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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 09, 2019


New antibacterial fillings from Tel Aviv University may combat recurring tooth decay
A new study by Tel Aviv University researchers finds potent antibacterial capabilities in novel dental restoratives, or filling materials.
Criteria for bariatric surgery should consider more than just patient's weight
More than one-third of Americans are obese, and while more than 250,000 bariatric surgeries are performed annually in the United States, experts at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and 45 worldwide scientific and medical societies say surgery should be an option for many more patients.
Storing data in music
Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a technique for embedding data in music and transmitting it to a smartphone.
Fall in GP antibiotic prescribing has been slowest for older patients and those with an unclear diagnosis
GP in England are prescribing fewer antibiotics and when they prescribe them they are increasingly choosing drugs that target a narrow range of organisms rather than broad spectrum antibiotics, suggests new research from King's College London published online in BMJ Open.
Human pregnancy dependent on cells evolved in platypus-like animal 300 million years ago
Platelet cells, which prevent mammals from bleeding non-stop, first evolved around 300 million years ago in an egg-laying animal similar to the modern duck-billed platypus, finds joint research by UCL and Yale University.
New antibiotics developed by Inserm and Université de Rennes 1
Prof. Brice Felden and his team at the Inserm and Université de Rennes 1 'Bacterial Regulatory RNAs and Medicine' joint laboratory (U1230) has developed two new antibiotics that do not trigger resistance when they are used to treat infection in mice.
A clearer picture of global ice sheet mass
Fluctuations in the masses of the world's largest ice sheets carry important consequences for future sea level rise, but understanding the complicated interplay of atmospheric conditions, snowfall input and melting processes has never been easy to measure due to the sheer size and remoteness inherent to glacial landscapes.
Poor quality social relationships linked to bone loss in postmenopausal women
Poor quality social relationships that contribute to psychosocial stress may be associated with bone loss in postmenopausal women, suggests research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
A drier future sets the stage for more wildfires
November 8, 2018 was a dry day in Butte County, California.
Participating in local food projects may improve mental health
A new study soon to be available in the Journal of Public Health, published by Oxford University Press, suggests that participating in local food projects may have a positive effect on psychological health.
New technique developed to detect autism in children
Researchers have developed a new technique to help doctors more quickly and accurately detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children.
Inbreeding depression reduces litter sizes in golden retrievers
Data from the Morris Animal Foundation Golden Retriever Lifetime Study shows that inbreeding depression, the result of breeding closely-related individuals, reduces litter sizes in purebred golden retrievers.
Unusual eating behaviors may be a new diagnostic indicator for autism
Atypical eating behaviors may be a sign a child should be screened for autism, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers who found that atypical eating behaviors were present in 70% of children with autism, which is 15 times more common than in neurotypical children.
Teens 'mocked' by their parents are at greater risk for bullying, victimization
New evidence suggests that adolescent bullying and victimization may have origins in the home.
Metabolic reprogramming of branched-chain amino acid facilitates drug resistance in lung cancer
Research teams led by Dr. Ji Hongbin at the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dr.
Coral reefs shifting away from equator
Coral reefs are retreating from equatorial waters and establishing new reefs in more temperate regions, according to new research in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series.
Cyborg-like microchip valve driven by earthworm muscle
Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have developed the first microchip valve powered by living cells.
Study highlights need for tailored skin cancer prevention programs
Researchers at the GW Cancer Center found that sun safety practices for attendees at skin cancer screening events differ from the general public.
Kidney patients are neglected in clinical trials
The exclusion of patients with kidney diseases from clinical trials remains an unsolved problem that hinders optimal care of these patients.
Exercise improves brain function in overweight and obese individuals
New findings out of the University of Tübingen show that, on top of its benefits for metabolism, mood, and general health, exercise also improves brain function.
Temple researchers: Sorting protein in neurons defends against neurodegenerative disease
Like a sorting machine in an assembly line, a molecule known as VPS35 detects and removes defective proteins from neurons.
Body plan evolution not as simple as once believed
Hox gene do not work alone to determine the layout of vertebrae, limbs and other body parts.
Hinge-like protein may open new doors in cystic fibrosis treatment
Drugs known as potentiators alleviate some symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
Discovery in mice points to potential treatment for vestibular disorders
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found a way to regenerate hair cells in the inner ears of mice, allowing the animals to recover vestibular function.
New study: How much do climate fluctuations matter for global crop yields?
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation has been responsible for widespread, simultaneous crop failures in recent history, according to a new study.
