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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 15, 2019


Firework memories
Recently Weizmann Institute scientists succeeded in recording these rapid bursts of activity -- called 'hippocampal ripples' -- in the human brain, and they were able to demonstrate their importance as a neuronal mechanism underlying the engraving of new memories and their subsequent recall.
Warmer winters are changing the makeup of water in Black Sea
Warmer winters are starting to alter the structure of the Black Sea, which could foreshadow how ocean compositions might shift from future climate change, according to new research.
Numbers count in the genetics of moles and melanomas
University of Queensland scientists have identified a way to help dermatologists determine a patient's risk of developing melanoma.
Study finds lack of racial diversity in cancer drug clinical trials
New research published this week in JAMA Oncology has found a lack of racial and ethnic diversity in clinical trials for cancer drugs.
Immune cells drive gallstone formation
Sticky meshworks of DNA and proteins extruded by white blood cells called neutrophils act as the glue that binds together calcium and cholesterol crystals during gallstone formation, researchers in Germany report Aug.
Selective coronary angiography following cardiac arrest
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp.
Vegetable-rich diet lowers fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients by raising good cholesterol
Higher levels of blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -- or good cholesterol -- may improve fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients, according to a new University at Buffalo-led study.
Does opioid maintenance treatment during pregnancy harm newborns?
A new Pharmacology Research & Perspectives study found no harm to newborns from opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) during pregnancy compared with no treatment.
Winning coaches' locker room secret
Researchers found a significant relationship between how negative a coach was at half-time and how well the team played in the second half: The more negativity, the more the team outscored the opposition.
Relaxing of regulations for regenerative medicines has cascading effect internationally
Countries that relax regulations for regenerative medicines, like stem cell 'treatments', could be causing a downward spiral in international standards.
Gene variant in maize ancestor could increase yields in today's densely planted fields
From within the genetic diversity of wild teosinte -- the evolutionary ancestor of modern maize -- valuable traits lay hidden.
Regenstrief, IU scientists to present cutting-edge HIT expertise at world congress
Research scientists representing Regenstrief Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine and IU Richard M.
Climate change 'disrupts' local plant diversity, study reveals
Researchers have discovered that the numbers of plant species recorded by botanists have increased in locations where the climate has changed most rapidly, and especially in relatively cold parts of the world.
Age-related illness risk for people living with HIV
The first large-scale review into the health outcomes of people living with HIV has found that this group has an increased risk of contracting specific diseases and illnesses, some of which are more commonly associated with ageing.
Families continue to enjoy TV together -- but potentially ruin it for each other
TV companies battling to preserve the shared experience of scheduled TV viewing in an era of 24/7 streaming and personalised viewing need more than binge-watching contracts and no-sleeping agreements to keep customers.
System for studying diseases like gout and kidney stones finds new drug targets
A new fruit fly model that mimics diseases associated with high uric acid levels, such as gout and kidney stones, has revealed new targets for developing treatments for these diseases.
Bloodsucker discovered: First North American medicinal leech described in over 40 years
Freshwater wetlands from Georgia to New York are home to a previously unrecognized species of medicinal leech, according to scientists at the Smithsonian's National Museum of National History.
Moon glows brighter than sun in images from NASA's Fermi
If our eyes could see gamma rays, the Moon would appear brighter than the Sun!
Adults with mild cognitive impairment can learn and benefit from mindfulness meditation
Pilot study shows promising evidence that adults with MCI can learn to practice mindfulness meditation, and by doing so may boost their cognitive reserve.
Financial abuse of older adults by family members more common than scams by strangers
Keck School of Medicine of USC analysis of resource line calls identifies financial abuse of older adults by family members as more common than scams by strangers
Study identifies mutations linked to familial pancreatic cancer
Study finds genetic mutations associated with hereditary forms of pancreatic cancer and mechanism by which these mutations may contribute to the development of tumors.
