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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | July 30, 2019


Girls who are more physically active in childhood may have better lung function in adolescence
A study of more than 2,300 adolescents underscores the pulmonary health benefits of physical activity.
Students with a greater sense of school belonging are less likely to become bullies
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that students who feel a greater sense of belonging with their peers, family and school community are less likely to become bullies.
Next-generation medication: where chemistry meets computation
A group of Japanese researchers drastically enhanced and sped up the way to skeletally diverse indole alkaloids, composed of the medicinally-relevant scaffolds.
Experimental observation of a new class of materials: Excitonic insulators
A FLEET study has found evidence of a new phase of matter predicted in the 1960s: the excitonic insulator, which has been keenly pursued by condensed matter physicists and 2D material scientists.
UW study: House move during early pregnancy linked to heightened premature birth risk
Moving to a new residence during the first three months of pregnancy is linked to a heightened risk of premature birth and low birthweight, as well as a slightly higher risk of a smaller-than-expected-size baby, according to new research from the University of Washington published online today in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
When mosquitoes are biting during rainy season, net use increases, study finds
The more rainfall a region in sub-Saharan Africa gets, the more mosquitoes proliferate there and the more likely its residents will sleep under their insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria transmission, a new study from the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs suggests.
Skin in balance: Joint forces of polarity and cell mechanics
Molecular mechanics in the skin of mice are driven by polarity genes, a team led by Sandra Iden of the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research CECAD reports in 'Nature Communications'.
Smartphone virus scanner is not what you think
The current leading method to assess the presence of viruses and other biological markers of disease is effective but large and expensive.
Treating solar cell materials reveals formation of unexpected microstructures
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have been used in optoelectronic devices including solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers, but the surface of hybrid perovskites is prone to surface defects, where charge carriers are trapped in the semiconducting material.
How humans and chimpanzees travel towards a goal in rainforests
How do human-unique ranging styles, like large home range and trail use, influence the way we travel to our goals?
Conservation or construction? Deciding waterbird hotspots
MSU scientists show that conservation and construction decisions should rely on multiple approaches to determine waterbird 'hotspots,' not just on one analysis method as is often done.
Improving efficiency, brightness of perovskite LEDs
Advances in organic phosphorescent materials are opening new opportunities for organic light-emitting diodes for combined electronics and light applications, including solar cells, photodiodes, optical fibers and lasers.
Leap toward robust binder-less metal phosphide electrodes for Li-ion batteries
Researchers at the Toyohashi University of Technology have successfully fabricated a binder-less tin phosphide (Sn4P3)/carbon (C) composite film electrode for lithium-ion batteries via aerosol deposition.
Ethnic networks help refugees integrate into the host country's economy
Many refugee resettlement programs evenly disperse new arrivals, in part to discourage the formation of ethnic clusters.
NASA analyzes first central pacific ocean hurricane's water vapor
Hurricane Erick has become the first tropical cyclone to enter the Central Pacific Ocean during the 2019 Hurricane Season and Hawaii is keeping an eye on the storm.
To conserve water, Indian farmers fire up air pollution
A measure to conserve groundwater in northwestern India has led to unexpected consequences: added air pollution in an area already beset by haze and smog.
Antenatal screening for kidney problems in early childhood
Babies who have persistent fluid-filled areas in their kidneys during gestation are likely to present with urinary tract problems and to be admitted to hospital in early childhood, according to new research published by Shantini Paranjothy and colleagues at Cardiff University, UK in the open access journal PLOS Medicine on July 30, 2019.
Individuals with obesity get more satisfaction from their food
A new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found no significant difference in taste perceptions between participants of normal weight and those who were overweight.
Microfluidic array catches, holds single cervical cells for faster screening
Several screening tests for cervical cancer have been developed in recent years.
The surprising link between a babies' weeble-wobble and the genetics of motor control
Neuroscientists at the University of Sussex have revealed that complex movements, such as those that maintain our posture, can be controlled by a simple genetic system, providing a framework to better understand the molecular basis of diseases that affect motor control, like Huntington's and Parkinson's.
Weight stigma in men associated with harmful health consequences
As many as 40% of men report experiencing weight stigma, but little is known about how this stigma affects their health.
