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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | July 22, 2019


Living components
Programmable structural dynamics successful for first time in self-organizing fiber structures
Drilling deeper
A new study shows Americans are drilling deeper than ever for fresh water.
Gene test picks out prostate cancers that could respond to 'search-and-destroy' medicine
Testing for genetic weaknesses in repairing DNA could pick out men who may benefit from a new type of targeted nuclear medicine, a new study reports.
Critical heart drug too pricey for some Medicare patients
An effective drug to treat chronic heart failure may cost too much for senior citizens with a standard Medicare Part D drug plan, said a study co-authored by a John A.
UTSA reduces seizures by removing newborn neurons
Epileptic seizures happen in one of every 10 people who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Archaeological evidence verifies long-doubted medieval accounts of First Crusade
New discoveries in the decade-long archaeological dig at Jerusalem's Mont Zion include a massive, long-rumored-but-buried earthwork, gold jewelry and war artifacts.
Patients want physicians more involved in their health outside of the doctor's office
A media briefing on a nationwide survey of physicians and consumers conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Samueli Integrative Health Programs on:How consumers and physicians define self-care.
Multidrug-resistant malaria spreading in Asia
Genomic surveillance has revealed that malaria resistance to two first-line antimalarial drugs has spread rapidly from Cambodia to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia.
Following a healthy plant-based diet may lower type 2 diabetes risk
Greater adherence to predominantly plant-based diets was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared to lower adherence to these diets.
Overstuffed cancer cells may have an Achilles' heel
In a study using yeast cells and data from cancer cell lines, Johns Hopkins University scientists report they have found a potential weak spot among cancer cells that have extra sets of chromosomes, the structures that carry genetic material.
Combined online self-management for pain, associated anxiety and depression works
Online symptom self-management works to decrease pain, anxiety and depression and for some, online self-management plus nurse telecare helps even more according to CAMMPS study, conducted by symptoms expert and Regenstrief Institute research scientist Kurt Kroenke, MD.
Medicare for All unlikely to cause surge in hospital use: Harvard study
Despite some analysts' claims that Medicare for All would cause a sharp increase in health care utilization, a new study finds the two biggest coverage expansions in US history -- Medicare and the ACA -- caused no net increase in hospital use.
Evolutionary gene loss may help explain why only humans are prone to heart attacks
University of California San Diego School of Medicine scientists say the loss of a single gene two to three million years ago in our ancestors may have resulted in a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease in all humans as a species, while also setting up a further risk for red meat-eating humans.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Rapidly spreading multidrug-resistant parasites render frontline malaria drug ineffective in southeast Asia
Multidrug-resistant forms of Plasmodium falciparum parasites, the most lethal species causing human malaria, have evolved even higher levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs and spread rapidly since 2015, becoming firmly established in multiple regions of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, where they are causing alarmingly high treatment failure rates to a widely used frontline malaria drug combination.
Engaging disenfranchised US populations into HIV care helps suppress the virus
Engaging disenfranchised men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV in the US is possible, but the best way to help them achieve and maintain viral suppression is not yet known, according to findings from HPTN 078 being reported today at the 10th IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2019) in Mexico City.
Gun ownership linked to greater incidence of domestic homicides
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, reveals a unique and strong association between firearm ownership and the risk of domestic homicides.
Targeting old bottleneck reveals new anticancer drug strategy
The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase is a bottleneck for cancer cell growth.
Plasticizer interaction with the heart
A new study, 'Plasticizer Interaction With the Heart,' led by researchers at Children's National Health System appears in the July issue of Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology and examines the potential role plastic exposure, akin to exposure in a medical setting, has on heart rhythm disruptions.
Serious falls are a health risk for adults under 65
Adults who take several prescription medications are more likely to experience serious falls, say Yale researchers and their co-authors in a new study.