Pregnant transgender men at risk for depression and lack of care, Rutgers study finds
Transgender men who become pregnant are at increased risk for depression and difficulty getting medical care due to a lack of knowledge among health care providers, a Rutgers study reports.
Tiny lensless endoscope captures 3D images of objects smaller than a cell
Researchers have developed a new self-calibrating endoscope that produces 3D images of objects smaller than a single cell.
No, Siri and Alexa are not making us ruder
Is the way we bark out orders to digital assistants like Siri, Alexa and Google Assistant making us less polite?
Researchers demonstrate three-dimensional quantum hall effect for the first time
The quantum Hall effect (QHE), which was previously known for two-dimensional (2D) systems, was predicted to be possible for three-dimensional (3D) systems by Bertrand Halperin in 1987, but the theory was not proven until recently by researchers from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) and their research collaborators from around the globe.
Care less with helmet
A bike helmet suggests safety -- even if the wearer is not sitting on a bike and the helmet cannot fulfil its function.
Predictive value of resting pd/pa for fractional flow reserve assessed with monorail pressure microcatheter in real-world practice
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp.
National narcissism rears its head in study of WWII
In a survey of adults from the countries that comprised the World War II alliances known as the Allies and the Axis, respondents overestimate the importance of their country to the war effort.
Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) vol 4, issue 2 publishes
The journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 2.
Wiggling it beats a path for a better performance at school
QUT early childhood researchers develop fun rhythm and movement program to support young children's brains.
Pores for thought: Ion channel study beckons first whole-brain simulation
Voltage-gated ion channels at the surface of neurons and muscle cells control your every thought, movement; the very beating of your heart.
The composition of fossil insect eyes surprises researchers
Eumelanin -- a natural pigment found for instance in human eyes -- has, for the first time, been identified in the fossilized compound eyes of 54-million-year-old crane-flies.
Ice sheets impact core elements of the Earth's carbon cycle
The Earth's carbon cycle is crucial in controlling the greenhouse gas content of our atmosphere, and ultimately our climate.
Stressed plants must have iron under control
When land plants' nutrient availability dwindles, they have to respond to this stress.
Epicardial coronary artery abnormalities that do not result in myocardial ischemia
What to Do with Epicardial Coronary Artery Abnormalities That do not Result in Myocardial Ischemia?
Political campaigns may influence acceptance of violence against women
Nicole Johnson, assistant professor of counseling psychology at Lehigh University, set out to examine the influence, both positive and negative, of presidential campaigns, voting behavior, and candidate selection, on social views of rape culture.
Fracking has less impact on groundwater than traditional oil and gas production
The amount of water injected for conventional oil and gas production exceeds that from high-volume hydraulic fracturing and other unconventional oil and gas production by more than a factor of 10, according to a new report.
MDM2 counteracts resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors for melanoma therapy
A study from Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the Department of Veterans Affairs led by Anna Vilgelm, MD, Ph.D., and Ann Richmond, Ph.D., has identified a possible second-line treatment for melanoma patients.
Study: Non-invasive electrical stimulation alters blood flow in brain tumors
Led by Emiliano Santarnecchi, Ph.D., principal investigator at the Berenson-Allen Center For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation at BIDMC, the scientists demonstrated that applying low-intensity electrical stimulation to the brains of patients with tumors resulted in decreased blood flow within tumors while leaving the rest of the brain unchanged.
NASA pinpointed tropical storm Krosa's strength before Japan landfall
NASA's Aqua satellite provided forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center with infrared data and cloud top temperature information for Tropical Storm Krosa as it was making landfall in southern Japan.
Skoltech scientists found a way to create long-life fast-charging batteries
A group of researchers led by Skoltech Professor Pavel Troshin studied coordination polymers, a class of compounds with scarcely explored applications in metal-ion batteries, and demonstrated their possible future use in energy storage devices with a high charging/discharging rate and stability.
Dinosaur brains from baby to adult
New research by a University of Bristol palaeontology post-graduate student has revealed fresh insights into how the braincase of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus developed and how this tells us about its posture.
