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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 18, 2019


Species on the move
A total of 55 animal species in the UK have been displaced from their natural ranges or enabled to arrive for the first time on UK shores because of climate change over the last 10 years (2008-2018) -- as revealed in a new study published today by scientists at international conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London).
UCF team discovers, names new frog species
An international team of researchers have identified and described two new frog species and have named one of them after a University of Central Florida professor.
UMN Medical School researchers explain muscle loss with menopause
New University of Minnesota Medical School research is the first to show that estrogen is essential to maintaining muscle stem cell health.
Alzheimer's gene may impact cognitive health before adulthood
In the journal Neurobiology of Aging, UC Riverside psychology Chandra Reynolds asserts that those carrying the APOE4 gene score lower on IQ tests during childhood and adolescence.
CCNY physicists use mathematics to trace neuro transitions
Unique in its application of a mathematical model to understand how the brain transitions from consciousness to unconscious behavior, a study at The City College of New York's Benjamin Levich Institute for Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics may have just advanced neuroscience appreciably.
Tornadoes, windstorms pave way for lasting plant invasions
When tornadoes touch down, we brace for news of property damage, injuries, and loss of life, but the high-speed wind storms wreak environmental havoc, too.
China's plans to solve the mysteries of the moon
China, in collaboration with several countries, is now at the forefront of lunar exploration.
Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure more in women than men
Diabetes confers a greater excess risk of heart failure in women than men, according to new research in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).
Genetic differences between strains of Epstein-Barr virus can alter its activity
Researchers at the University of Sussex have identified how differences in the genetic sequence of the two main strains of the cancer-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can alter the way the virus behaves when it infects white blood cells.
Lancet series, co-authored by NYU's Benzian, calls for 'radical reform' of oral healthcare
A special Lancet Series on Oral Health, published today in The Lancet, presents an 'urgent need for radical reform' of oral healthcare to prioritize prevention and integrate dentistry into primary care.
Early mammal fossil reveals the evolutionary origins of having a loose tongue
Our highly mobile mammalian tongues, which allow us to swallow chewed food and suckle milk as babies, may have evolutionary origins in some of our most early mammalioform ancestors, according to a new study, which finds remarkably complex and modern mammal-like hyoid bones in a newly discovered 165-million-year-old mammaliaform species.
'Crystal clocks' used to time magma storage before volcanic eruptions
The molten rock that feeds volcanoes can be stored in the Earth's crust for as long as a thousand years, a result which may help with volcanic hazard management and better forecasting of when eruptions might occur.
Sperm may offer the uterus a 'secret handshake'
Why does it take 200 million sperm to fertilize a single egg?
Rising CO2, climate change projected to reduce availability of nutrients worldwide
The most comprehensive synthesis of climate change impacts on the global availability of nutrients to date finds that, over the next 30 years, climate change and higher CO2 could significantly reduce the availability of critical nutrients, representing another challenge to global development and the fight to end undernutrition.
Emotion-detection applications built on outdated science, report warns
Software that purportedly reads emotions in faces is being deployed or tested for a variety of purposes, including surveillance, hiring, clinical diagnosis, and market research.
Drinking red wine on the red planet
BIDMC researchers report that a daily moderate dose of resveratrol significantly preserved muscle function and mitigated muscle atrophy in an animal model mimicking Mars' partial gravity.
U of Guelph researchers learn how low oxygen builds a bigger, stronger alligator heart
University of Guelph researchers are beginning to understand why some alligators develop stronger hearts after enduring low oxygen during early development in the egg.
Algae-killing viruses spur nutrient recycling in oceans
Scientists have confirmed that viruses can kill marine algae called diatoms and that diatom die-offs near the ocean surface may provide nutrients and organic matter for recycling by other algae, according to a Rutgers-led study.
The Lancet: Big Sugar and neglect by global health community fuel oral health crisis
Oral health has been isolated from traditional healthcare and health policy for too long, despite the major global public health burden of oral diseases, according to a Lancet Series on Oral Health, published today in The Lancet.
Red wine's resveratrol could help Mars explorers stay strong, says Harvard study
Mars is about 9 months from Earth with today's tech, NASA reckons.
