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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 05, 2019


Symphony of genes
One of the most exciting discoveries in genome research was that the last common ancestor of all multicellular animals already possessed an extremely complex genome.
Put a charge on it
The results, published in Nature Materials, make the US Department of Energy 150ºC challenge for emissions more attainable.
Tel Aviv university scientists develop novel nano-vaccine for melanoma
Researchers at Tel Aviv University have developed a novel nano-vaccine for melanoma, the most aggressive type of skin cancer.
Paradoxical Survival: Examining the Parrondo effect across biology
SUTD researchers study the pivotal role that Parrondo's paradox plays in the shaping of living systems and its potential identity as a universal principle underlying biological diversity and persistence.
Scientists propose environmentally friendly control practices for harmful tomato disease
Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is the most destructive disease of tomato, causing severe damage to crops worldwide and resulting in high economic losses.
Quantum dots capture speciation in sandplain fynbos on the West Coast of South Africa
With a tongue up to 7 cm long, the long-tongue fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris often battle to fly, especially in the wind.
Spacer protects healthy organs from radiation exposure during particle therapy
Kobe University and Alfresa Pharma Corporation develop a novel medical device with non-woven fabric style made of bioabsorbable material.
Accelerating development of STT-MRAM
Researchers at the Center for Innovative Integrated Electronic Systems (CIES) at Tohoku University have successfully observed microscopic chemical bonding states in ultrathin MgO -- an important determinant in STT-MRAM performance.
Deciphering pancreatic cancer's invade and evade tactics
Two known gene mutations induce pathways that enhance pancreatic cancer's ability to invade tissues and evade the immune system.
Targeting DNA sequencing for plant biodiversity research
High-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing research in plant evolutionary biology. Using third-generation sequencing technologies, researchers are able to target long fragments of chloroplast DNA to improve genome assembly.
Study shows why a common form of immunotherapy fails, and suggests solution
New research has uncovered a mechanism thought to explain why some cancers don't respond to a widely used form of immunotherapy called checkpoint inhibitors' or anti-PD-1.
Missing link in algal photosynthesis found, offers opportunity to improve crop yields
Photosynthesis is the natural process plants and algae utilize to capture sunlight and fix carbon dioxide into energy-rich sugars that fuel growth, development, and in the case of crops, yield.
BU researchers use amazon reviews and AI to predict product recalls
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can take months to identify and verify a problem before issuing a product recall, so most recalls come from manufacturers, often after enough people have gotten sick to generate bad press.
Warning to adults: Children notice everything
Adults are really good at paying attention only to what you tell them to -- but children don't ignore anything.
Penn Engineering's blinking eye-on-a-chip used for disease modeling and drug testing
The latest iteration of the Huh lab's eye-on-a-chip has a mechanical eyelid to simulate blinking and was used to test an experimental drug for dry eye disease.
UTA study: Urban sprawl creates food deserts
Urban sprawl has led to the creation of food deserts in metropolitan areas across the United States, according to a published study by a researcher at The University of Texas at Arlington.
A novel robotic jellyfish able to perform 3D jet propulsion and maneuvers
Jellyfishes in nature use jet propulsion to move through the water, which have been proven to be one of the most energetically efficient swimmers on the planet.
Short-lived Tropical Storm Gil gives a kick on NASA imagery
Tropical Storm Gil was a two day tropical cyclone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters obey same mathematical pattern
Researchers from the Centre for Mathematical Research (CRM) and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have mathematically described the frequency of several dangerous phenomena according to their size with more precision than ever.
Professional coaching alleviates burnout symptoms in physicians
Medical doctors in the United States are twice as likely to experience symptoms of burnout as other workers, which can compromise quality of care and place patients at risk.
Multiple genes affect risk of asthma, hay fever and eczema
In a new study from SciLifeLab at Uppsala University, researchers have found a total of 141 regions (genes) in our genetic material that largely explain the genetic risk underlying asthma, hay fever and eczema.
