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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 01, 2019


'Green' taxes
A comparative analysis has shown that 'indirect' instruments, such as excise taxes on motor fuel and other energy taxes, did not yield any lesser impact than their 'direct' counterparts, and, over time, were even more effective.
EU agriculture not viable for the future
The current reform proposals of the EU Commission on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) are unlikely to improve environmental protection, say researchers led by the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the University of Göttingen in the journal Science.
NASA-NOAA satellite sees Erick still hanging as a hurricane
Hurricane Erick continued hold onto its status as it moved west through the Central Pacific.
Doing more with less: Flexible, reduced-load jobs a win-win for workers, employers
A Purdue University professor is researching reduced-load work options to help provide benefits for professionals and companies.
'Fake news,' diminishing media trust and the role of social media
Exploring the perception of the 'fake news' phenomenon is critical to combating the ongoing global erosion of trust in the media according to a study co-authored by a University of Houston researcher.
Repairing harmful effects of inbreeding could save the iconic Helmeted Honeyeater
Study combines over 30 years of demanding fieldwork and advanced genetics to quantify how much harm is done by inbreeding in the last wild population of the Helmeted Honeyeater, and identifies ways forward.
Very little public support for relaxing rules and regulations around fracking
A major new public attitudes survey on fracking reveals very little public support for relaxing the rules and regulations around fracking -- a key demand of major shale gas extraction companies.
UC researchers unlock cancer cells' feeding mechanism, central to tumor growth
An international team led by researchers from the University of Cincinnati and Japan's Keio and Hiroshima universities has discovered the energy production mechanism of cancerous cells that drives the growth of the nucleolus and causes tumors to rapidly multiply.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, August 2019
ORNL story tips: Training next-generation sensors to 'see,' interpret live data; 3D printing tungsten could protect fusion reactor components; detailed study estimated how much more, or less, energy US residents might consume by 2050 based on seasonal weather shifts; astrophysicists used ORNL supercomputer to create highest-ever-resolution galactic wind simulations; new solar-thermal desalination method improves energy efficiency.
Ancient plankton help researchers predict near-future climate
Temperature data inferred from plankton fossils from the Pliocene, an era with CO2 levels similar to today's, allowed a UA-led team to rectify discrepancies between climate models and other proxy temperature measurements.
Do yellow-lens night-driving glasses improve visibility, reduce headlight glare?
With the use of a driving simulator, three commercially available yellow-lens night-driving glasses were compared with clear lenses to examine their ability to detect pedestrians or reduce the negative effects of headlight glare.
System to image the human eye corrects for chromatic aberrations
Researchers report a new imaging system that cancels the chromatic optical aberrations present in a specific person's eye, allowing for a more accurate assessment of vision and eye health.
Experimental respiratory syncytial virus vaccine prompts antibody surge
A novel experimental vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of severe respiratory illness in the very young and the old, has shown early promise in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
Drop of ancient seawater rewrites Earth's history
The remains of a microscopic drop of ancient seawater has assisted in rewriting the history of Earth's evolution when it was used to re-establish the time that plate tectonics started on the planet.
Slip layer dynamics reveal why some fluids flow faster than expected
New microscopy technique provides unprecedented insight into nanoscopic slip layers formed in flowing complex liquids.
Can a combination immune therapy reduce genital herpes outbreaks?
New Haven, Conn. -- Yale investigators have shown that the combination of a vaccine and a medicated cream is a promising strategy to dramatically reduce the recurrence of genital herpes.
Monthly lifestyle counseling tied to better outcomes for patients with diabetes
A new study in Diabetes Care suggests that patients who received lifestyle counseling at least once a month were at decreased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attacks, strokes and hospitalization for chest pain as well as death from any cause compared to those who received counseling less frequently.
Bats use leaves as mirrors to find prey in the dark
Bats can find motionless insects on leaves in the dark.
Cheater, cheater: Human Behavior Lab studies cheating as innate trait
The Texas A&M Human Behavior Lab took a closer look at cheating during periods of relative economic abundance and scarcity to determine whether cheating for monetary gain is a product of the economic environment.
Genomic data reveal intense fish harvesting causes rapid evolution
For the first time, scientists have unraveled genetic changes that cause rapid fish evolution due to intense harvesting -- changes that previously had been invisible to researchers.
