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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 07, 2019


Quantum momentum
Occasionally we come across a problem in classical mechanics that poses particular difficulties for translation into the quantum world.
Enhanced glow
Tumor cells circulating in blood are markers for the early detection and prognosis of cancer.
Study finds routine hits playing football cause damage to the brain
New research led by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Rochester Medical Center indicates that concussions aren't the sole cause of damage to the brain in contact sports.
Virtual patients and in silico clinical studies improve blue light treatment for psoriasis
A new study supports the use of virtual patients and in silico clinical studies to evaluate the effectiveness of blue light to reduce the symptoms of psoriasis.
Study raises concerns about prevalent orchid viruses
In a Plants, People, Planet study, researchers investigated the evolution of the two most prevalent orchid viruses using information representing their global distribution.
Tiny biodegradable circuits for releasing painkillers inside the body
EPFL researchers have developed biodegradable microresonators that can be heated locally with a wireless system.
Association of coexisting psychiatric disorders, risk of death in patients with ADHD
This observational study of Swedish national register data included nearly 87,000 people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the association of coexisting psychiatric disorders with risk of death.
ALMA dives into black hole's 'sphere of influence'
ALMA has made the most precise measurements of cold gas swirling around a supermassive black hole -- the cosmic behemoth at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 3258.
Why so fly: MU scientists discover some fruit flies learn better than others
Fruit flies could one day provide new avenues to discover additional genes that contribute to a person's ability to learn and remember.
A long time ago, galaxies far, far away
Astronomers used the combined power of multiple astronomical observatories around the world and in space to discover a treasure-trove of previously unknown ancient massive galaxies.
Wearable motion sensors could save unborn babies
Researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have developed a technique that could allow expectant parents to hear their baby's heartbeat continuously at home with a non-invasive and safe device that is potentially more accurate than any fetal heartrate monitor currently available in the market.
Optimistic people sleep better, longer, study finds
People who are the most optimistic tend to sleep better and longer, suggests a new study led by University of Illinois social work professor Rosalba Hernandez.
New insights into the origin of life
A famous experiment in 1953 showed that amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, could have formed spontaneously under the atmospheric conditions of early Earth.
Major surgery associated with small, long term decline in brain functioning
Major surgery is associated with a small long-term decline in cognitive functioning -- equivalent, on average, to less than five months of natural brain aging, finds a study in The BMJ today.
How much energy storage costs must fall to reach renewable energy's full potential
The cost of energy storage will be critical in determining how much renewable energy can contribute to the decarbonization of electricity.
Erectile dysfunction associated with lower work productivity in men
Erectile dysfunction (ED) was linked with loss of work productivity and with lower health-related quality of life in an International Journal of Clinical Practice study of more than 52,000 men from eight countries.
Depleted seamounts near Hawaii recovering after decades of federal protection
After years of federally mandated protection, scientists see signs that this once ecologically fertile area known as the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain is making a comeback.
Good heart health at age 50 linked to lower dementia risk later in life
Good cardiovascular health at age 50 is associated with a lower risk of dementia later in life, finds a study of British adults published by The BMJ today.
Marijuana legalization reduces opioid deaths
A new Economic Inquiry study finds that marijuana access leads to reductions in opioid-related deaths.
Study finds fish preserve DNA 'memories' far better than humans
We are all familiar with the common myth that fish have poor memory, but it turns that their DNA has the capacity to hold much more memory than that of humans.
Looking out for the little guys
A new study, undertaken by a team of scientists from BIOS, the Bermuda Government Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the University of Rhode Island, used DNA markers to characterize the genetic diversity of Bermuda's baitfish populations.
Positive effect of music and dance on dementia proven by New Zealand study
Stereotypically viewed as passive and immobile, a University of Otago, New Zealand, pilot study has shown the powerful influence music and dance can have on older adults with dementia.
Observation-driven research to inform better groundwater management policies
Groundwater maintains vital ecosystems and strongly influences water and energy budgets.
Transport by mobile stroke units get patients quicker treatment than ambulance
Every second counts for stroke patients, as studies show they can lose up to 27 million brain cells per minute.