Research suggests glyphosate lowers pH of dicamba spray mixtures below acceptable levels
A University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture study published in the Journal of Weed Technology found that mixing glyphosate with formulations of dicamba consistently lowered the pH of the spray solution below 5.0 -- a critical value according to the latest dicamba application labels.
Green chemists find a way to turn cashew nut shells into sunscreen
Team of 'green chemists' are working on techniques to produce useful compounds from wood and other fast growing non-edible plant waste, through a chemical process named xylochemistry.
A step forward in wearable robotics: Exosuit assists with both walking and running
A soft robotic exosuit -- worn like a pair of shorts -- can make both walking and running easier for the wearer, a new study reports.
Deep-earth diamonds reveal primordial rock source in Earth's mantle
An analysis of helium isotopes locked inside 'super-deep' diamonds hundreds of kilometers below Earth's surface suggests that vast reservoirs of molten primordial source rock, perhaps nearly as old as the Earth, are present.
Discovery of how cells override genetic changes
A discovery by scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) could lead researchers to a more effective way to treat pancreatic cancer.
In worms, researchers uncover protein that may one day make opioid use safer
Studying mutant worms has led to the discovery of a receptor that reduces sensitivity to opioid side effects in these organisms.
Finnish discovery brings new insight on the functioning of the eye and retinal diseases
Finnish researchers have found cellular components in the epithelial tissue of the eye, which have previously been thought to only be present in electrically active tissues, such as those in nerves and the heart.
Moderate to heavy drinking during pregnancy alters genes in newborns, mothers
Mothers who drink moderate to high levels of alcohol during pregnancy may be changing their babies' DNA, according to a Rutgers-led study.
Premature mortality is partly predicted by city neighborhood
A new in-depth study from Ryerson University called 'The influence of environmental and health indicators on premature mortality: an empirical analysis of the City of Toronto's 140 neighborhoods' assesses the impact of several environmental, health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on lifespan.
How common is nearsightedness among schoolchildren in Japan?
This study of 1,400 elementary and junior high school students in Tokyo estimated the rate of nearsightedness.
Young Jupiter was smacked head-on by massive newborn planet
A colossal, head-on collision between Jupiter and a still-forming planet in the early solar system, about 4.5 billion years ago, could explain surprising readings from NASA's Juno spacecraft, according to a study this week in the journal Nature.
Health research funding lags for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders
Clinical research funding continues to lag for the US population of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, even though the nation's largest biomedical funding agency has pledged to prioritize research on diverse populations.
Stronger graphene oxide 'paper' made with weaker units
Jiaxing Huang's counterintuitive discovery will help engineers make stronger materials.
Best of both worlds: Asteroids and massive mergers
University of Arizona researchers are using the Catalina Sky Survey's near-Earth object telescopes to locate the optical counterparts to gravitational waves triggered by massive mergers.
More cancer cases among women with sleep apnea
Women with severe sleep apnea appear to be at an elevated risk of getting cancer, a study shows.
Newfound superconductor material could be the 'silicon of quantum computers'
Newly discovered properties in the compound uranium ditelluride show that it could prove highly resistant to one of the nemeses of quantum computer development -- the difficulty with making such a computer's memory storage switches, called qubits, function long enough to finish a computation before losing the delicate physical relationship that allows them to operate as a group.
Enriched environment in aquaculture enhances the survival of fish from bacterial disease
Cooperative study conducted by University of Jyväskylä and Natural Resources institute Finland (Luke), revealed that enriched rearing of juvenile fish significantly enhances the survival of fish from bacterial infection commonly seen in rearing conditions.
How buildings can cut 80% of their carbon emissions by 2050
Energy use in buildings -- from heating and cooling your home to keeping the lights on in the office -- is responsible for over one-third of all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States.
Trauma begets trauma: Bullying associated with increased suicide attempts among 12-to-15-year-olds
A new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reports that bullying victimization may increase the risk of suicide attempts among young adolescents by approximately 3-times worldwide.