School readiness impaired in preschoolers with ADHD symptoms, Stanford study finds
Preschoolers with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are much less likely than other children their age to be ready for school, new research from the Stanford University School of Medicine has found.
Researchers find widespread aspirin use despite few benefits, high risks
Nearly 30 million Americans older than 40 take aspirin daily to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Sophisticated molecular machines in action
Almost all living organisms have gate-like protein complexes in their cell membranes that get rid of unwanted or life-threatening molecules.
Studies show the influence of environment on the evolution of weeds
Rapid increases in herbicide resistance show that weeds can undergo important genetic changes over very brief periods of time.
More ED visits because of alcohol, 175% increase in 25- to 29-year-olds seeking care
New research shows dramatically rising visits to emergency departments (ED) related to alcohol, especially for women, with a 175% increase in alcohol-related visits from young people aged 25 to 29.
Beyond finding a gene: Same repeated stretch of DNA in three neurodegenerative diseases
Four different rare diseases are all caused by the same short segment of DNA repeated too many times, a mutation researchers call noncoding expanded tandem repeats.
Toxin responsible for Legionella growth identified
A team of scientists led by EMBL group leader Sagar Bhogaraju and Ivan Dikic of Goethe University, Frankfurt, discovered that the toxin SidJ in Legionella bacteria enforces a unique modification on human proteins and helps legionella grow inside human cells.
Exosomes may hold the answer to treating, diagnosing developmental brain disorders
In new research published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Hollis Cline, PhD, and her colleagues at Scripps Research shed new light on the role that exosomes play in brain development.
Risk of neural tube defects higher for babies of women on HIV therapy with dolutegrav
Children born to women on HIV therapy containing the drug dolutegravir since conception have a slightly higher risk of neural tube defects, compared to children born to women on regimens of other antiretroviral drugs.
Research shows high prices of healthy foods contribute to malnutrition worldwide
The first global examination of the affordability of both healthy and unhealthy foods finds high prices for nutritious foods correlate with higher undernutrition, while low prices for unhealthy foods correlate to higher obesity, underlining need for policies to shift prices toward healthier diets.
More colorectal cancer cases are being diagnosed in younger patients
Average age at diagnosis in the United States has decreased over the past decade.
Research in Regenerative Medicine proposes a quality control framework for umbilical cord blood-sourced allografts
The recent study from Burst Biologics challenges existing standards and outlines future safety and potency benchmarks.
Laugh tracks make 'dad jokes' funnier
Many people complain about television shows that use recorded laugh tracks.
NASA sees outside winds affecting new tropical Eastern Pacific depression
A new tropical depression formed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, far enough away from the coast so that no coastal warnings are needed.
Heart disease biomarker linked to paleo diet
People who follow the paleo diet have twice the amount of a key blood biomarker linked closely to heart disease, the world's first major study examining the impact of the diet on gut bacteria has found.
Tourist photographs are a cheap and effective way to survey wildlife
Tourists on safari can provide wildlife monitoring data comparable to traditional surveying methods, suggests research appearing July 22, 2019 in the journal Current Biology.
Adolescents who skip breakfast may develop obesity
This study investigated behaviors associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.
New study finds independent predictors of first pass effect in mechanical thrombectomy
A new study, presented today at the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery's (SNIS) 16th Annual Meeting, found that non-internal carotid artery (non-ICA) site of occlusion, the use of a balloon-guided catheter, and better collateral grade were all independent predictors of the first pass effect (FPE).
Robots roaming in Antarctic waters reveal why Ross Ice Shelf melts rapidly in summer
A new paper offers fresh insight into the forces causing the world's largest ice shelf to melt.
New mechanism moving droplets at record-high speed and long distance without extra power
A research team comprising scientists from City University of Hong Kong (CityU) and three other universities and research institutes has recently devised a novel mechanism to transport droplets at record-high velocity and distance without extra energy input, and droplets can be moved upward along a vertical surface, which has never been achieved before.