The impacts of smoking on patients with ulcerative colitis
Because smokers are less likely to develop ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease, patients with UC may be tempted to start smoking to lessen their symptoms.
News from Annals of Internal Medicine: Organizations urge immediate action to prevent firearm-relate
The American College of Physicians (ACP) and the nation's leading physician and public health organizations called for policies to reduce firearms-related injuries and deaths in the US in a new call-to-action, 'Firearm-Related Injury and Death in the United States: A Call to Action from the Nation's Leading Physician and Public Health Professional Organizations,' published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Over-sensationalized scandal can actually be a job saver for strong performing leader
A new study from the University of Notre Dame introduces the role of the 'severity gap,' showing that when media or public perceptions of a scandal outpace its actual severity, strong-performing leaders are more likely to keep their jobs.
Sorting out who needs a pill sorter
Researchers have developed guidance to help prescribers and pharmacists decide which patients should use a pill organizer.
Internet can be valuable tool for people with undiagnosed rare disorders
The internet can serve as a pathway to diagnosis and care for people who suspect they have a rare condition that has not been identified by their physicians, according to a study by researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health.
Right or left, Americans value hard work to achieve success
Conservatives and liberals may agree on at least one thing: the importance of working hard in order to succeed.
Designing a light-trapping, color-converting crystal
A recipe for creating a microscopic crystal structure that can hold 2 wavelengths of light at once is a step toward faster telecommunications and quantum computers.
Spinning towards robust microwave generation on the nano scale
Many physicists have attempted to produce reliable macroscale microwave fields by combining nanoscale spin-torque oscillators, but so far without success.
Gold glue really does bond nanocages 'contradicting' logic
It has long been known that gold can be used to do things that philosophers have never even dreamed of.
New intra-nasal imaging to study airways in patients with cystic fibrosis
Researchers describe minimally invasive new tool for viewing differences in the nasal airways of cystic fibrosis patients in vivo at a cellular level.
Groundwater resources in Africa resilient to climate change
Groundwater -- a vital source of water for drinking and irrigation across sub-Saharan Africa -- is resilient to climate variability and change, according to a new study led by UCL and Cardiff University.
A growth mindset intervention can change students' grades if school culture is supportive
Boosting academic success does not have to derive from new teachers or curriculum; it can also come from changing students' attitudes about their abilities through a short online intervention, according to the latest findings from the National Study of Learning Mindsets published in Nature on Aug.
Study evaluates effects of noninvasive neuromodulation used to treat obesity
The results of a clinical trial published in the journal Appetite show that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can reduce or increase appetite, depending on the patient's genetic profile.
Scientists reveal key insights into emerging water purification technology
While it holds promise, membrane distillation doesn't work perfectly. A key challenge is designing membranes to purify water efficiently while ensuring zero contamination of the clean water.
Fast-food availability near commute route linked to BMI
In a study of commuting workers, the number of different types of food stores available near residences and commute routes -- but not near workplaces -- had a significant association with body mass index (BMI).
Geneticists unlock the secret of mutant flies' longevity
Russian researchers determined which genes are affected by mutation that extends lifespan of fruit flies.
Tech-enhanced intervention tested for female adolescents, young adults with pelvic inflammatory disease
This randomized clinical trial compared a technology-enhanced community health nursing intervention that included text message medication reminders with standard care for female adolescents and young adults with pelvic inflammatory disease.
Outbursts of hot wind detected close to black hole
An international team of astrophysicists from Southampton, Oxford and South Africa have detected a very hot, dense outflowing wind close to a black hole at least 25,000 light-years from Earth.
Low vitamin D levels linked to non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease
In an Acta Neurologica Scandinavia study of 182 patients with Parkinson's disease and 185 healthy controls, patients with Parkinson's disease had significantly lower levels of vitamin D in their blood.
Physicians call for an end to conversion therapy
Historically, conversion therapies have used electroshock therapy, chemical drugs, hormone administrations and even surgery.
