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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | July 23, 2019


Study identifies cells required for the development of a healthy uterus
A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has uncovered insights on a type of a critical cell that to the formation of a functioning uterus.
Hidden world of stream biodiversity revealed through water sampling for environmental DNA
For the first time, researchers have used a novel genomics-based method to detect the simultaneous presence of hundreds of organisms in a stream.
E. coli superbug strains can persist in healthy women's guts
A study of over 1,000 healthy women with no urinary tract infection symptoms showed nearly 9% carried multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli strains in their guts.
Obstructive sleep apnea may be one reason depression treatment doesn't work
When someone is depressed and having suicidal thoughts or their depression treatment just isn't working, their caregivers might want to check to see if they have obstructive sleep apnea, investigators say.
NASA finds depression strengthen into Tropical Storm Dalila
Satellite imagery on July 22 showed that wind shear was preventing the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Depression 5 from consolidating and strengthening.
Mount Sinai researchers develop novel vaccine that induces antibodies that contribute to protection
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have developed a novel vaccine consisting of DNA and recombinant proteins?proteins composed of a portion of an HIV protein and another unrelated protein.
Researchers study effect of Mediterranean diet on pregnancy outcomes
A Mediterranean-style diet in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of overall adverse maternal and offspring complications, but may reduce weight gain during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Shakila Thangaratinam of Queen Mary University of London, UK, and colleagues.
North Carolina coastal flooding is worsening with climate change, population growth
Researchers can confirm what data modeling systems have predicted: Climate change is increasing precipitation events like hurricanes, tropical storms and floods.
ELSI scientists discover new chemistry that may help explain the origins of cellular life
All life is cellular, but the origins of cellularity remain unknown.
Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too
Fussy fish seeking refuge from climate change on deeper reefs can still keep their specialised diets.
Mediterranean diet during pregnancy reduces gestational diabetes and weight gain
A simple Mediterranean-style diet in pregnancy does not reduce the overall risk of adverse maternal and offspring complications, but has the potential to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes, according to a clinical trial led by Queen Mary University of London and the University of Warwick.
Many Dallas-Fort Worth area faults have the potential to host earthquakes, new study finds
A study led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that the majority of faults underlying the Fort Worth Basin are as sensitive to changes in stress that could cause them to slip as those that have generated earthquakes in recent years.
The Lancet Psychiatry: Compensatory strategies to disguise autism spectrum disorder may delay diagnosis
For the first time, compensatory strategies used by people with autism have been investigated and collated in a qualitative study using an online survey of 136 adults, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.
Global warming will accelerate water cycle over global land monsoon regions
A new study provides a broader understanding on the redistribution of freshwater resources across the globe induced by future changes in the monsoon system.
Open-label study of a vaginal ring for HIV prevention suggests women want and will use it
Results of an open-label study of vaginal ring intended to be used for a month at a time found the majority of participants wanted the ring being offered, with measures of adherence also indicating they are willing to use it to protect themselves against HIV.
Rejected and unfilled prescriptions for new, more expensive cholesterol drugs tied to higher heart, stroke risk
Prescriptions for the newest - but more expensive -- cholesterol-lowering drugs called PCSK9 inhibitors that are not covered by insurance companies or unfilled by patients are related to higher risk of cardiovascular problems for high risk patients.
Imaging shows brain matter alterations in US government personnel who served in Cuba
Images reveal key brain differences, particularly in the cerebellum, between impacted patients and healthy individuals, which may underlie clinical findings previously reported by the Penn team.
When the pigeon and the letter do not travel together
In standard communication the pigeon always carries the message; the information is linked to a physical entity/particle.
Towards a light driven molecular assembler
A team of chemists at Kiel University (Germany) built the first artificial assembler, which uses light as the energy source.
Study shows new moms may be vulnerable to 'sharenting'
Two related studies found evidence that women's feelings of vulnerability about being a mother are linked to their posting on social media -- and those posts sometimes include their children's personally identifiable information, such as names, birthdates, and photographs.The researchers suggest the need for enhanced governmental guidance to protect children's online privacy from commercial entities, as well as more parental education about the consequences of sharing children's personal information.
Wavelength-encoded laser particles for massively multiplexed cell tagging
Researchers describe a new class of biocompatible probes, laser particles that can be inserted inside living cells.
Survey finds physicians struggle with their own self-care
Despite believing that self-care is a vitally important part of health and overall well-being, many physicians overlook their own self-care, according to a new survey released today, conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Samueli Integrative Health Programs.