Cardiac arrest among hospitalized patients may be underestimated
More patients may be having cardiac arrests in the hospital than previously believed.
Herbal supplement used to treat addiction and pain found unsafe by researchers
The herb kratom is increasingly being used to manage pain and treat opioid addiction, but it's not safe to use as an herbal supplement, according to new research led by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Addicted to ran, ovarian cancer cells stop moving when deprived
Did you know that 90% of cancer patients die from distant metastasis?
Growth failure in preterm infants tied to altered gut bacteria
Extremely premature infants who fail to grow as expected have delayed development of their microbiome, or communities of bacteria and other micro-organisms living in the gut, according to a new study published in Scientific Reports.
New shingles vaccine reduced occurrence in patients who had stem cell transplantation
The new, nonlive shingles vaccine reduced the occurrence of shingles (herpes zoster) compared with placebo among patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation with their own stem cells.
Paris Agreement does not rule out ice-free Arctic
IBS research team reveals a considerable chance for an ice-free Arctic Ocean at global warming limits stipulated in the Paris Agreement.
Ben-Gurion University researchers train dogs to respond to haptic vibration commands
'Our research results showed that dogs responded to these vibrotactile cues as well or even better than vocal commands,' says Prof.
Gorillas found to live in 'complex' societies, suggesting deep roots of human social evolution
Algorithms reveal 'social tiers' in gorillas seen in only a few other species, such as dolphins and humans.
Blue light at night increases the consumption of sweets in rats
A new study demonstrates that just one hour of exposure to blue light at night -- the kind of light produced by the screens of our many devices -- raises blood sugar levels and increases sugar consumption in male rats.
Vitamin C is key to protection of exciting new nanomaterial
In work that could open a floodgate of future applications for a new class of nanomaterials known as MXenes (pronounced 'Maxines'), researchers from Texas A&M University have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to prevent the materials' rapid degradation.
Charge transfer within transition-metal dyes analysed
Transition-metal complexes in dye-based solar cells are responsible for converting light into electrical energy.
New blood test for human TB may also identify people at most risk
A new study conducted by researchers in Leicester and Nottingham has shown the potential for a new blood test to not only diagnose human tuberculosis (TB) but also identify those at most risk of developing the disease, according to findings published in medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Parents who help unemployed adult children curb behavior to offset costs
Parents who financially help their unemployed adult children offset such costs by adjusting their behavior, particularly by spending less money on food, working more and reducing retirement savings, according to a new RAND Corporation study.
Pregnancy outcomes greatly improved in lupus patients
A new study published July 8, 2019 in the Annals of Internal Medicine demonstrates that pregnancy outcomes in the last two decades have drastically improved for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Most dog and cat owners not aware of pet blood donation schemes
Most dog and cat owners are not aware of pet blood donation schemes and animal blood banks, finds a survey of pet owners published in Vet Record.
Improved model could help scientists better predict crop yield, climate change effects
A new computer model incorporates how microscopic pores on leaves may open in response to light -- an advance that could help scientists create virtual plants to predict how higher temperatures and rising levels of carbon dioxide will affect food crops.
Small-volume, high-throughput organic synthesis
University of Groningen Professor of Drug Design, Alexander Dömling, has devised a method to rapidly synthesize thousands of new molecules and evaluate their properties as potential drugs.
Characterizing the 'arrow of time' in open quantum systems
Even in the strange world of open quantum systems, the arrow of time points steadily forward -- most of the time.
Perception of lower socioeconomic standing stimulates appetite
Recent research suggests that the psychological consequences of being in a disadvantaged position in society may stimulate appetite and increase eating regardless of one's ability to access healthier foods.
Organic solar cells will last 10 years in space
Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology, the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS, and the Department of Chemistry of MSU presented solar cells based on conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives, that demonstrated record-high radiation stability and withstand gamma radiation of >6,000 Gy raising hopes for their stable operation on the near-earth orbit during 10 years or even longer.
Aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in fish semen
An aphrodisiac pheromone discovered in the semen of sea lampreys attracts ready-to-mate females, according to a study publishing July 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Anne M.
Could vacuum physics be revealed by laser-driven microbubble?
Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel mechanism which they refer to as microbubble implosion (MBI) in 2018.
'Hunger hormone' enhances memory
A team of neuroscience researchers at the University of Southern California have identified a surprising new role for the 'hunger hormone' ghrelin.
Elbows key for walkers' efficiency
Why do walkers hold their arms straight and runners bend the arm at the elbow?
On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves
A theory from 2006 predicts that it should be possible to use graphene in a magnetic field not only to absorb terahertz and infrared light on demand but also to control the direction of the circular polarisation.