A rocky relationship: A history of Earth's continents breaking up and getting back together
A new study of rocks that formed billions of years ago lends fresh insight into how Earth's plate tectonics, or the movement of large pieces of Earth's outer shell, evolved over the planet's 4.56-billion-year history.
Entropy explains RNA diffusion rates in cells
Small-scale analysis of RNA diffusion rates throughout cells of yeast and bacteria reveals that rates of change of entropy in certain time intervals are larger in areas with higher diffusion rates, according to research published in EPJ B.
New test to snare those lying about a person's identity
A new test developed by the University of Stirling could help police to determine when criminals or witnesses are lying about their knowledge of a person's identity.
Lung lining fluid key to elderly susceptibility to tuberculosis disease
Texas Biomed researchers published an article in the Journal of Infectious Diseases in July 2019.
Younger colorectal cancer patients: A missed opportunity for non-emergency diagnoses
In an analysis of information on 10,463 UK patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer from 2006 to 2013, patients under the age of 50 years were more likely to initially experience non-specific symptoms before being referred to cancer specialists.
Forgotten immune cells protective in mouse model of multiple sclerosis
A seldom-studied class of immune cells may reduce the friendly fire that drives autoimmune disease, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
New data indicate rise in opioid use for migraine treatment
An increasing number of Americans are using opioids to treat their migraine headaches, despite the fact that opioids are not the recommended first-line therapy for migraine in most cases.
Astronomers reveal true colors of evolving galactic beasts
Astronomers have identified a rare moment in the life of some of the universe's most energetic objects.
Adults with cerebral palsy at increased risk for mental health conditions
A new study finds that adults with cerebral palsy are at an increased risk of experiencing a mental health disorder compared to adults without the condition.
Chemotherapy drugs react differently to radiation while in water
In a new study in EPJ D, researchers at the Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, in Innsbruck, Austria studied the way various molecules, found in chemotherapy drugs, react to ionization by radiation similar to that used in cancer treatment.
Record-breaking analytical method for fingerprinting petroleum and other complex mixtures
Scientists at the University of Warwick have developed a more powerful method of analysing chemical mixtures, which has been able to assign a record-breaking number of 244,779 molecular compositions within a single sample of petroleum.
Gluten response in celiac patients could lead to diagnostic test
Distinct markers in the blood of people with celiac disease have been detected within a few hours of gluten being consumed.
Study examines cannabis' effects on brain neurochemistry
A new Addiction Biology study provides the first evidence of a blunted response to stress-induced dopamine signaling in the brain's prefrontal cortex in individuals at high risk for psychosis who regularly used cannabis.
'Extensive gender discrimination in healthcare access' for women in India, suggests study
Women in India face 'extensive gender discrimination' in access to healthcare, suggests a study of outpatient appointments at one major tertiary care hospital in Delhi, and published in the online journal BMJ Open.
New synthesis method opens up possibilities for organic electronics
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) modify a previous synthesis method to create a new semiconducting polymer with remarkable properties which could be used in organic electronic devices such as thin film transistors.
Earth's last magnetic field reversal took far longer than once thought
Every several hundred thousand years or so, Earth's magnetic field dramatically shifts and reverses its polarity.
Climate change likely to increase human exposure to toxic methylmercury
Researchers developed a first-of-its-kind, comprehensive model that simulates how environmental factors, including increasing sea temperatures and overfishing, impact levels of methylmercury in fish.
Air pollution cuts are saving lives in New York state
Lower air pollution levels saved an estimated 5,660 lives in New York State in 2012, compared to 2002 levels, according to a new study.
Opioid use and misuse 3 months after ED visit for acute pain
Opioid use at the three-month follow-up in emergency department patients discharged with an opioid prescription for acute pain is relatively low and not necessarily synonymous with opioid misuse.
Cibio knocks out cystic fibrosis
The fight against cystic fibrosis continues, targeting in particular some of the mutations that cause it.
Study examines characteristics of older adults with moderately severe dementia
A study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society has found that many characteristics among older adults with moderately severe dementia differ depending on whether they live at home or in residential care or nursing facilities.