High lead concentrations in amazonian wildlife
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the Central University of Catalonia/Vic University detect high levels of lead concentration in wildlife samples from the Peruvian Amazon caused by lead-based ammunition and oil-related pollution in extraction areas.
In the future, this electricity-free tech could help cool buildings in metropolitan areas
Engineers designed a new system to help cool buildings in crowded metropolitan areas without consuming electricity, an important innovation as cities work to adapt to climate change.
Link between intimate partner homicide and firearms dealters in urban settings
The forthcoming Rutgers-Camden study, to be published in the journal Preventative Medicine, is the first to investigate the connection between firearms dealers and intimate partner homicide at the county level, and one of only a handful ever to examine how access to legal guns through federally licensed firearm dealers in the community is linked to gun violence.
NASA Catches tropical storm Francisco's approach to landfall in southern Japan
Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite shows that Tropical Storm Francisco had powerful thunderstorms with heavy rain capabilities around the center of circulation as it moves toward landfall in southern Japan.
JHU study explains how some older brains decline before people realize it
Some older adults without noticeable cognitive problems have a harder time than younger people in separating irrelevant information from what they need to know at a given time, and a new Johns Hopkins University study could explain why.
MSI detection via liquid biopsy shows high concordance with results from tissue samples
Incorporation of pan-cancer microsatellite instability (MSI) detection into the 74-gene panel Guardant360 liquid biopsy assay showed high concordance with matched tissue samples in nearly 1,000 patients.
The front line of environmental violence
Environmental defenders on the front line of natural resource conflict are being killed at an alarming rate, according to a University of Queensland study.
No racial disparities in quality-of-care for CABG outcomes for those insured by TRICARE
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital examined whether patients insured through TRICARE -- a universal insurance and equal-access system that covers more than 9 million active-duty members, veterans and their families -- experienced these disparities.
A new paradigm for efficient upward culture of 3D multicellular spheroids
The 3D multicellular spheroids with intact cell-cell junctions are critical in biological research because they can mimic the cellular physiological environments.
How light steers electrons in metals
Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle.
Paper trail leads to heart valve discoveries
Rice University bioengineers are studying heart disease with paper-based structures that mimic the layered nature of aortic valves, the tough, flexible tissues that keep blood flowing in one direction only.
Overweight, obesity in children across Europe
This study (called a systematic review and meta-analysis) combined the results of 103 studies with nearly 478,000 children (ages 2 to 13) to look at how common overweight and obesity are among children across Europe.
Maya more warlike than previously thought
What was the role of warfare in Mayan civilization? New evidence from lake sediments around the abandoned city of Witzna indicates that extreme, total warfare was not just an aspect of the late Mayan period, leading to its fall, but a characteristic of intercity rivalry during the peak of Mayan culture.
Improving the magnetic bottle that controls fusion power on Earth
The exhaustive detection method that discovered the error field in the initial run of the NSTX-U tokamak could serve as a model for error-field detection in future tokamaks.
Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine: Electric fans not safe for relieving the heat when temperatures are high and humidity is low
In hot, arid conditions with a relatively low heat index, electric fans may be detrimental to health and are not advisable.
New Zealand's biodiversity will take millions of years to recover
The arrival of humans in New Zealand, some 700 years ago, triggered a wave of extinction among native bird species.
Intense look at La Brea Tar Pits explains why we have coyotes, not saber-toothed cats
The most detailed study to date of ancient predators trapped in the La Brea Tar Pits is helping Americans understand why today we're dealing with coyotes dumping over garbage cans and not saber-toothed cats ripping our arms off.
Researchers find proteins that might restore damaged sound-detecting cells in the ear
Using genetic tools in mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have identified a pair of proteins that precisely control when sound-detecting cells, known as hair cells, are born in the mammalian inner ear.
