
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine again ranks among the top 5 medical imaging journals in the world.
Natural biodiversity protects rural farmers' incomes from tropical weather shocks
A big data study covering more than 7,500 households across 23 tropical countries shows that natural biodiversity could be effective insurance for rural farmers against drought and other weather-related shocks.
Solar energy could turn the Belt and Road Initiative green
The region covered by the Belt and Road Initiative has significant potential to be powered by solar energy, researchers report n the journal Joule.
Rich defects boosting the oxygen evolution reaction
The morphology and electronic structure of LDHs were simultaneously tuned to improve the OER catalytic activity by mild solvothermal reduction using ethylene glycol.
How inhaled fungal spores cause fatal meningitis
Pathogenic fungal spores capitalize on host immune cells to escape the lung and gain access to the brain to cause fatal disease in mice, according to a study published June 27, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Christina Hull of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and colleagues.
Cosmic cat and mouse: Astronomers capture and tag a fleeting radio burst
Gemini Observatory provides critical observations that confirm the distance to a mysterious, very short-lived, radio outburst from a galaxy several billions of light years away.
Growing embryonic tissues on a chip
Researchers at EPFL have developed a method to stimulate human stem cells to organize themselves into ordered layers of different cell types.
A peculiar ground-state phase for superconductor NbSe2 -- It's a Bose metal!
The application of large enough magnetic fields results in the disruption of superconducting states in materials even at drastically low temperature, thereby changing them directly into insulators -- or so was traditionally thought.
Study examines association of naloxone coprescription laws on naloxone rx dispensing
In a new study published in JAMA Network Open, University of Kentucky researchers, in collaboration with researchers from Ferris State University, examined whether legal mandates on naloxone coprescription in certain states increased naloxone dispensing.
Simple, accurate and inexpensive: A new method for exploring groundwater
Water is a vital resource for people and the environment.
Breakthrough in how cells link together has implications in the proliferation of cancer
The discovery, which builds on Dr. Rafael Garcia-Mata's research focus of how cancer cells spread throughout the body, is intriguing because it explains the behavior of cells that are by far the most common starting place for cancer.
Music develops the spoken language of the hearing-impaired
Finnish researchers have compiled guidelines for international use for utilising music to support the development of spoken language.
New Zealand and Australian researchers observe 70-year-old prediction, with wide-reaching effects
As you stir milk into a cup of coffee, you will see fluid turbulence in action -- rapid mixing that has defied deep scientific understanding.
Researchers criticize study calling for expansion of genetic testing for breast cancer
Researchers at the University of Cambridge have criticized a recent study calling into question guidelines on genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer.
UT study shows how to produce natural gas while storing carbon dioxide
New research at The University of Texas at Austin shows that injecting air and carbon dioxide into methane ice deposits buried beneath the Gulf of Mexico could unlock vast natural gas energy resources while helping fight climate change by trapping the carbon dioxide underground.
Pathway discovered that prevents buildup of Alzheimer's protein
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have discovered a pathway that functions like a car wash to prevent the buildup of a toxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease.
'Can you hear me, now?' A new strategy 'raises the volume' of gut-body communication
A model system enables the study of enteroendocrine cells, one of the most important moderators of communication between the gut and the rest of the body.
NASA's terra satellite eyes tropical storm Alvin
Visible imagery from NASA's Terra satellite showed Tropical Storm Alvin had organized and strengthened into a strong tropical storm, just over 500 miles from Mexico's Baja California peninsula.
Autism health challenges could be explained by problem behaviors
For years, researchers have documented both gastrointestinal issues and problematic behaviors, such as aggression, in many children with autism spectrum disorder.
Higher salt intake can cause gastrointestinal bloating
A study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that individuals reported more gastrointestinal bloating when they ate a diet high in salt.
New basic understanding of how lung cancer spreads
Lung cancer cells use antioxidants, endogenous or dietary, to spread in the body by activating a protein called BACH1 and increasing the uptake and use of sugar, Swedish and American researchers report in two independent studies.
New technology gives insight into how nanomaterials form and grow
A new form of electron microscopy allows researchers to examine nanoscale tubular materials while they are 'alive' and forming liquids -- a first in the field.

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#534 Bacteria are Coming for Your OJ
What makes breakfast, breakfast? Well, according to every movie and TV show we've ever seen, a big glass of orange juice is basically required. But our morning grapefruit might be in danger. Why? Citrus greening, a bacteria carried by a bug, has infected 90% of the citrus groves in Florida. It's coming for your OJ. We'll talk with University of Maryland plant virologist Anne Simon about ways to stop the citrus killer, and with science writer and journalist Maryn McKenna about why throwing antibiotics at the problem is probably not the solution. Related links: A Review of the Citrus Greening...