Food and alcohol reduce activity in 'hunger neurons' via different brain pathways
How does the brain process rewards? Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are investigating how the brain responds differently to two commonly ingested rewards -- food and alcohol -- to understand how they alter neural activity and behavior.
Intermittent fasting protects mice from type 2 diabetes
Every-other-day fasting substantially reduces the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes in mice eating a fat-rich diet, according to new research out of the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke.
Brain stimulation enhances motivation to work for food
Electrical stimulation of the brain through the vagus nerve increases the motivations to work for food, according to recent findings of a research group at the University of Tübingen.
Exactly how fast is the universe expanding?
The collision of two neutron stars (GW170817) flung out an extraordinary fireball of material and energy that is allowing a Princeton-led team of astrophysicists to calculate a more precise value for the Hubble constant, the speed of the universe's expansion.
'Chaos' in the home linked to poor asthma control in children
A chaotic household, as well as child and parent depression, are risk factors for worse asthma outcomes in urban minority children, according to a new paper published in the journal Pediatrics.
High-safety, flexible and scalable Zn//MnO2 rechargeable planar micro-batteries
Screen printed Zn//MnO2 planar micro-batteries have been fabricated with intriguing features of scalability, environmental friendliness, high safety and metal-free current collectors, possessing high volumetric energy density, excellent rate capability and long-life cycling durability.
From centenarians' genetic code, a potential new therapy against cardiovascular diseases
Some people live much longer than average, partly thanks to their DNA.
Goats can distinguish emotions from the calls of other goats
Goats can probably distinguish subtle emotional changes in the calls of other goats, according to a new study led by Queen Mary University of London.
Study identifies the best healthy eating nudges
In a meta-analysis of real-life experiments drawn from food science, nutrition, health economics, marketing and psychology, the authors find that behavioral nudges -- facilitating action rather than providing knowledge or inducing feelings -- can reduce daily energy intake by up to 209 kcal, the same number of calories as in 21 cubes of sugar.
Smells like love...to sea lampreys
Some people are drawn to cologne; others are attracted to perfume.
Dartmouth study finds that parental 'memory' is inherited across generations
A new study by Dartmouth researchers reveals that female fruit flies switch to ethanol-rich food when their eggs are threatened by predatory wasps, and that this adaptation is inherited across five generations of their offspring.
Decentralising science may lead to more reliable results
Research results on drug-gene interactions are much less likely to be replicated if they are performed by hierarchical communities or close-knit groups of frequent collaborators who use similar methods, instead of independent groups of scientists using different methods.
Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy
Taniguchi and colleagues developed a new methodology that allows the study of CRISPR-mediated effects in cells while accurately ascertaining the exact DNA changes that caused them.
Insulin nasal spray may boost cognitive function in obese adolescents by improving connectivity
Researchers at the Modern Diet and Physiology Research Center and Department of Pediatrics at Yale School of Medicine are investigating whether insulin delivered directly to the brain by nasal inhalation can enhance communication between brain regions and improve cognition in adolescents with obesity and prediabetes.
Scientists reveal close connections between the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes and East Asia
In recent years, increasingly more observational and simulation evidence shows that the mid-high latitude climate variability has an important impact on the East Asian monsoon climate, and its impact is as significant as the tropical climate variability, which has been of more concern in previous studies.
Early first pregnancy is the key to successful reproduction of cheetahs in zoos
Cheetah experts in many zoos around the world are at a loss.
Lovebirds ace maneuvers in the dark
In order to navigate extreme crosswinds in the dark, lovebirds only need a single point of light.
Nanoscale visualization of the distribution and optical behavior of dopant in GaN
In Gallium Nitride (GaN) implanted with a small amount of magnesium (Mg), NIMS succeeded for the first time in visualizing the distribution and optical behavior of the implanted Mg at the nanoscale which may help in improving electrical performance of GaN based devices.
Physicists' finding could revolutionize information transmission
A research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, has observed, characterized, and controlled dark trions in a semiconductor -- ultraclean single-layer tungsten diselenide -- a feat that could increase the capacity and alter the form of information transmission.
Clownfish reproduction threatened by artificial light in coral reefs
The movie Finding Nemo could have a much darker sequel -- as artificial light in coral reefs leaves the famous fish unable to reproduce offspring, according to a new study.
Therapeutic strategies based on evolutionary principles may improve patient outcomes
In a new article published by Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers propose the evolutionary dynamics of background extinctions suggest this focus on finding new and better drugs may have neglected opportunities to develop new and better treatment strategies to improve outcomes with currently available drugs.