Food quality control made faster and easier
Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Leibniz-Institute for Food Systems Biology have developed a new methodology for the simultaneous analysis of odorants and tastants.
Stem cell research sheds new light on the skin
For the first time, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have studied and outlined the development of sebaceous glands in the skin.
To get customers to buy more in the future, help them buy a gift
A new study finds that retailers can leverage gift purchases as an effective relationship-building marketing instrument to engage customers with the brand and drive future purchases.
Expanding the palette
Researchers discover a new phase in block copolymers.
UA researcher and doctoral student reconcile scientific standoff in colon cancer research
Curtis Thorne, PhD, and UA doctoral student Carly Cabel validated findings from a 2018 collaborative study that identified a possible new therapeutic target for colon cancer -- after a Harvard lab challenged the initial results.
Researchers enrich silver chemistry
Researchers from Russia and Saudi Arabia have proposed an efficient method for obtaining fundamental data necessary for understanding chemical and physical processes involving substances in the gaseous state.
Keeping parasites from sticking to mosquito guts could block disease transmission
Infections such as Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and leishmaniasis are caused by a group of microorganisms called kinetoplastids.
Birthweight, height together provide insight into future heart health
It's the proportionality of a newborn -- a measure that includes both birthweight and length -- that may best tell doctors whether a child is born with an increased risk for heart problems later in life, investigators report.
Disruption of glucose transport to rods and cones shown to cause vision loss in RP
Ophthalmology researchers at the University of Louisville have discovered the loss of vision in RP is the result of a disruption in the flow of nourishing glucose to the rods and cones.
Tech companies not doing enough to protect users from phishing scams
Just over 15 years after the first reported incident of phishing, new research from the University of Plymouth suggests tech companies could be doing more to protect users from the threat of scams.
West Coast forest landowners will plant less Douglas-fir in warming climate, model shows
West Coast forest landowners are expected to adapt to climate change by gradually switching from Douglas-fir to other types of trees such as hardwoods and ponderosa pine.
Selective antibiotics following nature's example
Chemists from Konstanz develop selective agents to combat infectious diseases -- based on the structures of natural products
A paradoxical proinflammatory effect of endocannabinoids in the brain discovered
The results of the study in mice are contrary to what had been observed to date in other areas of the brain where endocannabinoids play an anti-inflammatory role.
UK tick-borne Lyme disease cases may be 3 times higher than previous estimates
New cases of tick-borne Lyme disease in the UK may be three times higher than previous estimates suggest, and might top 8,000 in 2019, based on these figures, concludes research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Adjuvant radiotherapy may be beneficial in treating locally advanced prostate cancer
Adjuvant radiotherapy administered after surgical removal of the prostate prolongs disease-free time as measured by PSA, a Finnish study shows.
Study shows non-lethal impacts of seabirds' plastic ingestion
An IMAS-led study of seabirds that had ingested plastic debris has revealed a range of non-lethal impacts on their health and physiology.
p53 mutations in 10,000 cancer patients shed new light on gene's function
One of the most extensively studied genes in cancer, TP53 is well known for its role as a tumor suppressor.
75% of asthma sufferers unable to work to their full potential
A new multi-national survey has revealed that asthma sufferers are missing nearly one-tenth of work hours due to their symptoms, which also results in a loss of productivity and affects their emotional wellbeing.
Pre-eclampsia increases risk of end stage kidney disease, study finds
Women with pre-eclampsia during pregnancy have a five-fold increased risk of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) later in life compared to women who don't develop pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Ali Khashan of University College Cork, Ireland, and colleagues at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden and Liverpool University, UK.
New method increases accuracy of nontuberculous mycobacteria identification
The more than 200 species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are notoriously difficult to differentiate, delaying the implementation of targeted antibiotic therapy.
A first bad apple spoils the bunch
People are more likely to judge the performance of a group based on member's that are labelled as first or number one than they are on any other member, according to new research led by Cass Business School academic Dr Janina Steinmetz.
Autonomic nervous system appears to function well regardless of mode of childbirth
'In a low-risk group of babies born full-term, the autonomic nervous system and cortical systems appear to function well regardless of whether infants were exposed to labor prior to birth,' says Sarah B.
Legal status no guarantee of job security
Legal status is no guarantee that migrants will find more security in the workplace, according to a new study published in the journal Migration Letters.