Inside dark, polar moon craters, water not as invincible as expected, scientists argue
The Moon's south pole region is home to some of the most extreme environments in the solar system: it's unimaginably cold, massively cratered, and has areas that are either constantly bathed in sunlight or in darkness.
Rise of Candida auris blamed on global warming
Global warming may have played a pivotal role in the emergence of Candida auris, according to a new study published in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology.
Facebook can help college students with lower confidence build relationships
Facebook can help first-semester college students maintain relationships with high school friends and assist them in creating new friendships, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
How do brains remember decisions?
Mammal brains -- including those of humans -- store and recall impressive amounts of information based on our good and bad decisions and interactions in an ever-changing world.
Study looks at stem cells for answers to how a type of autism develops
The lab of Yongchao Ma, Ph.D., from Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H.
Renewable and nonrenewable energy in Myanmar's economic growth
An international group of scientists including a researcher from Ural Federal University developed a mathematical model that describes the influence of regenerative and non-regenerative energy sources on the economic growth of Myanmar.
Physicists have let light through the plane of the world's thinnest semiconductor crystal
An international research team has studied how photons travel in the plane of the world's thinnest semiconductor crystal.
Novel powdered milk method yields better frothing agent
A novel method of processing -- using high-pressure jets to spray milk and then quickly drying the spray -- yields skim milk powders with enhanced properties and functionality, according to Penn State researchers, who say the discovery may lead to 'cleaner' labels on foods.
USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit.
New map outlines seismic faults across DFW region
Scientists from SMU, The University of Texas at Austin and Stanford University found that the majority of faults underlying the Fort Worth Basin are as sensitive to forces that could cause them to slip as those that have hosted earthquakes in the past.
Presence of hoarding symptoms does not negatively impact CBT response in youth with OCD
Hoarding can often be a debilitating problem for adults and is often associated with poorer mental health functioning and response to treatment.
Garlic on broccoli: A smelly approach to repel a major pest
New University of Vermont study offers a novel framework to test strategies for managing invasive pests.
Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows
Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'co-operative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive.
Unconventional phenomena triggered by acoustic waves in 2D materials
IBS researchers and colleagues have reported a novel phenomenon, called Valley Acoustoelectric Effect, which takes place in 2D materials, similar to graphene.
Microfluidics device helps diagnose sepsis in minutes
A novel sensor designed by MIT researchers could dramatically accelerate the process of diagnosing sepsis, a leading cause of death in US hospitals that kills nearly 250,000 patients annually.
People are more likely to try drugs for the first time during the summer
American teenagers and adults are more likely to try illegal or recreational drugs for the first time in the summer, a new study shows.
Left eye? Right eye? American robins have preference when looking at decoy eggs
Just as humans are usually left- or right-handed, other species sometimes prefer one appendage, or eye, over the other.
Ozone threat from climate change
We know the recent extreme heat is something that we can expect more of as a result of increasing temperatures due to climate change.
Water solutions without a grain of salt
Monash University researchers have developed technology that can deliver clean water to thousands of communities worldwide.
Air pollution in US is associated with mortality and lower life expectancy
Current concentrations of fine particulate matter pollution, which mostly meet the national ambient air quality standard, are still associated with mortality and loss of life expectancy in the US, with larger impacts in poorer counties, according to a study published July 23 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by an international team of researchers from the Center for Air, Climate, and Energy Solutions led by Majid Ezzati of Imperial College London, UK.
Scientists use phone movement to predict personality types
RMIT University researchers have used data from mobile phone accelerometers -- the tiny sensors tracking phone movement for step-counting and other apps -- to predict people's personalities.
'Legacy' mercury pollution still a problem in New Jersey meadowlands waters
'Legacy' mercury pollution from decades ago and miles away is an important source of contamination in New Jersey Meadowlands waterways, according to a Rutgers-led study that could help guide cleanup efforts.
Brain protein mutation from child with autism causes autism-like behavioral change in mice
A de novo gene mutation that encodes a brain protein in a child with autism has been placed into the brains of mice.
Air pollution in US associated with over 30,000 deaths and reduced life expectancy
Air quality in the US may be linked with increased mortality and reduced life expectancy according to research from Imperial College London and the Center for Air, Climate and Energy Solutions at Carnegie Mellon University.
Anonymizing personal data 'not enough to protect privacy,' shows new study
Current methods for anonymizing data leave individuals at risk of being re-identified, according to new research from University of Louvain (UCLouvain) and Imperial College London.
Study: Fat cells play key role in dangerous transformation of melanoma
Tel Aviv University reseachers have found that fat cells play a key role in the dangerous transformation of melanoma.