Symptom-triggered medication for neonatal opioid withdrawal yields shorter hospital stays
A study led by researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) found that symptom-triggered medication dosing for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome instead of infants receiving a fixed schedule of medication with a long taper reduced the length of their hospital stay.
Interstellar iron isn't missing, it's just hiding in plain sight
ASU cosmochemists have found that interstellar iron and carbon form a kind of linked molecule that cloaks the iron -- and helps stabilize large carbon molecules.
Mathematical modeling for translational research of new CRSD medication
Mathematicians' new modeling has identified major sources of interspecies and inter-individual variations in the clinical efficacy of a clock-modulating drug: photosensitivity and PER2 level.
Decades-long butterfly study shows common species on the decline
The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.
New analysis shows drug slows down respiratory decline
Duchenne muscular dystrophy occurs in boys and is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness leading to a decline in respiratory function.
Light therapy could replace opioids as main treatment for cancer treatment side effect
A worldwide coalition of researchers and clinicians has agreed that light therapy is among the most effective interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, painful ulcers in the mouth resulting from cancer therapy.
A concussion can cost your job -- especially if you are young and well educated
A seemingly harmless concussion can cause the loss of a job -- especially for patients who are in their thirties and for those with a higher education.
Tour de France pelotons governed by sight, not aerodynamics
In a recent study, researchers reveal that vision is the main factor in the formation and shape of a peloton.
Fear of predators increases risk of illness
Predators are not only a deadly threat to many animals, they also affect potential prey negatively simply by being nearby.
New research links early-life mortality and family structure, education, income
A new study reveals substantially higher risks of death between ages 1-24 for children living in families with lower levels of parental education, lower levels of family income, and/or for those living in a single parent family -- all independent of one another.
Smoke from Canadian fires drifts into United States
Canada has been battling a very active and destructive fire season on multiple fronts this year.
University of Pittsburgh group brings computation and experimentation closer together
A bioengineering group from the University of Pittsburgh is bringing the worlds of computational modeling and experimentation closer together by developing a methodology to help analyze the wealth of imaging data provided by advancements in imaging tools and automated microscopes.
Old protein, new tricks: UMD connects a protein to antibody immunity for the first time
How can a protein be a major contributor in the development of birth defects, and also hold the potential to provide symptom relief from autoimmune diseases like lupus?
New high-definition satellite radar can detect bridges at risk of collapse from space
An early warning system to identify at-risk structures using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been developed.
Scientists identify new virus-killing protein
A new protein called KHNYN has been identified as a missing piece in a natural antiviral system that kills viruses by targeting a specific pattern in viral genomes, according to new findings published today in eLife.
Paleoproterozoic dolomites elucidate the development of Precambrian marine systems
Dolomite is widely in the metal industry as a fireproof material and in construction, such as for joint grouting in panel building.
Scientists decode DNA secrets of world's toughest bean
UC Riverside scientists have decoded the genome of black-eyed peas, offering hope for feeding Earth's expanding population, especially as the climate changes.
Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?
A boiling point of 5900 degrees Celsius and diamond-like hardness in combination with carbon: tungsten is the heaviest metal, yet has biological functions - especially in heat-loving microorganisms.
Deep learning-powered 'DeepEC' helps accurately understand enzyme functions
A deep learning-powered computational framework, 'DeepEC,' will allow the high-quality and high-throughput prediction of enzyme commission numbers, which is essential for the accurate understanding of enzyme functions.
How to equip the brake of immunity
Japanese scientists at Toho University in Tokyo discovered a new mechanism to generate regulatory T cells (Treg cells), lymphocytes preventing autoimmunity and excess immune responses.
Do teaching and communicating about microfluidics advances need improvement?
Microfluidics and learning-on-a-chip research -- involving the manipulation of small amounts of fluids to run miniaturized experiments -- are a prolific research field.
US Naval Research Laboratory 'connects the dots' for quantum networks
Researchers at the US Naval Research Laboratory developed a novel technique that could enable new technologies that use properties of quantum physics for computing, communication and sensing, which may lead to 'neuromorphic' or brain-inspired computing.
20 overlooked benefits of distributed solar energy
A study released today provides the most complete list yet of the advantages of solar energy -- from carbon sequestration to improvements for pollinator habitat.
NUS scientists discover how to 'lock' heat in place using quantum mechanics
In a global first, NUS scientists have demonstrated that heat energy can be manipulated by utilising the quantum mechanical principle of anti-parity-time symmetry.

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