Many of the deadliest cancers receive the least amount of research funding
Many of the deadliest or most common cancers get the least amount of nonprofit research funding, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study.
Cleaning our water with groundbreaking 'bioinspired' chemistry
Synthetic chemicals, including pesticides, medications and household cleaners, often end up in our waterways.
Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mice's minds
Hallucinations are spooky and, fortunately, fairly rare. But, a new study suggests, the real question isn't so much why some people occasionally experience them.
TGen-led study finds link between gene and severe liver damage
Researchers have found that a gene known as AEBP1 may play a central role in the development, severity and potential treatment of liver disease, according to a study by Temple University, the Geisinger Obesity Institute and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope.
Salt regulations linked to 9,900 cases of cardiovascular disease and 1,500 cancer cases
A relaxation of UK industry regulation of salt content in food has been linked with 9,900 additional cases of cardiovascular disease, and 1,500 cases of stomach cancer.
The art of sensing within the skin
The art of tattooing may have found a diagnostic twist.
A better avenue for neurosurgery to improve outcomes
Changing the route of entry for minimally invasive neurosurgery provides better outcomes for a wide range of interventions, and is preferred by patients.
Carnegie Mellon research identifies new pathways for sensory learning in the brain
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed an automated, robotic training device that allows mice to learn at their leisure.
'Trojan horse' anticancer drug disguises itself as fat
A stealthy new drug-delivery system disguises chemotherapeutics as fat in order to outsmart, penetrate and destroy tumors.
Women now seen as equally as or more competent then men
Women have come a long way in the United States over the last 70 years, to the point where they are now seen as being as competent as men, if not more so, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Discovery shows how difficult-to-treat prostate cancer evades immune system
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered how an aggressive form of prostate cancer called double-negative prostate cancer (DNPC) metastasizes by evading the the immune system.
Low doses of radiation promote cancer-capable cells
Low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells.
Simulation explores how insects glean compass direction from skylight
A computational simulation suggests that insects may be capable of using the properties of light from the sky to determine their compass direction with an error of less than two degrees.
Hypertension poorly managed in low- and middle-income countries
A study of 1 million people living in 44 low- and middle-income countries found that less than half of those affected with high blood pressure (hypertension) are aware of their condition.
A dynamic genetic code based on DNA shape
Under physiological conditions, only certain sequences within the genome, called flipons, are capable of dynamically forming either right- or left-handed DNA.
BU researchers use Twitter and AI to see who is hitting the gym
A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers and published in BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine used machine learning to find and comb through exercise-related tweets from across the United States, unpacking regional and gender differences in exercise types and intensity levels.
Special issue: 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing
Fifty years ago, in July 1969, the Apollo 11 lunar module landed on the Moon and humans left their first mark on the surface of another world.
Jurassic fossil shows how early mammals could swallow like their modern descendants
The 165-million-year-old fossil of Microdocodon gracilis, a tiny, shrew-like animal, shows the earliest example of modern hyoid bones in mammal evolution.
Spread-changing orders and deletions affect stock prices
In a new study published in EPJ B, Stephan Grimm and Thomas Guhr from Duisburg-Essen University in Germany compare the influences that three price-changing events have on these spread changes.
Some pharmacists missing mark on therapeutic guidelines: QUT study
A study by researchers at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia, of more than 200 pharmacies has raised concerns that some are not adhering to therapeutic guidelines when distributing pharmaceuticals.
Jumbo squid mystery solved
Stanford-led research identifies a perfect storm of warming waters and reduced food to blame in the collapse of the once lucrative jumbo squid fishery off Baja California.
Over-claiming knowledge predicts anti-establishment voting
People who think they know more than they actually do are more likely to vote against the establishment, shows new research out of the Netherlands.
Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure; more so in women than men
A global study of 12 million people has found diabetes increases the risk of heart failure and this increase is greater for women than men.
Sports participation gap exists between youth from lower-income and middle-income families
Lower-income parents are less likely than their higher-income counterparts to involve their children in youth sports because of obstacles such as rising costs of these extracurricular activities, according to a new RAND Corporation study.