Finding a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders
Neurodevelopmental disorders arising from rare genetic mutations can cause atypical cognitive function, intellectual disability, and developmental delays, yet it is unclear why and how this happens.
Smoking impedes embolization treatment in lungs
Smoking reduces the chances of a successful procedure to treat blood vessel abnormalities in the lungs, according to a new study.
Cigarette smoke makes MRSA superbug bacterium more drug-resistant
Cigarette smoke can make MRSA bacterial strains more resistant to antibiotics, new research from the University of Bath has shown.
'Tickle' therapy could help slow aging
'Tickling' the ear with a small electrical current appears to rebalance the autonomic nervous system for over-55s, potentially slowing down one of the effects of aging, according to new research.
Fly antimicrobial defence system doubles as tumor-killer
An antimicrobial agent called Defensin kills tumour cells and shrinks tumour size in fruit flies, with help from a pathway that flags the cells for destruction.
Starting with less-invasive procedures to restore leg blood flow as good at avoiding amputation as starting with open surgery
Patients who underwent a less-invasive procedure to open clogged leg arteries were just a likely to survive with their legs intact as patients who had more invasive surgery.
Researchers estimate societal costs of the opioid epidemic
The devastating consequences of the opioid crisis are far-reaching in the United States, impacting public health as well as social and economic welfare.
Antioxidant compound from soybeans may prevent marijuana-induced blood vessel damage
Marijuana exposure damages cells of the inner lining of blood vessels throughout the heart and vascular system.
New studies by CU researchers highlight causes of vitiligo
A pair of new journal articles by researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play significant roles in the onset of vitiligo, an autoimmune disease that results in the loss of color in blotches of skin.
PE fitness tests have little positive impact for students
A new study reveals that school fitness tests have little impact on student attitudes to PE -- contrary to polarized views on their merits -- and for many students, fitness testing during PE may be wasting valuable class time when used in isolation from the curriculum.
FEFU scientists trained robots to make independent decisions in a changing environment
A team of scientists from the School of Engineering of Far Eastern Federal University, Institute of Marine Technology Issues, and Institute of Automation and Management Processes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences developed software allowing industrial AI robots with technical vision to set out and adjust the movement trajectories of their tools in real time without reducing given precision levels.
NHS 'health checks' reduce cardiovascular disease risk, new study finds
Attending a health check as part of the England National Health Services 'Health Check' program is associated with increased risk management interventions and decreased risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the six years following the check, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Samah Alageel of King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, and colleagues from King's College London, UK.
Scientists reproduce the dynamics behind astrophysical shocks
Article describes first laboratory measurement of the precursors to high-energy astronomical shocks.
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease for healthy 75-year-olds who stop taking statins
A nationwide study of 120,173 people in France, who were aged 75 between 2012 and 2014 and had been taking statins continuously for two years, has found those who stopped taking their statins had a 33% increased risk of being admitted to hospital with heart or blood vessel problems during an average follow-up period of 2.4 years.
How we care for the environment may have social consequences
Anyone can express their commitment to the environment through individual efforts, but some pro-environmental or 'green' behaviors may be seen as either feminine or masculine, which Penn State researchers say may have social consequences.
Soft wearable health monitor uses stretchable electronics
A wireless, wearable monitor built with stretchable electronics could allow comfortable, long-term health monitoring of adults, babies and small children without concern for skin injury or allergic reactions caused by conventional adhesive sensors with conductive gels.
NASA finds Flossie's center just north of coldest cloud tops
Cloud top temperatures provide information to forecasters about where the strongest storms are located within a tropical cyclone.
Brand-brand competition is unlikely to reduce list prices of medicines
Greater brand-brand competition alone will likely not lower list prices of brand-name drugs in the US, according to a study published July 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Ameet Sarpatwari of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and colleagues.
From urine samples to precision medicine in bladder cancer through 3D cell culture
A research collaboration led by scientists from institutions in Japan including Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) has developed a new experimental cancer model for dog bladder cancer.
3D printed rocket fuel comparison at James Cook University
James Cook University scientists in Australia are using 3D printing to create fuels for rockets, and using tailor-made rocket motors they've built to test the fuels.