Is your supercomputer stumped? There may be a quantum solution
A new study led by a Berkeley Lab physicist details how a quantum computing technique called 'quantum annealing' can be used to solve problems relevant to fundamental questions in nuclear physics about the subatomic building blocks of all matter.
Stress in cervical cancer patients associated with higher risk of cancer-specific mortality
Psychological stress was associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality in women diagnosed with cervical cancer.
US infrastructure unprepared for increasing frequency of extreme storms
Current design standards for United States hydrologic infrastructure are unprepared for the increasing frequency and severity of extreme rainstorms, meaning structures like retention ponds and dams will face more frequent and severe flooding, according to a new study in AGU's journal Geophysical Research Letters.
'Wildling' mice could help translate results in animal models to results in humans
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health developed a new mouse model that could improve the translation of research in mice into advances in human health.
Jogging and five other exercises ward off weight gain despite 'obesity genes'
For people who inherited genes that increase their chance of becoming obese, there is hope for keeping the weight off.
Two fraudsters, one passport
New research published today into the rise of so-called 'face morphing' attacks has found that computers are significantly more accurate at detecting fraudulent passport or identity images than humans.
Fishing for insights into evolutionary change in the genome of frozen fish
Using decades-old frozen fish, researchers have discovered roots of rapid evolutionary adaptation to human activity in the Anthropocene.
Photocatalytic generation of highly reactive alkynes under visible light conditions
In a recent study published in Organic Letters, researchers at Kanazawa University developed a method to generate a highly reactive alkyne, an organic molecule having a C≡C triple bond, from a cyclopropenone, an organic molecule having a strained three membered ring, using a visible light responsive photocatalyst.
Turtle embryos play a role in determining their own sex
In certain turtle species, the temperature of the egg determines whether the offspring is female or male.
NASA's Aqua satellite sees Tropical Storm Wipha hugging China coast
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the South China Sea and saw Tropical Storm Wipha hugging the southern coast of China.
Artificial intelligence could help air travelers save a bundle
Researchers are using artificial intelligence to help airlines price ancillary services such as checked bags and seat reservations in a way that is beneficial to customers' budget and privacy, as well as to the airline industry's bottom line.
Veterans with traumatic brain injuries have higher suicide risk
Military veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are more than twice as likely to die by suicide compared with veterans without such a diagnosis, according to a newly published study by researchers led by faculty from the CU School of Medicine.
Mapping the Milky Way in three dimensions
By measuring the distance from our sun to thousands of individual pulsating stars scattered across the Milky Way, researchers have charted our Galaxy on a larger scale than ever before.
Physicists make graphene discovery that could help develop superconductors
When two mesh screens are overlaid, beautiful patterns appear when one screen is offset.
A scientific approach to recreate metabolic evolution in plants
The research teams at Chiba University, RIKEN, and Kazusa DNA Research Institute confirmed in a paper published in the Plant Journal on July 31, 2019 that the alkaloids were generated by inserting the lysine/ornithine decarboxylating enzyme gene from Lupinus angustifolius producing lysine-derived alkaloid into Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana).
Human genetic diversity of South America reveals complex history of Amazonia
The vast cultural and linguistic diversity of Latin American countries is still far from being fully represented by genetic surveys.
'Voltron' imaging tool captures brain cell action in living animals
Janelia scientists have developed a new way to track neural activity.
Study assesses outcomes for meth users with burn injures
UC Davis Health researchers were surprised to find that methamphetamine use is not linked with worse health outcomes among burn patients, but was associated with significantly worse discharge conditions for meth-positive patients.
Cancer without end? Discovery yields fresh insights
In a new commentary appearing in the August 2nd issue of the journal Science, Carlo Maley and Darryl Shibata describe the evolutionary dynamics of a sexually transmitted cancer affecting dogs, which arose in a single ancient animal, living as much as 8.5 millennia ago.
Peering into the soul of the immune system to better fight disease
A rare, short-lived population of immune cells in the bloodstream may serve as 'periscopes' to monitor immune status via lymph nodes deep inside the body, according to new resesearch.
Strong evidence for causal link between obesity and multiple diseases
New research from the University of South Australia presents the strongest evidence yet of a causal relationship between obesity and a wide range of serious conditions.
Study casts doubt on evidence for 'gold standard' psychological treatments
Researchers have found 56% percent of 'Empirically Supported Treatments' per the American Psychological Association fare poorly across most metric scores for power and replicability.