Higher kidney function at dialysis start linked with greater risk of death in children
In an analysis of information on children with kidney failure who began dialysis in the United States between 1995 and 2015, the risk of death was 1.36 times higher among children with higher kidney function at dialysis initiation.
Stimulating life-like perceptual experiences in brains of mice
Using a new and improved optogenetic technique, researchers report the ability to control -- and even create -- novel visual experiences in the brains of living mice, even in the absence of natural sensory input, according to a new study.
Music may offer alternative to preoperative drug routinely used to calm nerves
Music may offer an alternative to the use of a drug routinely used to calm the nerves before the use of regional anaesthesia (peripheral nerve block), suggest the results of a clinical trial, published online in the journal Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine.
Women no longer regarded as less competent than men but still seen as less ambitious
Good news for women -- they are no longer regarded as less competent than men on average, according to a nationally representative study of gender stereotypes in the United States.
Access to contraception not 'silver bullet' to stem population growth in Africa
The population of sub-Saharan Africa is set to double by 2050, yet a new study challenges a common misconception that this is caused solely by inadequate family planning.
Canada's high school curricula not giving students full picture of climate change
Canada's high school students may not be getting enough information on the negative impacts of climate change, scientific consensus behind human-caused warming or climate solutions, according to new research from the University of British Columbia and Lund University.
Biochemistry: Versatile recycling in the cell
Ribosomes need regenerating. This process is important for the quality of the proteins produced and thus for the whole cell homeostasis as well as for developmental and biological processes.
Brown neuroscientists discover neuron type that acts as brain's metronome
By measuring the fast electrical spikes of individual neurons in the touch region of the brain, Brown University neuroscientists have discovered a new type of cell that keeps time so regularly that it may serve as the brain's long-hypothesized clock or metronome.
Coaching scientists to play well together
When scientists from different disciplines collaborate -- as is increasingly necessary to confront the complexity of challenging research problems -- interpersonal tussles often arise.
Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations
A study by Marco Ce, a physicist based at the Helmholtz-Institut Mainz in Germany, and recently published in EPJ Plus describes a new technique for simulating particle ensembles that are 'large' (at least by the standards of particle physics).
Ultra-soft, liquid magnetic droplets could vault technology forward
Most magnets are rigid but have made great contributions to society and to modern industry, says Thomas Russell of UMass Amherst.
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can increase men's risk of stroke and heart attack
Aging men with low testosterone levels who take testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are at a slightly greater risk of experiencing an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or myocardial infarction, especially during the first two years of use, reports a study appearing in The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier.
New laws of attraction: Scientists print magnetic liquid droplets
Scientists at Berkeley Lab have made a new material that is both liquid and magnetic, opening the door to a new area of science in magnetic soft matter.
New species of flying squirrel from Southwest China added to the rarest and 'most wanted'
Described in 1981, the genus Biswamoyopterus is regarded as the most mysterious and rarest amongst all flying squirrels.
New e-skin innovation by NUS researchers gives robots and prosthetics an exceptional sense of touch
NUS researchers have developed an ultra responsive and robust artificial nervous system for e-skins.
Radical reform needed to address dental decay worldwide
Tooth decay, gum disease and oral cancers are a major health burden worldwide, but are largely ignored by the global health community, according to a series on oral health in The Lancet that publishes July 20, 2019.
Identification of autophagy gene regulation mechanism related to dementia and Lou Gehrig's disease
An international Research Team led by Dr. Jeong Yoon-ha at Korea Brain Research Institute has published the results of its research in 'Autophagy'.
New research identifies gene that hides cancer cells from immunotherapy
A team at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has identified a gene that could make immunotherapy treatments, specifically checkpoint inhibitors, work for a wider variety of cancer patients.
Lionfish ear-bones reveal a more mobile invasion
Researchers have little information about how grown lionfish might invade or move to new waters because tracking small marine organisms poses difficulties.
Researchers compare visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic tests
Accurate and timely diagnosis of the tropic disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the pillars for reducing VL deaths.
How sex affects gene expression in mammals
Researchers report the discovery of genome-wide variations in gene expression between mammalian females and males and offer new insights into the molecular origins and evolution of sexual dimorphism in mammal species, according to a new study.
