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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 13, 2019


Doubling down
Over the recent decade, total human impacts to the world's oceans have, on average, nearly doubled and could double again in the next decade without adequate action.
Tarnished plant bug management strategies for Mid-Atlantic cotton
Tarnished plant bug is one of the most harmful pests of cotton in the mid-Atlantic states of Virginia and North Carolina.
Satellite study reveals that area emits one billion tonnes of carbon
A vast region of Africa affected by drought and changing land use emits as much carbon dioxide each year as 200 million cars, research suggests.
Air pollution can accelerate lung disease as much as a pack a day of cigarettes
Air pollution -- especially ozone air pollution which is increasing with climate change -- accelerates the progression of emphysema of the lung, according to a new study led by the University of Washington, Columbia University and the University at Buffalo.
Preclinical research suggests anti-cancer effect of keto diet
It's well known that keeping blood glucose levels in check can help individuals avoid or manage diabetes, but new research led by biologists at The University of Texas at Dallas suggests that restricting blood glucose levels might also keep certain cancers at bay.
A leap forward in kidney disease research: Scientists develop breakthrough in vitro model
Researchers at CHLA develop first model of kidney filtration in the lab that accurately mimics human kidney physiology.
Growth mindset intervention boosts confidence, persistence in entrepreneurship students
A low-cost intervention aimed at fostering a growth mindset in students gave the students more confidence in their entrepreneurship abilities and helped them persist when challenges arose.
UTI discovery may lead to new treatments
Sufferers of recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs) could expect more effective treatments thanks to University of Queensland-led research.
RTS,S vaccine could favor the acquisition of natural immunity against malaria
The RTS,S malaria vaccine could enhance the production of protective antibodies upon subsequent parasite infection, according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by 'la Caixa.' The results, published in BMC Medicine, identify the antigens (or protein fragments) that could be included in future, more effective multivalent vaccines.
Marijuana may boost risky effects of drinking alcohol
Compared to people who only drank alcohol, those who used alcohol and marijuana simultaneously were more likely to drink heavier and more often, according to researchers.
Blood pressure patterns in middle-age, older adults associated with dementia risk
Patterns of high blood pressure in midlife that extend to late life or high blood pressure in midlife followed by low blood pressure later in life was associated with increased risk for dementia compared to having normal blood pressure.
Early education setback for summer premature births
Children born as little as three weeks premature, who consequently fall into an earlier school year are more likely to experience significant setbacks in their education after their first year of school, according to new research published today in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Scientists discover potential path to improving samarium-cobalt magnets
Scientists have discovered a potential tool to enhance magnetization and magnetic anisotropy, making it possible to improve the performance of samarium-cobalt magnets.
Not just genes: Environment also shaped population variation in first Americans
A new study shows that facial differences resulting from population divergence in first Americans is due to the complex interaction of environment and evolution on these populations and sheds light on how human diversification occurred after settlement of the New World.
Study: Naltrexone to treat opioid use disorder during pregnancy, favorable for mom, baby
Infants born to mothers taking naltrexone to treat opioid use disorder during pregnancy developed no signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) during their hospitalization, a new study shows.
Exposure to outdoor air pollutants, change in emphysema, lung function
Whether exposure to outdoor air pollutants is associated with emphysema progression and change in lung function was the focus of this observational study.
Research brief: High fat foods can increase CBD absorption into the body
U of M researchers compared CBD absorption in patients on an empty stomach versus a standardized fatty breakfast.
Intensive blood pressure control may slow age-related brain damage
In a nationwide study, researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to scan the brains of hundreds of participants in the National Institutes of Health's Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and found that intensively controlling a person's blood pressure was more effective at slowing the accumulation of white matter lesions than standard treatment of high blood pressure.
All-optical diffractive neural network closes performance gap with electronic neural networks
A new paper in Advanced Photonics, an open-access journal co-published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, and Chinese Laser Press (CLP), demonstrates distinct improvements to the inference and generalization performance of diffractive optical neural networks.
Machine learning tool improves tracking of tiny moving particles
Scientists have developed an automated tool for mapping the movement of particles inside cells that may accelerate research in many fields, a new study in eLife reports.