Barn owls may hold key to navigation and location
The way barn owl brains use sound to locate prey may be a template for electronic directional navigation devices, according to a team of Penn State engineers who are recreating owl brain circuitry in electronics.
The Lancet: Deep learning AI may identify atrial fibrillation from a normal rhythm ECG
Researchers have trained an artificial intelligence model to detect the signature of atrial fibrillation in 10-second electrocardiograms (ECG) taken from patients in normal rhythm.
Sudden hearing loss: Update to guideline to improve implementation and awareness
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation published the Clinical Practice Guideline: Sudden Hearing Loss (Update) today in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.
Toxic chemicals hindering the recovery of Britain's rivers
Toxic chemicals from past decades could be hindering the recovery of Britain's urban rivers, concludes a recent study by scientists from Cardiff University, the University of Exeter, and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Largest ever study finds links in epilepsy genes
Researchers and patients from Austin Health and the University of Melbourne have been involved in the largest ever study looking at the genetic sequences of people with epilepsy.
3D printing new parts for our broken hearts
Researchers have developed a 'FRESH' new method of 3D printing complex anatomical structures out of collagen -- a primary building block in many human tissues.
Super-resolution microscopy sheds light on how dementia protein becomes dysfunctional
University of Queensland researchers have used super-resolution microscopy to observe key molecules at work inside living brain cells, further unravelling the puzzle of memory formation and the elusive causes of dementia.
Autopsies reveal how meth hurts the heart
Autopsy samples reveal that methamphetamine use makes dangerous structural changes in heart muscle that increase the risk of heart attack, sudden cardiac death and heart failure.
New computational method could advance precision medicine
Scientists have devised a new computational method that reveals genetic patterns in the massive jumble of individual cells in the body.
New vaccine against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) elicits strong immune response
An experimental vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the leading causes of infectious disease deaths in infants, has shown early promise in a Phase 1 human clinical trial.
How roads can help cool sizzling cities
Special permeable concrete pavement can help reduce the 'urban heat island effect' that causes cities to sizzle in the summer, according to a Rutgers-led team of engineers.
3D printing the human heart
CMU researchers have published in Science a new 3D bioprinting method that brings the field of tissue engineering one step closer to being able to 3D print a full-sized, adult human heart.
Endometrial diseases can be imitated in a lab dish, new study shows
Biomedical researchers at KU Leuven have found a new way to study endometrial diseases such as endometriosis and cancer.
Scientists crack the code to improve stress tolerance in plants
Epigenetic regulation -- modification of gene expression from the 'outside' -- is an important part of the overall genetic processes within a cell.
Unmasking the hidden burden of tuberculosis in Mozambique
The real burden of tuberculosis is probably higher than estimated, according to a study on samples from autopsies performed in a Mozambican hospital.
How little we know: Experts document the lack of research on youth firearm injury
A national team has just published the largest-ever examination of the state of research on all aspects of youth firearm injury - whether intentional, unintentional or self-inflicted.
Priority rule for organ donors could have unintended consequences
Several countries have combated low organ donor counts by implementing a priority rule that pushes registered donors to the front of the line if they ever need a transplant.
Scientists discover immune cell subtype in mice that drives allergic reactions
Allergies can be life-threatening when they cause anaphylaxis, an extreme reaction with constriction of the airways and a sudden drop in blood pressure.
Knockout mice are guide to new genes for eye and skin disorders
Albinism is the best-known of a group of rare genetic disorders that can affect both eyes and skin.
Old cells, new tricks -- important clue to AML diagnosis and cure discovered
Around 22,000 people will be diagnosed this year in the US with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the second most common type of leukemia diagnosed in adults and children.
A novel graphene-matrix-assisted stabilization method will help unique 2D materials to become a part
Scientists from Russia and Japan found a way of stabilizing two-dimensional copper oxide (CuO) materials by using graphene.
NYU physicist receives US Department of Energy Early Career Award
New York University physicist Jiehang Zhang has received an Early Career Award from the U.S.
From greenhouse gas to fuel
University of Delaware scientists are part of an international team of researchers that has revealed a new approach to convert carbon dioxide gas into valuable chemicals and fuels.
Despite treatment, elderly cancer patients have worse outcomes if HIV-positive
Elderly cancer patients who are HIV-positive have worse outcomes compared to cancer patients in the same age range who do not have HIV.
Light for the nanoworld
An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers.