The FASEB Journal: SIRT6 over-expression may prevent progression of diabetes, study finds
Targeting obesity through exercise and calorie restriction is often the first line of approach to treat diabetes and related cardiovascular disorders, such as cardiomyopathy.
Diabetes medications masking surgical complication
A new class of diabetes medications is masking the potentially dangerous condition of ketoacidosis at the time of surgery.
A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data
With high-energy X-rays, such as those that will be produced by the upgrade to Argonne's Advanced Photon Source comes a potential hitch -- the more penetrating the X-rays are, the higher a likelihood that researchers could run into problems with the image data.
This deep neural network fights deepfakes
Research led by the University of California, Riverside has developed a deep neural network architecture that can identify manipulated images at the pixel level with high precision by studying the boundaries of objects in the image.
Study reveals unusually high carbon stocks and tree diversity in Panama's Darien forest
Through a participatory forest-carbon monitoring project in the Darien forest of Panama, scientists and a team of trained indigenous technicians found that, even in disturbed areas, it maintained the same tree species richness and a disproportionately high capacity to sequester carbon.
Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors
In a study published in EPJ D, physicists led by Wen-Shan Duan at Northwest Normal University, and Lei Yang at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, show that 'magnetic mirrors' plasma leaks can be minimised if specific conditions are met.
Biomaterial-delivered chemotherapy leads to long-term survival in brain cancer
A combination of chemotherapy drugs during brain cancer surgery using a biodegradable paste, leads to long-term survival, researchers at the University of Nottingham have discovered.
How mammals' brains evolved to distinguish odors is nothing to sniff at
Neuroscientists from the Salk Institute and UC San Diego have discovered that at least six types of mammals--from mice to cats--distinguish odors in roughly the same way, using circuitry in the brain that's evolutionarily preserved across species.
Strong family relationships may help with asthma outcomes for children
Positive family relationships might help youth to maintain good asthma management behaviors even in the face of difficult neighborhood conditions, according to a new Northwestern University study.
Study finds key metabolic changes in patients with chemotherapy-associated cardiotoxicity
Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center embarked on a study to investigate whether early changes in energy-related metabolites in the blood -- measured shortly after chemotherapy -- could be used to identify patients who developed heart toxicity at a later time.
What makes some people more receptive to the idea of being vaccinated against infectious disease?
Fear, trust, and the likelihood of exposure are three leading factors that influence whether people are willing to be vaccinated against a virulent disease, according to a new study in the journal Heliyon, published by Elsevier.
Diversity on teams leads to positive outcomes, but not for all
Individuals on teams of diverse people working together can have better outcomes than those on teams with similar individuals, research as shown.
Toward molecular computers: First measurement of single-molecule heat transfer
Heat transfer through a single molecule has been measured for the first time by an international team of researchers led by the University of Michigan.
Depressed by Facebook and the like
Great holiday, fantastic party, adorable children, incredible food: everyone shows their life in the best light on social networks.
New low-cost thermoelectric material works at room temperature
The widespread adoption of thermoelectric devices that can directly convert electricity into thermal energy for cooling and heating has been hindered, in part, by the lack of materials that are both inexpensive and highly efficient at room temperature.
Scientists hope genetic research will lead to new breakthroughs in weed control
An article featured in the journal Weed Science sheds important new light on the genetics and potential control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp - two troublesome Amaranthus species weeds that are resistant to multiple herbicides.
NASA's Aqua satellite finds Tropical Storm Danas over Ryuku Islands
NASA's Aqua satellite found Tropical Storm Danas moving over Japan's Ryuku island chain in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Study finds maternal race not a factor for children experiencing a 'language gap'
Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute have discovered that race plays no role in the amount and quality of the words mothers use with their children, or with the language skills their children later develop.
The unpopular truth about biases toward people with disabilities
Needing to ride in a wheelchair can put the brakes on myriad opportunities -- some less obvious than one might think.
Study: Even in competitive markets, shareholders bear burden of corruption
While the US traditionally ranks low on worldwide corruption indices, domestic political corruption still imposes substantial costs on US shareholders, according to new research co-written by Gies College of Business accounting professor Nerissa Brown.