Study in Taiwan examines association of ADHD, causes of death
A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan suggests attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be associated with a higher risk of death from injury causes, including suicide, unintentional injury and homicide.
Combination targeted therapy may offer hope to infants with a deadly type of leukemia
City of Hope researchers have identified a potential combination targeted therapy for a deadly type of leukemia found in some infants, a population too young to receive full-blown chemotherapy.
Dark matter may be older than the big bang, study suggests
Dark matter, which researchers believe make up about 80% of the universe's mass, is one of the most elusive mysteries in modern physics.
Fear of predators causes PTSD-like changes in brains of wild animals
A new study by Western University demonstrates that the fear predators inspire can leave long-lasting traces in the neural circuitry of wild animals and induce enduringly fearful behaviour, comparable to effects seen in PTSD research.
BU researchers: 'Set' of gun laws needed to reduce gun violence
First-ever study to examine gun control effects on urban and suburban/rural firearm homicide rates finds different laws are more effective in different areas.
Permian lizard-like animal suffered from a bone condition similar to Paget's disease
A lizard-like animal that lived 289 million years ago suffered from a bone condition similar to Paget's disease, according to a study published Aug.
Persistent inflammation in sepsis survivors linked to higher mortality rates
One out of four sepsis patients who survive their hospital stay have elevated levels of inflammation a year after discharge, and they are at higher risk for major health problems and death.
Designing a better low-fat potato chip
Munching on low-fat potato chips might reduce the guilt compared with full-fat versions, but many people don't find the texture as appealing.
Cover crops, compost and carbon
Comparing techniques in organic farming that influence soil health.
A marine microbe could play increasingly important role in regulating climate
Marine microbes with a special metabolism are ubiquitous and could play an important role in how Earth regulates climate.
Gene mutation combo linked to common cancer in women
Michigan State University researchers, in collaboration with the Van Andel Institute, have identified a combination of two gene mutations that is linked to endometrial cancer.
Substituting poultry for red meat may reduce breast cancer risk
Results from a new study suggest that red meat consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer, whereas poultry consumption may be protective against breast cancer risk.
Blue sharks use eddies for fast track to food
Blue sharks use large, swirling ocean currents, known as eddies, to fast-track their way down to feed in the ocean twilight zone.
Calcium: Good for bones, good for cultural conservation
When it comes to cultural heritage sites, there are few things historians wouldn't do to preserve them for future generations.
Anatomy of a cosmic seagull
Colourful and wispy, this intriguing collection of objects is known as the Seagull Nebula, named for its resemblance to a gull in flight.
Surgical planning for head and neck cancer benefits from FDG-PET/CT
The reliability of FDG-PET/CT in detecting lymph node metastases in head/neck cancer is well proven in patients with cN0 necks.
New quantitative method standardizes phage virulence determination
Researchers have developed a simple, fast, and standardized method for measuring phage virulence quantitatively, which can expediate phage therapy development by allowing robust individual and combined testing of phage efficacy.
Researchers develop method to automatically estimate rooftop solar potential
The progress of rooftop solar installations is often slowed by a shortage of trained professionals who must use expensive tools to conduct labor-intensive structure assessments one by one, say scientists at UMass Amherst.
Home births as safe as hospital births: International study
The study examined the safety of place of birth by reporting on the risk of death at the time of birth or within the first four weeks, and found no clinically important or statistically different risk between home and hospital groups.
New 'liquid biopsy' blood test improves breast cancer diagnostics
A new type of blood test for breast cancer could help avoid thousands of unnecessary surgeries and otherwise precisely monitor disease progression, according to a study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and Mayo Clinic in Arizona.
The surprising merit of giant clam feces
Young giant clams get necessary symbiotic algae from the feces of their parents, updating the age-old adage: one clam's trash is another clam's treasure.
Personalized assay surpasses limits for detecting tumor DNA in breast cancer patients
Scientists have developed a personalized platform tailored to patients' specific cancer mutations named TARDIS, which was able to accurately detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and signs of residual disease in 33 women with breast cancer.