House move during early pregnancy linked to heightened premature birth risk
Moving house during the first three months of pregnancy is linked to a heightened risk of premature birth and low birthweight as well as a slightly higher risk of a smaller than expected size baby, finds US research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
Should polycystic kidney disease patients be screened for brain aneurysms?
Brain aneurysms were detected by pre-symptomatic screening in 9% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, more frequently in those with a history of hypertension and smoking.
Boosting the anti-inflammatory action of the immune system
Researchers have identified a molecular switch that causes macrophages to clean up cellular debris caused by infections instead of contributing to inflammation and tissue injury.
Gene transcripts from ancient wolf analyzed after 14,000 years in permafrost
RNA -- the short-lived transcripts of genes -- from the 'Tumat puppy', a wolf of the Pleistocene era has been isolated, and its sequence analyzed in a new study by Oliver Smith of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues publishing on July 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology.
Researchers repair faulty brain circuits using nanotechnology
Working with mouse and human tissue, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report new evidence that a protein pumped out of some -- but not all -- populations of 'helper' cells in the brain, called astrocytes, plays a specific role in directing the formation of connections among neurons needed for learning and forming new memories.
Sexual competition helps horned beetles survive deforestation
A study of how dung beetles survive deforestation in Borneo suggests that species with more competition among males for matings are less likely to go extinct, according to research led by scientists from Queen Mary University of London and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Marital infidelity and professional misconduct linked, study shows
People who cheat on their spouses are significantly more likely to engage in misconduct in the workplace, according to a study from the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
New nanoparticle combination therapy shows effective resuscitation for massive hemorrhage
Japanese scientists successfully resuscitated rabbits with coagulopathy from severe hemorrhagic shock using hemostatic nanoparticles and oxygen-carrying nanoparticles, which respectively stopped bleeding and delivered oxygen to the systemic tissues and organs.
New material could make it easier to remove colon polyps
MIT researchers have developed a gel that can be injected into the tissue lining the colon, forming a 'cushion' that makes it easier to remove precancerous polyps during a colonoscopy.
Why are we so drawn to places of happy memories?
Why are we so drawn to places of happy memories?
Scientists identify propranolol's target in treating rare condition and hemangiomas
The discovery of a new target for the blood-pressure medication propranolol may lead to the development of new and safer therapies for vascular diseases, according to new findings published in eLife.
Credit default swaps cushion stock prices against credit downgrades
Credit default swaps (CDS) were heavily criticized for being a major contributor to the 2008/09 financial crisis.
'Love hormone' has stomach-turning effect in starfish
A hormone that is released in our brain when we fall in love also makes starfish turn their stomach inside out to feed, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London.
A voracious Cambrian predator, Cambroraster, is a new species from the Burgess Shale
Palaeontologists at the Royal Ontario Museum and University of Toronto have uncovered fossils of a large new predatory species in half-a-billion-year-old rocks from Kootenay National Park in the Canadian Rockies.
Leading oncologists and nutritionists pinpoint areas to catalyze nutrition-based cancer prevention
An international collaborative led by Ludwig Cancer Research and Cancer Research UK has identified key areas that are central to uncovering the complex relationship between nutrition and cancer.
CHOP research team redefines the footprint of viral vector gene therapy
Building on a track record of developing adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors as a groundbreaking clinical tool for gene therapy and gene editing, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) researchers report a more sensitive method for capturing the footprint of AAV vectors -- a broad range of sites where the vectors transfer genetic material.
At the edge of chaos: New method for exoplanet stability analysis
Gaining a full understanding of systems of exoplanets and distant stars is difficult, because the initial positions and velocities of the exoplanets are unknown.
School segregation worsens for Latino children compared with a generation ago
Latino children are likely to enter elementary schools this year with fewer white peers than a generation ago, judging by data reported in a new study published today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.
Next step in producing magnetic organic molecules
A team from the Ruhr Explores Solvation Cluster of Excellence at Ruhr-Universität Bochum has created new molecules with magnetic properties.
Beyond the bottom line: Investors favour companies that give back
Savvy business leaders understand that when companies give back, they can attract better employees and win customers.
Technological developments in radiation detectors enhance global nuclear security
Nuclear power plants can withstand most inclement weather and do not emit harmful greenhouse gases.
Virtual reality to solve personal problems
A new study published in the Nature Group's journal Scientific Reports shows that conversation with oneself embodied as Dr.

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