New contrast agent could make MRIs safer
Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have taken a key step forward in developing a new, possibly safer contrast agent for use in MRI exams.
Gamification can give dental and medical education a boost
Introducing gamification to medical and dental education can boost student motivation and lead to better learning outcomes, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
In product design, imagining end user's feelings leads to more original outcomes
In new product design, connecting with an end user's heart, rather than their head, can lead to more original and creative outcomes, says published research co-written by Ravi Mehta, a professor of business administration at Illinois and an expert in product development and marketing.
One in five awaiting new hip suffering extreme pain, study shows
Almost 20 per cent of people awaiting hip replacements are experiencing extreme pain or discomfort, a study shows.
WPI biologist's discovery gives evolution clues and may affect drug interaction research
A Nature Communications paper by Worcester Polytechnic Institute biologist Jagan Srinivasan has shown that a key biological component in the communication system of the nematode C.
Discovery could pave the way for disease-resistant rice crops
Researchers have uncovered an unusual protein activity in rice that can be exploited to give crops an edge in the evolutionary arms race against rice blast disease, a major threat to rice production around the world.
Ultrasound: The potential power for cardiovascular disease therapy
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp.
IRS budget cuts result in $34.3 billion in lost tax revenue from large firms
Budget cuts at the Internal Revenue Service threaten the agency's effectiveness and have led to billions of dollars in lost tax revenue, new research from the Indiana University Kelley School of Business shows.
Drug accelerates blood system's recovery after chemotherapy, radiation
A drug developed by UCLA physician-scientists and chemists speeds up the regeneration of mouse and human blood stem cells after exposure to radiation.
Superdeep diamonds confirm ancient reservoir deep under Earth's surface
Analyses show that gases found in microscopic inclusions in diamonds come from a stable subterranean reservoir at least as old as the Moon, hidden more than 410 km below sea level in the Earth's mantle.
Uric acid pathologies shorten fly lifespan, highlighting need for screening in humans
Few people get their level of uric acid, a breakdown product of metabolism, measured in their blood.
Genetic redundancy aids competition among bacteria in symbiosis with squid
The molecular mechanism used by many bacteria to kill neighboring cells has redundancy built into its genetic makeup, which could allow for the mechanism to be expressed in different environments.
Extinct Caribbean bird yields DNA after 2,500 years in watery grave
Scientists have recovered the first genetic data from an extinct bird in the Caribbean, thanks to the remarkably preserved bones of a Creighton's caracara from a flooded sinkhole on Great Abaco Island.
Addiction intervention in hospital is a 'reachable moment'
Patients who meet an addiction medicine consult team while they're in the hospital are twice as likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorder after they go home, according to new research.
TGen team links gene to children with physical and intellectual disabilities
Modern science and data sharing converged to underpin a study led by TGen that identified a gene associated with a rare condition that results in physical and intellectual disabilities of children.
Nanoscale 'glass' bottles could enable targeted drug delivery
Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
When the cardiology patient ends up in the oncology care ward
If you end up needing to go to the hospital, often times you're hoping to get a bed without having to wait hours, but a new study shows you may want to wait a little longer, so that you are placed in the best ward for your needs.
Predictability of parent interaction positively influences child's development
A joint project of the University of Turku's FinnBrain study and the University of California-Irvine (US) investigated the impact of the predictability of parent interaction on a child's development.
Sensory impairment and health expectancy in older adults
Older adults aged 60 years and above with vision and hearing impairments may enjoy fewer years of life as well as healthy life compared to those with no impairments.
Canadian researchers find 'silent' strokes common after surgery
The study found that 'silent' covert strokes are actually more common than overt strokes in people aged 65 or older who have surgery.
Early species developed much faster than previously thought, OHIO research shows
When Earth's species were rapidly diversifying nearly 500 million years ago, that evolution was driven by complex factors including global cooling, more oxygen in the atmosphere, and more nutrients in the oceans.
New pain organ discovered in the skin
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered a new sensory organ that is able to detect painful mechanical damage, such as pricks and impacts.