Researchers identify glial cells as critical players in brain's response to social stress
Exposure to violence, social conflict, and other stressors increase risk for psychiatric conditions such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Enterovirus antibodies detected in acute flaccid myelitis patients
A new study analyzing samples from patients with and without acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) provides additional evidence for an association between the rare but often serious condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, and infection with non-polio enteroviruses.
Lost in translation: Researchers discover translator gene may play a role in disease
A molecule called tRNA is an essential component of the human genome that acts as a translator.
Deadly protein duo reveals new drug targets for viral diseases
New research from Cornell University details how two highly lethal viruses have greater pathogenic potential when their proteins are combined.
Study examines gluten consumption in childhood, celiac disease risk in genetically at-risk kids
Consuming more gluten during the first five years of life was associated with increased risk of celiac disease and celiac disease autoimmunity (the presence of antibodies in the blood) among genetically predisposed children.
Single enzyme helps drive inflammation in mice, provides target for new sepsis drugs
UC San Diego researchers discovered that removing a single enzyme in mice dramatically boosts survival from sepsis, an often fatal over-reaction of the immune system to infection.
Apples, tea and moderation -- the 3 ingredients for a long life
Consuming flavonoid-rich items such as apples and tea protects against cancer and heart disease, particularly for smokers and heavy drinkers, according to new research.
Why young men aren't eating their five-a-day
A new study reveals why young men aren't eating their five-a-day.
Scientists discover key factors in how some algae harness solar energy
Scientists have discovered how diatoms -- a type of alga that produce 20% of the Earth's oxygen -- harness solar energy for photosynthesis.
Gene linked to Alzheimer's disease is involved in neuronal communication
A new study sheds new light on how the CD2AP gene may enhance Alzheimer's disease susceptibility.
ADHD medication may affect brain development in children
A drug used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to affect the development of the brain's signal-carrying white matter in children with the disorder, according to a new study.
Schrödinger's cat with 20 qubits
Dead or alive, left-spinning or right-spinning -- in the quantum world particles such as the famous analogy of Schrödinger's cat can be all these things at the same time.
Treatment doctor tested on himself can put others into remission
Castleman Disease patients who do not respond to the only drug currently approved by the FDA may have another option that targets a specific pathway called PI3K/Akt/mTOR.
New water-beetle species show biodiversity still undiscovered in at-risk South American habitats
Researchers from the University of Kansas have described three genera and 17 new species of water scavenger beetles from the Guiana and Brazilian Shield regions of South America.
Microbes have adapted to live on food that is hundreds of years old
Microbial communities living in deep aquatic sediments have adapted to survive on degraded organic matter, according to a study published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology and coauthored by professors at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Through the kidneys to the exit
Scientists at the National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS' (NUST MISIS) have identified a new mechanism for removing magnetic nanoparticles through the kidneys, which will help to create more effective and safe drugs.
Do internal medicine residents feel bullied during training?
This research letter uses survey data to report on perceived bullying by internal medicine residents during training.
Making microbes that transform greenhouse gases
A new technique will help not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the potential to reduce the overall dependence on petroleum.
Growth of wind energy points to future challenges, promise
Advances in adapting the technology and better methods for predicting wind conditions have fanned significant growth of the use of wind turbines for electricity in the last 40 years.
New evidence points to viral culprit in AFM child paralysis
Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the University of California San Diego report antibody evidence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that points to enterovirus (EV) infection as a cause for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a disease responsible for partially paralyzing more than 560 children in the United States since 2014.
Coca and conflict: the factors fuelling Colombian deforestation
Deforestation in Colombia has been linked to armed conflict and forests' proximity to coca crops, the plant from which cocaine is derived.
A simpler way to choose the sex of offspring by separating X and Y sperm
A simple, reversible chemical treatment can segregate X-bearing sperm from Y-bearing sperm, allowing dramatic alteration of the normal 50/50 male/female offspring ratio, according to a new study by Masayuki Shimada and colleagues at Hiroshima University, published on Aug.
Gene for acid-sensitive ion channel identified
In the human body the salt content of cells and their surrounding is regulated by sophisticated transport systems.
Interbreeding turned grey squirrels black -- study
Research published in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology has shed new light on why some grey squirrels are black.