New blood test can detect rejection by antibodies after kidney transplant
A group of European scientists led by KU Leuven has found a biomarker that can identify patients with symptoms of kidney rejection symptoms after a transplant as a result of antibodies.
Hubble uncovers a 'heavy metal' exoplanet shaped like a football
How can a planet be 'hotter than hot?' The answer is when heavy metals are detected escaping from the planet's atmosphere, instead of condensing into clouds.
Improving outcomes for sepsis patients
More than 1 million sepsis survivors are discharged annually from acute care hospitals in the United States.
Storytelling bots learn to punch up their last lines
Nothing disappoints quite like a good story with a lousy finish.
Scientists identified a new signaling component important for plant symbiosis
A proteomics-based protein-protein interaction study has led to the discovery of proteins that interact with a legume receptor that mediates signal transduction from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.
Middle-school Latino children report more depressive symptoms after family member arrested
Latino children who experience the immigration-related arrest of a family member report more severe levels of depression than those who don't have such an experience, especially if one or both parents are undocumented, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
Three concepts from complexity could play a big role in social animal research
A new paper in Animal Behaviour lays out three concepts from complex systems science that could advance studies into animal social complexity.
Self-sterilizing polymer proves effective against drug-resistant pathogens
Researchers have found an elastic polymer that possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, allowing it to kill a range of viruses and drug-resistant bacteria in just minutes - including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
The curious tale of the cancer 'parasite' that sailed the seas
A contagious canine cancer that conquered the world by spreading between dogs during mating likely arose around 6,000 years ago in Asia and spread around the globe through maritime activities, scientists say.
Police officers' exposure to peers accused of misconduct shapes their subsequent behavior
A new Northwestern University study investigated how Chicago police officers' exposure to peers who had been accused of misconduct shaped their involvement in subsequent excessive force cases.
Cost, potential environmental effects of unused pharmaceuticals in cataract surgery
The financial and environmental costs of unused portions of drugs from cataract surgery at four surgical sites in the US was investigated in this study.
Simulation technique can predict microstructures of alloy materials used in jet engines -- before they are made
Japanese researchers were able to rapidly and accurately predict the microstructure of Nickel -- Aluminum (Ni-Al) alloys that are commonly used in the design of jet engine turbine parts.
Species aren't adapting fast enough to cope with climate change, according to new study
Many species are adapting to climate change, but those adaptations aren't occurring fast enough to guarantee their long-term survival, according to a recent study that analyzed 10,000 published scientific papers.
Supercomputing improves biomass fuel conversion
Pretreating plant biomass with THF-water causes lignin globules on the cellulose surface to expand and break away from one another and the cellulose fibers.
FRESH 3D printing used to rebuild functional components of human heart
Scientists are a major step closer to 3D bioprintng functional organs, after team of Carnegie Mellon University researchers devise a method of rebuilding components of the human heart, according to a study published in Science.
Fear of more dangerous second Zika, dengue infections unfounded in monkeys
An initial infection with dengue virus did not prime monkeys for an especially virulent infection of Zika virus, according to a study at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Study finds mutual fund managers use their networks for info on insider trades
New research from the University of Notre Dame found that these tracked insider trades can predict future firm returns, with the stocks bought by a fund manager after a tracked insider buy outperforming other firm purchases.
Digital games may beat mindfulness apps at relieving stress, new study shows
Digital games may relieve stress after a day's work more effectively than mindfulness apps.
Blood test is highly accurate at identifying Alzheimer's before symptoms arise
A blood test to detect the brain changes of early Alzheimer's disease has moved one step closer to reality.
Anaemic star carries the mark of its ancient ancestor
In a paper published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, researchers led by Dr Thomas Nordlander of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D) confirm the existence of an ultra-metal-poor red giant star, located in the halo of the Milky Way, on the other side of the Galaxy about 35,000 light-years from Earth.
Pre-life building blocks spontaneously align in evolutionary experiment
It nearly baffled researchers to see amino acids that make up life today spontaneously link up under lab conditions that mimicked those of pre-life Earth.
Promising new solar-powered path to hydrogen fuel production
Engineers at Lehigh University are the first to utilize a single enzyme biomineralization process to create a catalyst that uses the energy of captured sunlight to split water molecules to produce hydrogen.
Low level exposure to air pollution is harmful, mouse model shows
Scientists investigating the effect of air pollution on lung health, in an animal model, have concluded that even low levels of exposure can have a detrimental effect on the lungs.
