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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | July 26, 2019


For salmonella detection, genomic tool emerges as a key
The world's food supply will become safer as the food industry shifts to high-resolution, whole-genome sequencing -- which examines the full DNA of a given organism all at once.
Opioid use after vaginal or cesarean delivery among US women
This study used national insurance claims data for about 988,000 women to look at the association between an opioid prescription after a vaginal or cesarean delivery and rates of new persistent opioid use among US women.
Market competition sets tone for lower cost of UK mobile phone contracts, research shows
Healthy and competitive markets -- and not stringent regulations -- help dial back the cost of mobile phone contacts, according to new research.
Medications used to treat atrial fibrillation may raise risk of falls
To prevent atrial fibrillation symptoms, health professionals may treat patients with medications to control their heart rate or rhythm.
When considering presidential candidates, age is just a number
A new white paper shows there is no such thing as being too old to be president.
Expert panel in macular degeneration recommends paradigm shift for future directions
A panel of investigators assembled by the National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) calls for large-scale collaborative research to address dry macular degeneration -- the leading cause of blindness among the elderly -- for which there is currently no effective treatment.
New gene found for a deadly childhood cancer offers possibility of targeted drug therapy
Neuroblastoma accounts for 15% of total childhood cancer deaths and survival rates of high-risk neuroblastoma patients is 50%.
Shaping light with a smartlens
A team of researchers reports on a dynamically tuneable lens capable of achieving almost any complex optical function.
City of Hope study finds novel mechanism of action for NK cells in checkpoint inhibitor for cancer
City of Hope scientists have discovered that natural killer (NK) cells provide one reason why anti-PD-L1 antibodies might work when tumor cells do not express PD-L1.
Yellow is not the new black: Discovery paves way for new generation of solar cells
A study led by KU Leuven for the first time explains how a promising type of perovskites -- man-made crystals that can convert sunlight into electricity -- can be stabilized.
A computer that understands how you feel
Neuroscientists have developed a brain-inspired computer system that can look at an image and determine what emotion it evokes in people.
Mouse model supports importance of fatty acid balance in chronic disease
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators find evidence that it is the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, rather than the total amount, that influences risk of chronic disease.
Next-gen membranes for carbon capture
EPFL chemical engineers have developed a new class of high-performance membranes for carbon capture that greatly exceed current targets.
Stanford physicists discover new quantum trick for graphene: Magnetism
Physicists were stunned when two twisted sheets of graphene showed signs of superconductivity.
Study: Sizzling Southwest summers can cause pavement burns in seconds
When temperatures in the Southwestern US climb to over 100 degrees, the pavement can get hot enough to cause second-degree burns in seconds.
Two therapeutic targets identified for deadly lung cancer
The vast majority of deadly lung cancer cases (85 percent) are termed non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), which often contain a mutated gene called LKB1.
Mouse genetics influences the microbiome more than environment
Genetics has a greater impact on the microbiome than maternal birth environment, at least in mice, according to a study published this week in Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Burnout symptoms associated with racial bias in medical residents
Mayo Clinic researchers have found an association between increased symptoms of burnout and heightened racial bias in medical residents.
Antipsychotic use in youths with ADHD is low, but still cause for concern
A new study eased fears about the proportion of youths with ADHD taking antipsychotic drugs, but still found that many prescriptions may be inappropriate.
New paper points to soil pore structure as key to carbon storage
Alexandra Kravchenko, Michigan State University professor in the Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, and several of her colleagues recently discovered a new mechanism determining how carbon is stored in soils that could improve the climate resilience of cropping systems and also reduce their carbon footprints.
Researchers develop novel imaging approach with potential to identify patients with CAD
Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have developed a novel imaging approach that has the potential to identify patients with coronary disease without administration of drugs or contrast dye and within a short 15 minute exam protocol.
Are US adults meeting physical activity guidelines?
The proportion of US adults adhering to the 'Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans' from the US Department of Health and Human Services didn't significantly improve between 2007 and 2016 but time spent sitting increased.
Researchers show the importance of copy-number variants in the development of insecticide resistance in malaria mosquitoes
Researchers from LSTM, working alongside colleagues from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cambridge and the Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, have used whole genome sequencing to understand copy-number variants (CNVs) in malaria mosquitoes and their role in insecticide resistance.