Study reveals the emotional journey of a digital detox while travelling
New research reveals the emotional journey that tourists go on when they disconnect from technology and social media while travelling.
Foraging for information: Machine learning decodes genetic influence over behavior
Mice scurry around while foraging for food, but genetics may be the unseen hand controlling these meandering movements.
Increased troponin after exercise predicts risk of cardiovascular event
An increased concentration of cardiac troponin (a regulatory protein) in the blood after prolonged walking is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death.
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: Mental health harms related to very frequent social media use in girls might be due to exposure to cyberbullying, loss of sleep or reduced physical activity
Very frequent use of social media may compromise teenage girls' mental health by increasing exposure to bullying and reducing sleep and physical exercise, according to an observational study of almost 10,000 adolescents aged 13-16 years studied over three years in England between 2013-2015, published in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health journal.
Finding a cosmic fog within shattered intergalactic pancakes
In a new study, Yale postdoctoral associate Nir Mandelker and professor Frank C. van den Bosch report on the most detailed simulation ever of a large patch of the intergalactic medium (IGM).
Study examines how media around the world frame climate change news
Researchers from the University of Kansas analyzed thousands of climate change articles from 45 countries and territories around the world to determine how they frame the issue, and differences were revealed mostly by the wealth of the nation.
Researchers study protein ancestors to understand their role in growth
'Resurrecting' the ancestors of key proteins yields evolutionary insights into their role in human cells and in most cancers, a new study finds.
Is intensive blood pressure control associated with less progression of brain vascular disease?
Intensive blood pressure control among adults with high blood pressure was associated with a smaller increase in brain white matter lesions (a marker of small vessel disease and a risk factor for dementia) compared to standard blood pressure control, although the difference was small.
The first metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized at the Samara Polytech
Fullerenes, metamaterials, composites and superconductors -- these are all the materials from which the world of the future will be created.
Pinpointing the molecular mechanisms of aging
Although each and every one of us goes through it, aging is a poorly understood process.
How two water molecules dance together
Researchers have gained new insights into how water molecules interact.
Non-native invasive insects, diseases decreasing carbon stored in US forests
A first-of-its-kind study by a team that included the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Purdue University scientists finds that non-native invasive insects and diseases are reducing the amount of carbon stored in trees across the United States.
Understanding where patients live can improve patient health
Family physicians typically don't consider where patients live when assessing their health care needs, despite research that indicates a person's environment can significantly affect their health.
Greater blood pressure control linked to better brain health
For adults with high blood pressure, greater blood pressure control than what's currently considered standard is associated with fewer adverse changes of the brain, which could mean lower risks of dementia and cognitive impairment, according to new research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
New study links high-fat diet and gut bacteria to insulin resistance
Researchers at Toronto's University Health Network have discovered how our choice of diet can weaken our gut immune system and lead to the development of diabetes.
Analysis shows large decline in criminal sentencing race gap
Racial and ethnic gaps in criminal sentences have declined, in some cases significantly, since the mid-1990s, a new analysis of state, county and federal data suggests.
Poo's clues: Moose droppings indicate Isle Royale ecosystem health
Moose are picky eaters, and that's a good thing for their ecosystems.
Cell biology: Compartments and complexity
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich biologists have taken a closer look at the subcellular distribution of proteins and metabolic intermediates in a model plant.
Anti-viral immune discovery could lead to better vaccines
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have identified a molecular switch that impacts immune responses to viral infections, and whether or not protective antibodies are produced.
James Webb Space Telescope could begin learning about TRAPPIST-1 atmospheres in a year
New research from astronomers at the University of Washington uses the intriguing TRAPPIST-1 planetary system as a kind of laboratory to model not the planets themselves, but how the coming James Webb Space Telescope might detect and study their atmospheres, on the path toward looking for life beyond Earth.
Platform for lab-grown heart cells lets researchers examine functional effects of drugs
The human heart's energy needs and functions are difficult to reproduce in other animals; one new system looks to circumvent these issues and provide a functional view of how different treatments can help ailing cells in the heart following oxygen and nutrient deprivations.