Understanding the drivers of a shift to sustainable diets
One of the 21st century's greatest challenges is to develop diets that are both sustainable for the planet and good for our bodies.
Mortality rates of major league baseball players
Major league baseball (MLB) players had lower death rates overall and from many underlying causes of death compared with men in the general US population, differences that could be associated in part with the physical fitness required for their jobs.
August's SLAS technology cover article announced
The August edition of SLAS Technology features the cover article, 'Technologies for the Directed Evolution of Cell Therapies,' a review featured in the journal's March 2019 edition.
Characteristics in older patients associated with inability to return home after operation
The ACS NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project has, for the first time, identified four factors in older patients that are associated with an inability to return home after an operation.
Maintaining shelf-stable drugs
A new mathematical model describes how highly concentrated antibody solutions separate into different phases, similar to an oil and water mixture, which can reduce the stability and shelf-life of some drugs.
Encephalitis identified as rare toxicity of immunotherapy treatment
The results, published July 22 in Nature Medicine, are the latest findings by VICC researchers chronicling rare but serious toxicities that may occur with immune checkpoint inhibitors, the most widely prescribed class of immunotherapies.
Vampire algae killer's genetic diversity poses threat to biofuels
New DNA analysis has revealed surprising genetic diversity in a bacterium that poses a persistent threat to the algae biofuels industry.
A toxic chemical in marine ecosystems turns out to play a beneficial role
Destructive free radicals -- known as reactive oxygen species -- are thought to degrade the cells of phytoplankton and other organisms.
Solving the salt problem for seismic imaging
Automated imaging of underground salt bodies from seismic data could help streamline oil and gas exploration.
Researchers suggest new approach needed to address Anthropocene risk
A team of international researchers suggest adopting a holistic approach to understanding environmental risks.
Using visual imagery to find your true passions
You may think you know what you like -- how to spend your time or what profession to pursue.
Are plant-based eating habits associated with lower diabetes risk?
This study (called a systematic review and meta-analysis) combined the results of nine studies and examined the association between adherence to plant-based eating habits and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults.
Testing corneal cell quality? Apply physics
A team led by Kyoto University physicists and Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine (KPUM) ophthalmologists, developed a 'quantitative biomarker' that makes it possible to assess the quality of corneal cells -- and even predict their long-term efficacy -- through simple observation.
NZ researchers call for gender binary in elite sports to be abandoned
Existing gender categories in sport should perhaps be abandoned in favor of a more 'nuanced' approach in the new transgender era, University of Otago researchers say.
UNM scientists document late Pleistocene/early Holocene Mesoamerican stone tool tradition
In new research published recently in PLOS One titled Linking late Paleoindian stone tool technlogies and populations in North, Central and South America, scientists from The University of NewMexico led a study in Belize to document the very earliest indigenous stone tool tradition in southern Mesoamerica.
Fruit flies find their way by setting navigational goals
Navigating fruit flies do not have the luxury of GPS, but they do have a kind of neural compass.
Gut microbes may affect the course of ALS
Researchers isolated a molecule that may be under-produced in the guts of patients.
Connection to HIV care helps hardly reached US populations suppress the virus
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men and transgender women with HIV, who are not in care, can be engaged in care when reached and connected with HIV treatment services, according to findings from a clinical trial supported by NIH.
HPTN 071 modelling and cost analyses show benefits of community HIV testing and treatment
Continuation of community-wide HIV testing and prompt initiation of treatment as delivered in the HPTN 071 (PopART) study in South Africa and Zambia could lead to substantial reductions in new HIV cases, be cost-effective, and help to achieve the UNAIDS 2030 targets, according to projections from mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses presented today at the 10th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science in Mexico City (IAS 2019).
Warning to those wanting to spice up their lives
Think twice before adding that extra kick of chili sauce or chopped jalapeno to your meal.