Transgender women case study shows sperm production is possible but not certain
One young transgender woman was able to produce viable sperm after a few months of discontinuing her puberty-halting medication, whereas a second case wasn't able to produce sperm during the time she could tolerate being off her medication.
How wildfires trap carbon for centuries to millennia
Charcoal produced by wildfires could trap carbon for hundreds of years and help mitigate climate change, according to new research.
Geoengineering versus a volcano
Major volcanic eruptions spew ash particles into the atmosphere, which reflect some of the Sun's radiation back into space and cool the planet.
Researchers forecast failure in disordered materials
Researchers were able to forecast likely points of failure in two-dimensional disordered laser-cut lattices without needing to study detailed states of the material.
2015 Volkswagen emissions scandal damaged other German automakers' reputations and profits
Rüdiger Bachmann at the University of Notre Dame and his co-authors studied the scandal and found that the fallout from Volkswagen's wrongdoing cost other German car makers billions of dollars in sales.
Shrinking brain tumours and opening the door for targeted cancer therapies
A new drug, known as IP1867B, could be used for future treatments of brain tumours.
NASA finds one small area of strong storms left in fading Flossie
NASA's Terra satellite found one small area of strong storms left in Tropical Depression Flossie on August 5 as it neared Hawaii.
Study: Sleep is essential for business leaders seeking next successful venture
The secret ingredient for coming up with great business ideas that can take off, may be something we can all tap into -- a good night's sleep.
Gut throws cells overboard when chemical insults build up
A Duke University team was testing more than 20 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in an attempt to make the zebrafish a new model for studying chemical injury in the gut.
Scientists can now manipulate brain cells using smartphone
A team of scientists in Korea and the United States have invented a device that can control neural circuits using a tiny brain implant controlled by a smartphone.
Rutgers-developed model for ICU pharmacists addresses common dilemma for hospitals
A new team-based model for intensive care unit (ICU) pharmacists, developed by Rutgers and RWJBarnabas Health System, resolves a common dilemma for hospitals and improves care for critically ill patients.
Restoring forests means less fuel for wildfire and more storage for carbon
When wildfires burn up forests, they don't just damage the trees.
Patterns of substance use and co-use by adolescents
Using in-depth interviews with adolescents (16-19 years of age) who used alcohol and marijuana, this study examines the role that social and physical contexts play in adolescent decision-making about simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana.
Seaweed sinks deep, taking carbon with it
Macroalgae is shown to be a major global contributor to carbon sequestration.
How deep space travel could affect the brain
Exposure to chronic, low dose radiation -- the conditions present in deep space -- causes neural and behavioral impairments in mice, researchers report in eNeuro.
Google maps for tissues
Modern light microscopic techniques provide extremely detailed insights into organs, but the terabytes of data they produce are usually nearly impossible to process.
Twelve centuries of European summer droughts
An international team of researchers have published a study exploring the association between summer temperature and drought across Europe placing recent drought in the context of the past 12 centuries.
Biomarkers confirm higher incidence of thyroid cancer among World Trade Center responders
Method developed by Brazilian and US researchers distinguishes between malignant and benign tumors and rules out false positive results.
Ultrasound guidance improves first-attempt IV success in IV access in children
When caregivers used ultrasound to guide placement of intravenous lines in children with presumed difficult access, they had higher success rates on their first attempt.
Pregnancy problems may lead to later cardiac trouble in adult children
A new study in Cardiovascular Research finds that female offspring of females with polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk for developing cardiac dysfunction.
Young teens of color more likely to avoid peers with mental illness
Students identifying as black or Latino are more likely to say they would socially distance themselves from peers with a mental illness, a key indicator of mental illness stigma, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Polyoxometalate-based coordination frameworks for CH4 generation in photoreduction of CO2
The highly selective generation of desirable hydrocarbon fuel, such as methane (CH4), from CO2 remains extremely challenging.
Prenatal parental stress linked to behaviour problems in toddlers
Expectant parents' emotional struggles predict emotional and behavioural problems in 2-year-olds, new research shows.