Fluorescent glow may reveal hidden life in the cosmos
Astronomers have uncovered a new way of searching for life in the cosmos.
Study: 'Conversation-based' activities reduce mental illness stigma among college students
The first study to systematically survey a single graduating class on the effect of a multi-year campaign against mental illness has found that college students exposed to certain anti-stigma messages and activities are significantly less likely to stigmatize people with these conditions.
Mapping the energetic landscape of solar cells
A new spectroscopic method now makes it possible to measure and visualize the energetic landscape inside solar cells based on organic materials.
ASU researchers study largest impact crater in the US, buried for 35 million years
About 35 million years ago, an asteroid hit the ocean off the East Coast of North America.
Global tracking devices negatively affect the survival rate of sage-grouses
A new study in The Condor: Ornithological Applications finds that currently-available global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, previously thought to not alter animal survival rates, can decrease greater sage-grouse survival.
What's more powerful, word-of-mouth or following someone else's lead?
Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh, UCLA and the University of Texas published new research in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science, that reveals the power of word-of-mouth in social learning, even when compared to the power of following the example of someone we trust or admire.
Critical observation made on Maunakea during first night of return to operations
Observations of the near-Earth asteroid 2006 QV89 made on Aug.
NASA sees wide center in Tropical Storm Krosa
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a good shot of the wide, ragged center of circulation in Tropical Storm Krosa.
DNA tests of UK waters could help catch invasive species early
A team of scientists led by the University of Southampton have discovered several artificially introduced species in the coastal waters of southern England, using a technique that could help the early detection of non-native species if adopted more widely.
The growing threat of tarnished plant bug
The tarnished plant bug is a profligate pest, which means it can feed on many different species, including cotton.
No teeth cleaning needed: Crocodiles shed old teeth, grow new ones
Having one of the most powerful bites in the animal kingdom, crocodiles must be able to bite hard to eat their food such as turtles, wildebeest and other large prey.
Pollutant linked to climate change accelerates lung disease
A new multicenter study at Columbia University links long-term exposure to air pollution, especially ozone, to development of emphysema, accelerating lung disease progression as much as a pack a day of cigarettes.
Damaged hearts rewired with nanotube fibers
Thin, flexible fibers made of carbon nanotubes have now proven able to bridge damaged heart tissues and deliver the electrical signals needed to keep those hearts beating.
Monitoring the Matterhorn with millions of data points
A unique project is linking in-situ measurements with natural hazards research.
How plants synthesize salicylic acid
The pain-relieving effect of salicylic acid has been known for thousands of years.
Atomic 'Trojan horse' could inspire new generation of X-ray lasers and particle colliders
an international team of researchers, including scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, has demonstrated a potentially much brighter electron source based on plasma that could be used in more compact, more powerful particle accelerators.
Study finds link between long-term exposure to air pollution and emphysema
Long-term exposure to air pollution was linked to increases in emphysema between 2000 and 2018, according to a new study funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), both part of the National Institutes of Health.
Mode of delivery at birth may play key role in shaping the child's skin microbiome
In a new study, investigators in China found that bacterial genera in children were more similar to those of their own mothers than to those of unrelated women.
Arctic could be iceless in September if temps increase 2 degrees
Arctic sea ice could disappear completely through September each summer if average global temperatures increase by as little as 2 degrees, according to a new study by the University of Cincinnati.
NASA finds Henriette fading
Infrared imagery from NASA's Terra satellite found just a few scattered areas of cold clouds in the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Depression Henriette on Aug.
New study helps to understand human defence mechanisms and spread of cancer
With the help of new technology, the researchers of the University of Turku in Finland have gained more detailed information on the diversity of the human lymphatic system than before.
Researchers identify how vaginal microbiome can elicit resistance to chlamydia
The vaginal microbiome is believed to protect women against Chlamydia trachomatis, the etiological agent of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developed countries.
Research drives acceleration of practice transformation and community health improvement
Early findings from two major federally funded initiatives aimed at accelerating the development and dissemination of health care innovation in the United States were published today as a special supplement to the Annals of Family Medicine.
Risks of novel oral prostate cancer therapies and pre-existing conditions
Common prostate cancer therapy may increase short-term risk of death in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.

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