Most women use vaginal ring for HIV prevention in open-label study
In an open-label study of women in southern and eastern Africa, a vaginal ring that is inserted once a month and slowly releases an antiviral drug was estimated to reduce the risk of HIV by 39%, according to statistical modeling.
How to thrive when foreign competitors enter your market
A new study shows that foreign entrants can be a boost to domestic companies if they can learn from the new entrants to improve their marketing strategies.
Stretch-sensing glove captures interactive hand poses accurately
Capturing interactive hand poses in real time and with realistic results is a well-examined problem in computing, particularly human-centered computing and motion capture technology.
Algae living inside fungi: How land plants first evolved
New research from Michigan State University, and published in the journal eLife, presents evidence that algae could have piggybacked on fungi to leave the water and to colonize the land, over 500 million years ago.
University of Guelph researchers unlock access to pain relief potential of cannabis
University of Guelph researchers have uncovered how the cannabis plant creates pain-relieving molecules that are 30 times more powerful at reducing inflammation than Aspirin.
A new concept for self-assembling micromachines
Polarisable microrobots components can be designed to find each other in an electric field.
Slower walking speed may predict future mobility problems
Until now, there has been no ideal way for healthcare providers to measure walking ability, since it involves more than just walking speed.
Survey finds patients want more guidance from physicians on self-care
Physicians and consumers agree that self-care is important to health, yet 75% of patients say they haven't discussed it with their physician within the last two years, according to a new survey released today, conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Samueli Integrative Health Programs.
PrEP use high but wanes after three months among young African women
In a study of open-label Truvada as daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV among young African women and adolescent girls, 95% initiated PrEP, and most used PrEP for the first three months.
Monsoon rains have become more intense in the southwest in recent decades
Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists.
Type of stent affects immediate and long-term outcomes
A new study comparing the outcomes of different types of stents used to treat cerebral aneurysms shows that the type of stent used affects a patient's immediate and long-term health outcomes.
Scholars weigh in on new ideas about autism
A new paper that challenges widely held ideas about autism has attracted comments from more than 30 scholars across the disciplines of psychology, anthropology, education, and neuroscience.
Novel rheumatoid arthritis drug succeeds in clinical trial led by Stanford investigator
Rheumatoid arthritis patients getting little or no relief from conventional small-molecule drugs and injectable biologic drugs saw substantial improvement in their condition from daily use of an experimental compound in a large 24-week study led by a Stanford University School of Medicine investigator.
'Kneeding' a break: First evidence ACL injuries an overuse failure
Repetitive knee stress and failure to accommodate sufficient rest between periods of strenuous exercise may be key factors behind the rapid rise in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in world sport, a new international study has found.
Daily e-cigarette use may help smokers quit regular cigarettes
New study from the Massachusetts General Hospital's Tobacco Research and Treatment Center provides critical evidence demonstrating that using e-cigarettes daily helps U.S. smokers to quit traditional cigarettes.
Buying local? Higher price means higher quality in consumers' minds
Why are we willing to pay much more for a six pack of craft beer, a locally produced bottle of wine or a regional brand item, often choosing them over national brands?
How stimulant treatment prevents serious outcomes of ADHD
Analysis quantifies the extent which stimulant treatment reduces serious outcomes in children and young adults with ADHD.
More heart attacks and strokes when cholesterol-lowering prescription rejected or unfilled
Individuals at high risk for cardiovascular events had more heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular events when they were unable to obtain their prescribed LDL-cholesterol lowering medication.
Is Instagram behavior motivated by a desire to belong?
Does a desire to belong and perceived social support drive a person's frequency of Instagram use?
Putting the brakes on lateral root development
Biologists have discovered a cellular transporter that links two of the most powerful hormones in plant development -- auxin and cytokinin -- and shows how they regulate root initiation and progression.
Folic acid reduces risk of neural tube defects linked to HIV drug dolutegravir
HIV drug doluteglavir interferes with the binding of folate to its receptor, thus promoting neural tube defects.
What motivates people to join -- and stick with -- citizen science projects?
After more than 20 years, the UW's Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team, or COASST, is itself the subject of scientific study.
Climate changes faster than animals adapt
Although animals do commonly respond to climate change, such responses are in general insufficient to cope with the rapid pace of rising temperatures and sometimes go in wrong directions.
Researchers get a handle on how to control blood sugar after stroke
Hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose, is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke and is associated with worse outcomes compared to normal blood sugar levels.
In the shoes of a robot: The future approaches
Identifying with someone is an exercise that makes us understand them deeply, empathize with them, and helps us overcome mistrust and prejudice.