New Record: PLQE of 70.3% in lead-free halide double perovskites
A series of bulk lead-free mixed Bi-In halide double perovskites: Cs2AgBi1-xInxCl6 (0 < x < 1) breaks the parity-forbidden transition and retains direct band gap structure, having warm-white light emission, with photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 70.3%, much higher than the PLQE of reported lead perovskite materials.
When you spot 1 driving hazard, you may be missing another
When people notice one traffic hazard, they are less likely to see a simultaneous second hazard, according to new research from North Carolina State University.
Search for new semiconductors heats up with gallium oxide
University of Illinois electrical engineers have cleared another hurdle in high-power semiconductor fabrication by adding the field's hottest material -- beta-gallium oxide -- to their arsenal.
ORNL scientists make fundamental discovery to creating better crops
A team of scientists led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory have discovered the specific gene that controls an important symbiotic relationship between plants and soil fungi, and successfully facilitated the symbiosis in a plant that typically resists it.
Big data clarifies emotional circuit development
Several brain circuits that identify emotions are solidified early in development and include diverse regions beyond the amygdala, according to new research in children, adolescents, and young adults published in JNeurosci.
Researcher discovers how mosquitoes integrate vision and smell to track victims
Virginia Tech researcher Clément Vinauger has discovered new neurobiology associated with mosquito vision and sense of smell that explains how Aedes aegypti mosquitoes track their victims.
Texas' strategic goal for students' debt burden shows potential promise and pitfalls
College students in Texas who graduated from public universities with a bachelor's degree had, on average, student loan debts that equaled 74% of what they earned in their first-year wages, according to a new study from SMU (Southern Methodist University). The study, which looked at students who started college between 2004 and 2008, also shows that black and Latinx students are predicted to borrow larger amounts of college debt than white students compared to what they'll make in their first job. 
Use of non-hospital-based provider-to-patient telehealth grew nearly 1,400%
From 2014 to 2018, private insurance claim lines for non-hospital-based provider-to-patient telehealth grew 1,393 %, according to a new white paper on telehealth from FAIR Health, a national, independent nonprofit organization dedicated to bringing transparency to healthcare costs and health insurance information.
Study looks at melatonin use, sleep patterns in school-age kids
This observational study used a study group of children from the Netherlands to examine how common was the use of melatonin and its association with sleep patterns in school-age children.
Failure to launch: Parents are barriers to teen independence
National Poll: While most parents say they are doing enough to prepare their teen for adulthood, they gave low rankings of their teen's ability to handle basic tasks.
Canned laughter works, finds UCL-led study of 'dad jokes'
Adding canned laughter to the end of a punchline increases how funny we find a joke, but not as much as real laughter, finds a new UCL-led study published in Current Biology.
Scientists develop promising drug for treating ovarian, pancreatic cancers
Cancer scientists at Houston Methodist have been looking for more effective late-stage treatments for ovarian and pancreatic cancers and may have found one.
The truth behind racial disparities in fatal police shootings
In a sweeping and comprehensive review of every police shooting across the nation, researchers find that white police officers are not more likely to shoot minorities citizens than non-white officers.
Volcano eruption at different latitudes: A switch of hemispheric monsoon rainfall change
Future volcanic eruptions located in different latitudes will impact the monsoon rainfall differently through circulation changes, which implies that the rainfall response to volcanic eruptions at different hemispheres should be considered in the design of Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP) experiments and the implementation of geoengineering activities.
Learning to look
A team led by JGI scientists has overhauled the perception of inovirus diversity.
Early introduction of peanuts in babies to reduce allergy risk
Worried about peanut allergies in children? A practice article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) outlines five things to know about early introduction of peanuts in infants to reduce the risk of peanut allergy.
More sensitive climates are more variable climates, research shows
A decade without any global warming is more likely to happen if the climate is more sensitive to carbon dioxide emissions, new research has revealed.
College spending habits may predict when 'adulting' starts
How well you manage your money in college may determine when you'll ultimately achieve 'adult identity,' according to a new study led by the University of Arizona.