Visa concerns deter foreign-born PhDs from working in startups
Foreign-born Ph.D. graduates with science and engineering degrees from American universities apply to and receive offers for technology startup jobs at the same rate as U.S. citizens, but are only half as likely to actually work at fledgling companies, a Cornell University study has found.
Researchers embrace imperfection to improve biomolecule transport
While watching the production of porous membranes used for DNA sorting and sequencing, University of Illinois researchers wondered how tiny steplike defects formed during fabrication could be used to improve molecule transport.
Is it safe to use an electric fan for cooling?
The safety and effectiveness of electric fans in heatwaves depend on the climate and basing public health advice on common weather metrics could be misleading, according to a new study from the University of Sydney.
Study of deceased football players with CTE examines contributors associated with dementia
This study of 180 deceased former football players who had chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) investigated the association of brain white matter pathologic changes and cerebrovascular disease with dementia.
A new approach to the correction of artificial intelligence errors is proposed
The journal 'Physics of Life Reviews', which has one of the highest impact factors in the categories 'Biology' and 'Biophysics', has published an article entitled 'Symphony of high-dimensional brain'.
It would take 50 million years to recover New Zealand's lost bird species
Half of New Zealand's birds have gone extinct since humans arrived on the islands.
Unique electrical properties in quantum materials can be controlled using light
A new study from Penn researchers found that Weyl semimetals, a class of quantum materials, have bulk quantum states whose electrical properties can be controlled using light.
'Spin' found in over half of clinical trial abstracts published in top psychiatry journals
'Spin' -- exaggerating the clinical significance of a particular treatment without the statistics to back it up -- is apparent in more than half of clinical trial abstracts published in top psychology and psychiatry journals, finds a review of relevant research in BMJ Evidence Based Medicine.
Long-lasting effects of ironwork on mammal distributions over the last millennium
Pre-modern energy-intensive industries have had long-lasting impacts on macro-ecological patterns.
Dry feed for superfood producers
Grasshoppers and crickets could provide a growing world population with a substantial portion of the protein it needs.
New study aims to help protect the world's trees and forests from harmful pests and diseases
CABI's expert scientists in the field of ecosystems management and invasion ecology have presented new guidance on ways to help protect the world's trees and forests from harmful pests and diseases such as the box tree moth and ash dieback.
Whole body vibration shakes up microbiome, reduces inflammation in diabetes
In the face of diabetes, a common condition in which glucose and levels of destructive inflammation soar, whole body vibration appears to improve how well our body uses glucose as an energy source and adjust our microbiome and immune cells to deter inflammation, investigators report.
Machine learning classifies word type based on brain activity
Pairing machine learning with neuroimaging can determine whether a person heard a real or made up word based on their brain activity, according to a new study published in eNeuro.
Fertilizer feast and famine
Research led by the University of California, Davis identifies five strategies to tackle the two-sided challenge of a lack of fertilizer in some emerging market economies and inefficient use of fertilizer in developed countries.
Brain reorganization predicts language production
The right hemisphere of the brain can take over language functions when the left hemisphere is damaged early in development, according to research in four-year-old children published in eNeuro.
Road verges provide refuge for pollinators
Roadside verges provide a vital refuge for pollinators -- but they must be managed better, new research shows.
Stanford scientists create artificial catalysts inspired by living enzymes
Stanford researchers have made a significant advance in the development of artificial catalysts for making cleaner chemicals and fuels at an industrial scale.
Raman spectroscopy poised to make thyroid cancer diagnosis less invasive
Researchers have demonstrated that an optical technique known as Raman spectroscopy can be used to differentiate between benign and cancerous thyroid cells.
In the inner depths of the ear: The shape of the cochlea is an indicator of sex
The auditory section of the inner ear, or the 'cochlea,' does not have the same shape from birth depending on whether one is a man or a woman.