Link found between gut bacteria, successful joint replacement
Having healthy gut flora -- the trillions of bacteria housed in our intestines -- could lower the risk of infection following knee and hip replacement surgeries, while an unhealthy intestinal flora may increase the risk of infection.
Scientists discover group of genes connected to longer life in fruit flies
E(z) longer life: New insights on genes linked to longer life and higher fertility.
Voluntary pact with food industry to curb salt content in England linked to thousands of extra heart
Since the introduction of the voluntary pact the UK government made with the food industry in 2011 to curb the salt content of food, the reduction in dietary salt intake in England has slowed significantly, reveals the first study of its kind, published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
Strong storms also play big role in Antarctic ice shelf collapse
Warming temperatures and changes in ocean circulation and salinity are driving the breakup of ice sheets in Antarctica, but a new study suggests that intense storms may help push the system over the edge.
Adding a polymer stabilizes collapsing metal-organic frameworks
Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many applications like carbon capture and water-cleaning.
How long does a surgery take? Researchers create model
For years, surgeons have estimated how long a surgery will take.
Deciphering brain somatic mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease
KAIST researchers have identified somatic mutations in the brain that could contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Women report skipping scientific conferences because of child care
Many women find themselves skipping scientific conferences because of family obligations, a new study finds.
Waking up sleeping bacteria to fight infections
Researchers in the group of Jan Michiels (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology) identified a mechanism of how sleepy bacteria wake up.
Study examines differences over time in home dialysis initiation by race and ethnicity
Among US patients who started dialysis in 2005 to 2013, racial/ethnic differences in initiating home dialysis decreased over time, although in the most recent era, Blacks were still less likely to use home dialysis as the initial modality than other groups.
Survival of the zebrafish: Mate, or flee?
*Researchers have found that when making decisions that are important to the species' survival, zebrafish choose to mate rather than to flee from a threat.
Metal oxide-infused membranes could offer low-energy alternative for chemical separations
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are working on membranes that could separate chemicals without using energy-intensive distillation processes.
Researchers confirm the validity of xenographic models for studies of methylation
Researchers at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), published today in Molecular Cancer Research a study where they identify methylation patterns associated with different subtypes of breast cancer, and a subclassification of the group of ''triple negatives'', a breast cancer type typically associated with poor prognosis.
Group calls on international community to prevent dementia by preventing stroke
The risk factors for stroke and dementia are the same, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates that preventing stroke can also prevent some dementias.
The top five strangest poisons that can kill you (video)
There are some crazy poisons in this world of ours, and they're often found in things you'd least expect.
Scientists discover how and when a subterranean ocean emerged
An international scientific team led by Russian geochemists have established that the huge reserves of water present in the Earth's mantle, which exceed the weight of the World Ocean, emerged over 3.3 billion years ago due to the immersion of seawater-rich oceanic crust into the depth of the Earth's interior.
Nations with strong women's rights likely to have better population health and faster growth
Nations with strong women's rights are more likely to have better health and faster growth than those who don't promote and protect these values, finds research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Greater prevalence of congenital heart defects in high intensity oil and gas areas
Mothers living near more intense oil and gas development activity have a 40-70% higher chance of having children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared to those living in areas of less intense activity, according to a new study from researchers at the Colorado School of Public Health.
Scientists discover how mosquito brains integrate diverse sensory cues to find a host
A team, led by researchers at the University of Washington, has discovered how the female mosquito brain integrates visual and olfactory signals to identify, track and hone in on a potential host for her next blood meal.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Anthropomorphic
Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#534 Bacteria are Coming for Your OJ
What makes breakfast, breakfast? Well, according to every movie and TV show we've ever seen, a big glass of orange juice is basically required. But our morning grapefruit might be in danger. Why? Citrus greening, a bacteria carried by a bug, has infected 90% of the citrus groves in Florida. It's coming for your OJ. We'll talk with University of Maryland plant virologist Anne Simon about ways to stop the citrus killer, and with science writer and journalist Maryn McKenna about why throwing antibiotics at the problem is probably not the solution. Related links: A Review of the Citrus Greening...