First impressions go a long way in the immune system
An algorithm that predicts the immune response to a pathogen could lead to early diagnosis for such diseases as tuberculosis
Racial disparity in fatal officer-involved shootings
New study finds white officers are not more likely to shoot minority civilians than black or Hispanic officers.
Stem cell therapy furthers research for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome
A phase I clinical trial is the first research monitored by the Food and Drug Administration that demonstrates the potential of regenerative therapy for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) through collecting, processing and injecting an infant's own stem cells directly into the heart at the time of surgery.
New deactivation mechanism for switch proteins detected
A new mechanism for the deactivation of switch proteins has been identified by researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum, headed by Professor Klaus Gerwert and Dr.
Researchers unveil experimental compound to block therapeutic target in blood cancer
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have discovered a hyperactive cell signal that contributes to tumor growth in primary effusion lymphoma, an aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by infection with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus-8).
NIST physicists create record-setting quantum motion
Showcasing precise control at the quantum level, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method for making an ion (electrically charged atom) display exact quantities of quantum-level motion -- any specific amount up to 100 packets of energy or 'quanta,' more than five times the previous record high of 17.
Enhanced recovery pathway for bariatric operations cuts hospital stays by half
A change in the care protocol of patients undergoing weight-reduction operations exceeded its desired effect by cutting postoperative hospital stays in half, reducing postoperative hospital readmissions by 38 percent, and reducing the amount of opioids the patients were sent home with by 95 percent, according to study results from a large bariatric and metabolic surgery center in Charleston, S.C.
Lots of lead in the water? Maybe manganese is to blame
In the right environment, a harmless mineral can do a lot to change the composition of the drinking water that flows through lead pipes.
Despite progress, only 3 African nations expected to meet global breastfeeding goal
Only three African countries are expected to meet the global target for exclusive breastfeeding, 'an unparalleled source of nutrition for newborns and infants, no matter where they are born,' according to a global health expert.
Are american nurses prepared for a catastrophe? New study says perhaps not
On average, American colleges and universities with nursing programs offer about one hour of instruction in handling catastrophic situations such as nuclear events, pandemics, or water contamination crises, according to two recent studies coauthored by a nursing professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
The early days of the Milky Way revealed
A study led by researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) puts a sequence to the events which gave rise to our Galaxy.
Astronomers make first calculations of magnetic activity in 'hot Jupiter' exoplanets
Signals from star-planet interactions tell of strong magnetic fields in 'hot Jupiters'.
A torque on conventional magnetic wisdom
Physicists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have observed a magnetic phenomenon called the 'anomalous spin-orbit torque' (ASOT) for the first time.
Helicopter transport for stroke patients decreases time to surgery, new study finds
The sooner that a severe stroke patient can access thrombectomy, the more likely they are to experience a good outcome.
BU finds workplace injuries contribute to rise in suicide, overdose deaths
A new study finds that workplace injury significantly raises a person's risk of suicide or overdose death, contributing to a trend that has lowered US life expectancy in recent years.
Cosmic pearls: Fossil clams in Florida contain evidence of ancient meteorite
Researchers picking through the contents of fossil clams from a Sarasota County quarry found dozens of tiny glass beads, likely the calling cards of an ancient meteorite.
Study finds Nunavik Inuit are genetically unique
A new study has found that an Inuit population in Canada's Arctic are genetically distinct from any known group, and certain genetic variants are correlated with brain aneurysm.
Succeed in sensitivity increase and noise reduction of accelerometer
Tokyo Institute of Technology President Kazuya Masu and NTT Advanced Technology Corporation succeed in the development of high-sensitivity and low-noise MEMS (1) accelerometer by using multi-layer metal structures that are composed of multiple metal layers.
Molecular sensor scouts DNA damage and supervises repair
Using single-molecule imaging, researchers witness how molecules find and fix damaged DNA.