New voyage to the universe from DESHIMA
Researchers in Japan and the Netherlands jointly developed an originative radio receiver DESHIMA (Deep Spectroscopic High-redshift Mapper) and successfully obtained the first spectra and images with it.
Researchers create first-ever personalised sound projector with £10 webcam
A University of Sussex research team have demonstrated the first sound projector that can track a moving individual and deliver an acoustic message as they move, to a high-profile tech and media conference in LA.
Magnetic plasma pulses excited by UK-size swirls in the solar atmosphere
An international team of scientists led by the University of Sheffield have discovered previously undetected observational evidence of frequent energetic wave pulses the size of the UK, transporting energy from the solar surface to the higher solar atmosphere.
'Stressors' in middle age linked to cognitive decline in older women
A new analysis of data on more than 900 Baltimore adults by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers has linked stressful life experiences among middle-aged women -- but not men -- to greater memory decline in later life.
Opioid use recovery requires persistence, range of services
Successful recovery from opioid use disorder appears to be even more challenging than recovery from alcohol use disorder, and individuals with opioid use problems may require more intensive medical, psychological and social support services over a longer period of time, results of the first national study of opioid problem resolution suggest.
Rice lab produces simple fluorescent surfactants
Rice University chemists have produced an array of fluorescent surfactants for imaging, biomedical and manufacturing applications.
Industry payments to physician director of NCI-designated cancer centers
Data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services were used to examine industry payments to physician directors of National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in this research letter.
'Fat suit' role play may help uncover medical student prejudices against obesity
Getting patients to wear an obesity simulation suit, popularly known as a 'fat suit', may prove a useful teaching aid and help to uncover medical student prejudice against obesity, suggests a proof of concept study published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Pesticides deliver a one-two punch to honey bees
A new paper in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry reveals that adjuvants, chemicals commonly added to pesticides, amplify toxicity affecting mortality rates, flight intensity, colony intensity, and pupae development in honey bees.
NASA gazes into Tropical Storm Lekima in Philippine Sea
NASA's Aqua satellite gazed into Tropical Storm Lekima as it moved through the Philippine Sea on August 5 and the AIRS instrument aboard took the temperature of its cloud tops to estimate storm strength.
Mankai duckweed plant found to offer health benefits -- Ben-Gurion University research
In this new study, the researchers compared Mankai shake consumption to a yogurt shake equivalent in carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and calories.
Police use of fatal force is identified as a leading cause of death in young men
The killing of young men by police is a leading cause of death in the United States with black men 2.5 times more likely to be killed by law enforcement over their lifetime than white men, according to a Rutgers University study.
New study: Ocean temperature 'surprises' becoming more common
Around the world, periods of rapid ocean warming are happening more often than we thought.
Researchers take key step toward cancer treatments that leave healthy cells unharmed
Researchers have opened up a possible avenue for new cancer therapies that don't have the side effects that oftentimes accompany many current cancer treatments by identifying a protein modification that specifically supports survival of tumor cells.
Poor health increases chance of recidivism, reincarceration, says Rutgers-Cam
Poor physical or mental health increases the chance that formerly incarcerated individuals will commit more crimes and return to prison, according to a groundbreaking new Rutgers University-Camden study.
Researchers discover blocking key mineral uptake could prevent gonorrhea infection
Blocking the ability of the bacterial pathogen that causes gonorrhea to uptake the mineral zinc can stop infection by this widespread sexually transmitted infection, according to a study by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
Lessons of conventional imaging let scientists see around corners
Scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Universidad de Zaragoza in Spain, drawing on the lessons of classical optics, have shown that it is possible to image complex hidden scenes using a projected 'virtual camera' to see around barriers.
Rye is healthy, thanks to an interplay of microbes
Eating rye comes with a variety of health benefits. A new study from the University of Eastern Finland now shows that both lactic acid bacteria and gut bacteria contribute to the health benefits of rye.

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