Brain imaging findings of US government personnel in Cuba
Imaging shows differences in the brains of US government personnel who were potentially exposed to unusual audible and sensory phenomena (sound, pressure or vibration) while serving in Cuba when compared with brain images from a group of healthy individuals without such exposure, although the clinical importance of these brain differences is uncertain.
NASA analyzes new Atlantic depression's tropical rainfall
Tropical Depression 3 has formed about off the eastern coast of central Florida.
Suicidal thoughts can be reduced among Indigenous people; this new study finds the factors
New nationally representative Canadian study from the University of Toronto and Algoma University finds that 3-quarters of formerly suicidal Indigenous adults who are living off-reserve had been free from suicidal thoughts in the past year.
For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain
The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can switch to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female present dies or disappears.
Finding alternatives to diamonds for drilling
Diamond is one of the only materials hard and tough enough for the job of constant grinding without significant wear, but diamonds are pricey.
Researchers map protein-gene interactions involved in Alzheimer's disease
UC San Diego researchers have used the transcriptome -- the sum of all messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules expressed from genes -- to map protein-gene interactions involved in Alzheimer's disease.
White-tailed deer were predominant in pre-Columbian Panama feasts
An analysis of white-tailed deer remains at an archaeological site in Panama revealed signs of 'feasting behavior' associated with this animal among pre-Columbian populations.
Scientists identify new genetic interactions that may impact cancer outcomes
In a new study, scientists at the University of Maryland and the National Cancer Institute identified 12 distinct types of gene-pair interactions in which varying levels of expression in the two genes correlated with cancer patient survival.
Zhang group identifies gene that may make TNBC cells vulnerable to existing
A new study by University of Notre Dame researcher Siyuan Zhang and collaborators, published in Nature Communications, shows that an existing, FDA-approved drug that treats other types of breast cancer may work for TNBC.
Exposure to air pollution among women in Mozambique greatly intensified by the use of kerosene lamps
Study shows that women living in the Manhiça region are breathing air with much higher concentrations of black carbon than those found in Europe.
Finding one's way in the rainforest
How do human foragers find food or the way home in rainforests, where heavy vegetation limits visibility, without a map, compass, or smartphone?
Hit your head, lose your sense of smell
People who suffer even a mild concussion can find it difficult to identify smells in the day that follows, and have anxiety problems a year later, a Canadian study finds.
Cane toad testes smaller at the invasion front
Biological invasions impose novel evolutionary pressures. Individuals at an invasion front may allocate most of their resources to dispersing rather than reproducing.
Psychological support 'not available' to one in three cancer patients who need it
People with cancer have trouble accessing appropriate psychological support, a new global report by the All.Can international cancer initiative reveals.
The first bioluminescent click beetle discovered in Asia represents a new subfamily
The first record of a luminescent click beetle in Asia, representing a new to science subfamily, is reported from southwest China by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, (Kunming), Tianjin New Wei San Industrial Company, Ltd.
How to restore a coral reef
New guidelines drafted by a consortium of concerned experts could enable corals to adapt to changing environments and help restore declining populations in the Caribbean.
Hidden dynamics detected in neuronal networks
Neuronal networks in the brain can process information particularly well when they are close to a critical.
Chimpanzees' working memory similar to ours
Working memory is central to our mental lives; we use it to add up the cost of our shopping or to remember the beginning of this sentence at its end.
New studies suggest prenatal marijuana may be capable of causing FASD-like impairment
Whether alone or combined with alcohol, new studies included in Birth Defects Research just published by the Teratology Society with John Wiley & Sons, suggest marijuana exposure may be capable of triggering morphological and behavioral impairments similar to those seen with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).
Keeping livestock in the yard just might help your baby's immune system
Getting up close -- and a little dirty -- with farm animals just might help us fend off illness, say researchers who've further demonstrated the benefits of early exposure to a wide variety of environmental bacteria.
New discovery points toward possible treatment for diabetic non-healing wounds
A new mouse and human tissues study identifies an enzyme critical for normal wound healing that may open up avenues for treatment.
MicroRNAs from human fat cells can impair macrophage ability to eliminate cholesterol
A multi-institutional team led by research faculty at Children's National in Washington, DC, finds that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from kids' fat can play a pivotal role in ratcheting up risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease well before any worrisome symptoms become visible.
Cancer lab on chip to enable widespread screening, personalized treatment
Pathology labs mounted on chips are set to revolutionize the detection and treatment of cancer by using devices as thin as a human hair to analyze bodily fluids.
Study quantifies smoking's strong link to peripheral artery disease
A new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that cigarette smoking boosts the risk of peripheral artery disease, and this elevated risk can persist up to 30 years after smoking cessation.

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