Medical mistrust impacts African American men's preventive health, but racism also matters
Mistrust of health care providers, fueled by painful experiences with racism, makes African American men more likely to delay routine screenings and doctor's appointments, according to a new study in the journal Behavioral Medicine by the Health Disparities Institute (HDI) at UConn Health, with potentially serious implications for their overall health.
Liberals and conservatives have different views on equity, but share 'protestant work ethic'
American liberals and conservatives have different views on equity, according to a new study focusing on Moral Foundations Theory, but are not that different from each other when it comes to the 'Protestant work ethic.'
33% of new childhood asthma cases in Europe attributable to air pollution
A study in 18 European countries suggests that current WHO air quality guidelines for NO2 do not provide sufficient protection for children.
Brain stimulation for PTSD patients
University of Houston assistant professor of electrical engineering Rose T.
Medication in the environment affects feeding behavior of fish
Scientists are increasingly warning that prescription drugs can affect wildlife and ecosystems when they find their way into the environment.
Human activity likely affects giraffe's social networks
In a new Ethology study, researchers examined information on two adjacent giraffe populations in Kenya to determine whether human activities and high predation affect their social networks.
Football-related head hits that don't cause concussions can still injure the brain
Measures of the integrity of midbrain white matter in 38 college-level American football players changed after a season of play even though all but two of the athletes did not suffer clinically defined concussions, according to a new study.
Tropical Storm Krosa gets a comma shape
Tropical Storm Krosa continued on its journey northward in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean when NOAA's NOAA-20 polar orbiting satellite passed overhead and captured a visible image of the strengthening storm in a classic tropical cyclone shape.
Where in the universe can you find a black hole nursery?
Gravitational wave researchers at the University of Birmingham have developed a new model that could help astronomers track down the origin of heavy black hole systems in the universe.
Collaboration sees sustained increase in imaging history quality from ordering providers
American Journal of Roentgenology 'Original Research' article standardizes the definition of complete imaging history and engineers systems to include supportive prompts in the order entry interface with a single keystroke -- sustainably improving the quality of all imaging histories.
Cancer in the oldest old: The fastest growing age group in the US
A new report looks at cancer in adults 85 and older and finds incidence and mortality trends are generally similar to those in people 65 to 84, but screening is unexpectedly high and survival is poorer.
NASA catches transitioning Tropical Storm Francisco near Korean Peninsula
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Sea of Japan and provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Francisco as it was transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone.
Philippines on alert with Typhoon Lekima
Lekima is now a typhoon and has triggered warnings in the Philippines.
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields activate immune cells
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are strong electrical pulses over a very short period of time (nanoseconds) that results in high electrical power.
Fighting a mighty weed
Weeds are pesky in any situation. Now, imagine a weed so troublesome that it has mutated to resist multiple herbicides.
A simple method to improve heart-attack repair using stem cell-derived heart muscle cells
The heart cannot regenerate muscle after a heart attack, and this can lead to lethal heart failure.
Pain medications linked to higher cardiovascular risks in patients with osteoarthritis
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help to control the pain and inflammation in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA), but a new Arthritis & Rheumatology study suggests that NSAIDs contribute to cardiovascular side effects in these patients.
Stanford researchers discover gel reduces scar tissue after surgery in animals
Researchers at Stanford University have found that spraying a gel on the internal tissues of animals after cardiac surgery greatly reduces adhesions, fibrous bands that form between internal organs and tissues.
Eating more plant-based foods may be linked to better heart health
Diets higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods were linked with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and death.
Nordic walking can provide multiple benefits for patients with breast cancer
An analysis of published studies found that Nordic walking -- a low impact aerobic activity consisting in walking with poles -- can benefit patients with breast cancer by having a positive impact on swelling, physical fitness, disability, and quality of life.
Researchers identify key proteins for the repair of nerve fibers
Scientists at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) have identified a group of proteins that help to regenerate damaged nerve cells.
New research provides better way to gauge pain in mice
Rutgers University-Camden neuroscientist Nathan Fried and colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania have developed a method that can more accurately gauge pain in mice, which could lead researchers to discover new ways to treat pain in human patients.

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