The democratic governance of agricultural multinationals is essential for environmental sustainability
An international team of researchers investigate how partnering works to achieve sustainability in agri food supply chains using using a pioneer case study: Barilla Sustainable Farming (BSF)
Racial bias associated with burnout among resident physicians
Symptoms of physician burnout appear to be associated with greater bias toward black people in this study of nearly 3,400 second-year resident physicians in the United States who identified as nonblack.
Liver transplants could be redundant with discovery of new liver cell
Researchers at King's College London have used single cell RNA sequencing to identify a type of cell that may be able to regenerate liver tissue, treating liver failure without the need for transplants.
Aussie businesses not ready to tackle modern slavery
New research from the University of South Australia finds that Australian businesses are ill-prepared for mandatory modern slavery reporting, with more than two-thirds of ASX 100 companies unable to produce a disclosure statement about potentially exploitative labour practices.
Like film editors and archaeologists, biochemists piece together genome history
UC San Diego biochemists discovered a large-scale molecular movement associated with RNA catalysis that provides evidence for the origin of RNA splicing and its role in the diversity of life on Earth.
Compound found in red wine opens door for new treatments for depression, anxiety
A new University at Buffalo-led study has revealed that the plant compound resveratrol, which is found in red wine, displays anti-stress effects by blocking the expression of an enzyme related to the control of stress in the brain.
One in 75 new mothers go on to long-term opioid painkiller use; risk rises with size of Rx
Nearly half of American women having a baby in the last decade received a prescription for a powerful opioid painkiller as part of their birth experience, a new study shows.
How is urban green space associated with mental health?
This observational study looked at how green space is associated with mental health.
The effects of skin aging vary depending on ethnicity, review finds
Neelam Vashi, M.D., director of the Center for Ethnic Skin at Boston Medical Center, has published a review paper in Clinics in Dermatology that discusses how aging presents in patients, and the differences that are attributed to skin type, exposures and genetic factors.
Radiotherapy targets tumours precisely -- with less damage to healthy cells
A new way of concentrating radiotherapy dose in tumours, while minimising damage to healthy cells, has been proposed in research led by scientists at the University of Strathclyde.
Stature and education level of diabetic women to find those at risk of dementia in Nigeria
A joint survey by researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) and Benue State University (BSU) finds that short height and low education levels are characteristic traits of Nigerian women with type 2 diabetes showing early symptoms of dementia.
Brain region linked to altered social interactions in autism model
Neuroscientists identify brain region linked to altered social interactions autism model.
Solar energy becomes biofuel without solar cells
Soon we will be able to replace fossil fuels with a carbon-neutral product created from solar energy, carbon dioxide and water.
A good first step toward nontoxic solar cells
A team of engineers at Washington University in St. Louis has found what they believe is a more stable, less toxic semiconductor for solar applications, using a novel double mineral discovered through data analytics and quantum-mechanical calculations.
Asthma medication inhibits changes in diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes mouse
A new study found the asthma medication montelukast (brand name Singulair) can inhibit early changes in diabetic retinopathy, the eye disease which develops due to diabetes, in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
Banning tobacco sales to people under age 21 reduces smoking
County- and municipality-level bans on tobacco sales to individuals under age 21 yield substantive reductions in smoking among 18- to 20-year-olds, according to a new study from the Yale School of Public Health.
An unexpected developmental hierarchy in an unusual disease
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting primarily young children.
Visible punishment institutions are key in promoting large-scale cooperation: Study
New international research by Monash University has found that one way to overcome social dilemmas is through visible prosocial punishment -- the existence of collective institutions that punish individuals who don't cooperate.
Stanford physicists count sound particles with quantum microphone
A device that eavesdrops on the quantum whispers of atoms could form the basis of a new type of quantum computer.
HDO-antimiR represents a new weapon in the fight against microRNA-related disease
Malfunctioning microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in various genetic diseases.
Ladies' choice: What drives faster, flashier formation of new animal species
Evolution is actually a Sadie Hawkins dance, as new research shows females not only determine whether male animals develop bright colors, but also how fast new species develop.
Work that kills
More than 64% of employed Russians work evenings, nights or weekends, and this is one of the highest figures among European countries.
NASA finds two areas of strength in Tropical Storm Nari
NASA's Terra satellite found two small areas of strength in Tropical Storm Nari on July 26 as it began to affect Japan.

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