Too much of a good thing can be dangerous, finds researchers investigating hypoglycemia
For people with diabetes, taking medications and monitoring their blood sugar is part of the rhythm of their daily lives.
Ancient feces reveal how 'marsh diet' left Bronze Age Fen folk infected with parasites
'Coprolites' from the Must Farm archaeological excavation in East Anglia, UK, shows the prehistoric inhabitants were infected by parasitic worms that can be spread by eating raw fish, frogs and shellfish.
Screening for cervical spine risk factors could reduce CT scans by half
Study finds identifiable risk factors ED staff can use for evaluation, avoiding over 100,000 unnecessary scans annually.
Tweaked CRISPR in neurons gives scientists new power to probe brain diseases
In a paper published August 15 in the journal Neuron, the researchers describe a technique that uses a special version of CRISPR developed at UCSF to systematically alter the activity of genes in human neurons generated from stem cells, the first successful merger of stem cell-derived cell types and CRISPR screening technologies.
Cardiac rehabilitation: Preliminary results
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp.
New research could provide better food and faster analysis of blood tests
A group of researchers from UCPH FOOD have figured out how to use deep learning to speed up the analysis of gas chromatographic data.
Analysis of sex disparities in ophthalmic research
Sex disparities in ophthalmic research were analyzed in this study that evaluated the representation of female authorships in ophthalmologic journals from 2008 to 2018, with sex assigned according to first name.
Suit up with a robot to walk and run more easily
A collaborative team at the Wyss Institute, Harvard SEAS, and the University of Nebraska Omaha reports in Science that they now have developed the first portable exosuit that can assist the extension of the hip joint during both walking and running.
Modified lactides promise new implementations in pharmacology and catalysis
The project concerning modification of oligo- and polylactic acids with thiacalix[4]arene derivatives was launched at Kazan Federal University three years ago.
When human expertise improves the work of machines
Machine learning algorithms can sometimes do a better job with a little help from human expertise, at least in the field of materials science.
Expression of M gene segment of influenza A virus determines host range
The host range of the influenza A virus (IAV) is restricted by dysregulated expression of the M viral gene segment, according to a study published August 15, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Anice Lowen and John Steel of Emory University School of Medicine, and colleagues.
Survey data suggests widespread bullying by superiors in medical residency training
Using questionnaire answers from thousands of internal medicine residents, primarily from US training programs, a research team at Johns Hopkins Medicine says it has added to the evidence that bullying of medical trainees is fairly widespread.
New study shows how autism can be measured through a non-verbal marker
A Dartmouth-led research team has identified a non-verbal, neural marker of autism.
Data assimilation method offers improved hurricane forecasting
Operational models for severe weather forecasting predicted Hurricane Harvey would become a Category 1 hurricane in 2017, according to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Monkey malaria breakthrough offers cure for relapsing malaria
A breakthrough in monkey malaria research by two University of Otago scientists could help scientists diagnose and treat a relapsing form of human malaria.
New BioIVT research examines potential link between HIV integrase inhibitor drugs and neural tube defects during pregnancy
BioIVT announced that researchers in its Transporter Sciences Group have co-authored a peer-reviewed paper, which investigates the inhibitory effects of a class of HIV drugs known as integrase inhibitors on folate transporter pathways.
Router guest networks lack adequate security, according to researchers at Ben-Gurion University
According to Adar Ovadya, a master's student in BGU's Department of Software and Information Systems Engineering, 'all of the routers we surveyed regardless of brand or price point were vulnerable to at least some cross-network communication once we used specially crafted network packets.
Stanford develops wireless sensors that stick to the skin to track our health
Stanford engineers have developed experimental stickers that pick up physiological signals emanating from the skin, then wirelessly beam these health readings to a receiver clipped onto clothing.
New tools help detect digital domestic abuse
A new clinical model developed by Cornell Tech researchers aims to respond systematically and effectively to the growing array of digital threats against victims of intimate partner violence.

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