Black male educators sound alarm regarding lack of diversity in P-12 classrooms
University of Phoenix and the National Network of State Teachers of the Year (NNSTOY) partnered to publish a white paper examining of the career trajectories of Black male educators in P-12 from three perspectives: recruitment, retention, and mobility.
Study compares HIV, cancer treatments, outcomes in older patients
This study compared outcomes after a cancer diagnosis in patients with and without HIV who were 65 or older, had similar stages of cancer, and had received stage-appropriate cancer treatment in the year following diagnosis.
New approach could make HVAC heat exchangers five times better
Turbulent heat exchangers are widely used in HVAC systems around the world, and a new study demonstrates a simple modification that can improve their capability by 500%.
Study highlights need to rethink emergency responses for children in humanitarian settings
Humanitarian crises present major threats to the wellbeing of children, and for more than two decades Child Friendly Spaces have been considered one of the best ways to respond.
The drug combination effective against bovine leukemia
Scientists have succeeded in reducing levels of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cows with severe infections by combining an immune checkpoint inhibitor and an enzyme inhibitor.
Sustained police effort explains higher arrests for gun murders
The primary reason gun fatalities result in arrests more frequently than nonfatal shootings is police devote more time and resources to the fatal cases, a new study by scholars at Duke and Northeastern universities finds.
Satellite shows Tropical Storm Flossie holding up
Satellite imagery showed that Tropical Storm Flossie's structure didn't change much overnight from July 31 to August 1.
Russian scientists studied the effect of mutations of Alzheimer's disease
A team of neurobiologists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) published an article on their study of the causes of Alzheimer's disease and suggested therapy methods.
Experimental treatment slows prion disease, extends life of mice
Scientists using an experimental treatment have slowed the progression of scrapie, a degenerative central nervous disease caused by prions, in laboratory mice and greatly extended the rodents' lives, according to a new report in JCI Insight.
Microbiome diversity builds a better mouse model
The path to building a better mouse model starts with the microorganisms that colonize it.
Edinburgh is global hotspot for inflammatory bowel disease rates
Edinburgh has some of the highest known rates of inflammatory bowel disease in the world and the figure is expected to rise in the next 10 years.
How microorganisms protect themselves against free radicals
There are numerous different scenarios in which microorganisms are exposed to highly reactive molecules known as free radicals.
Heterophase nanostructures contributing to efficient catalysis
In the research on phase engineering of noble metal nanomaterials, amorphous/crystalline heterophase nanostructures have exhibited some intriguing properties.
Levels of 'ugly cholesterol' in the blood are much higher than previously imagined
The amount of remnant particle cholesterol in the blood, the so-called ugly cholesterol, is much higher than previously believed.
BU study: Youth empowerment program can prevent childhood obesity
A new pilot study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers is the first to use youth-produced narratives to empower youth to reduce sugary drink consumption and obesity risk.
Distant 'heavy metal' gas planet is shaped like a football
The scorching hot exoplanet WASP-121b may not be shredding any heavy metal guitar riffs, but it is sending heavy metals such as iron and magnesium into space.
Study examines direct-to-consumer stem cell clinics in 6 Southwestern states
This direct-to-consumer stem cell marketplace has come under increasing scrutiny, but relatively little is known about the clinics or how the treatments they offer align with the expertise of their practitioners.
Treatment for liver disorder in pregnancy ineffective, finds new study
Research led by King's College London has found that the currently recommended treatment for a common pregnancy liver disorder that can result in preterm birth and stillbirth, is ineffective and should be reconsidered.
Discovery of distinct lung cancer pathways may lead to more targeted treatments
Known for its poor prognosis, lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, responsible for about 4 of 10 diagnoses, according to the National Cancer Institute.
ATS publishes clinical guideline on obesity hypoventilation syndrome
The American Thoracic Society has published an official clinical guideline on the evaluation and management of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in the Society's Aug.
Human trafficking victims' unlikeliness to report crimes tied to police officers' bias
Based on researchers' review of human trafficking investigations and interviews with police and service providers in three communities in Northeast, West, and South United States, a new study concluded that victims of human trafficking often do not trust the police and rarely seek their assistance.
From Japanese basket weaving art to nanotechnology with ion beams
The properties of high-temperature superconductors can be tailored by the introduction of artificial defects.

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