Delay from breast cancer diagnosis to chemotherapy after an operation may shorten survival
Women with breast cancer should start postoperative chemotherapy, when recommended, ideally within four months of their cancer diagnosis because new study findings show that waiting longer is associated with poorer overall survival.
Airborne lidar system poised to improve accuracy of climate change models
Researchers have developed a laser-based system that can be used for airborne measurement of important atmospheric gases with unprecedented accuracy and resolution.
How fat prawns can save lives
New research led by University of California, Berkeley, scientists provides a roadmap for how entrepreneurs can harness freshwater prawns' voracious appetite for snails to reduce the transmission of schistosomiasis-causing parasites while still making a profit selling the tasty animals as food.
Allergy, asthma risk are increased by microbial compound found in infant gut
A study of newborn infants has identified a compound produced by gut bacteria that appears to predispose certain infants to allergies and asthma later in life.
Miniaturized version of ribosome found in microsporidia
A research team lead by MIMS/SciLifeLab research group leader Jonas Barandun, Umeå University, Sweden, uses cryo-electron microscopy to provide near atomic details of the smallest known eukaryotic cytoplasmic protein synthesis machine, the microsporidian ribosome.
What gives meteorites their shape? New research uncovers a 'Goldilocks' answer
Meteoroids coming from outer space are randomly shaped, but many of these, which land on Earth as meteorites, are found to be carved into cones.
New, high-resolution images reveal clues to improve anti-nausea drugs for cancer patients
A new study using a special type of electron microscope using samples cooled to extremely cold temperatures provides critical information for drug developers seeking to reduce nausea and vomiting side effects of cancer treatments.
Genes linked to death from sepsis ID'd in mice
Bacteria in the bloodstream can trigger an overwhelming immune response that causes sepsis.
School psychologists develop intervention to reduce hallway disruptions
A gamelike intervention developed by school psychology researchers in UT's College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences may help reduce hallway disruptions among elementary school children.
Parasitic plants use stolen genes to make them better parasites
Some parasitic plants steal genetic material from their host plants and use the stolen genes to more effectively siphon off the host's nutrients.
New study explains the molecular mechanism for the therapeutic effects of cilantro
Herbs, including cilantro, have a long history of use as folk medicine anticonvulsants.
Astronomers map vast void in our cosmic neighborhood
An astronomer from the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy and an international team published a new study that reveals more of the vast cosmic structure surrounding our Milky Way galaxy.
New technique helps create more personalized therapies for people with advanced cancers
Using an ultra-sensitive and high-throughput isolation technology, UCLA researchers were able to characterize and identify the neoantigens driving the antitumor responses in a patient.
Strongman leaders make for weak economies, study finds
Autocratic leaders are often credited with purposefully delivering good economic outcomes, but new research challenges that long-held assumption.
Social isolation stresses rodents
The traditional method of housing mice and rats alone increases stress and worsens epilepsy, according to a new study published in eNeuro.
Plants defend against insects by inducing 'leaky gut syndrome'
Plants may induce 'leaky gut syndrome' -- permeability of the gut lining -- in insects as part of a multipronged strategy for protecting themselves from being eaten, according to researchers at Penn State.
Hypothalamus pathway drives defense behaviors
Scientists have identified a previously unknown pathway connecting the hypothalamus and midbrain that drives defensive behaviors, according to research in mice published in eNeuro.
Quantifying how the brain smells
Neuroscience researchers at CSHL found that how the brain smells is different from previously thought.
100 days, 100 nights: Sensor network reveals telltale patterns in neighborhood air quality
Black carbon -- a contributor to global warming and a pollutant of concern to residents in urban areas -- can be difficult to track.
Antibiotics before liver transplants lead to better results
A UCLA-led research team has found that giving mice antibiotics for 10 days prior to a liver transplant leads to better liver function after the surgery.
Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement
Teacher incentive pay programs with a hybrid structure involving both individual and group incentives can have good results.

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