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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 16, 2019


Doped photovoltaics
Organic solar cells are made of cheap and abundant materials, but their efficiency and stability still lag behind those of silicon-based solar cells.
Children with mild asthma can use inhalers as needed
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Optofluidic chip with nanopore 'smart gate' developed for single molecule analysis
A new chip-based platform developed by researchers at UC Santa Cruz integrates nanopores and optofluidic technology with a feedback-control circuit to enable an unprecedented level of control over individual molecules and particles on a chip for high-throughput analysis.
Two advances in understanding the role of 'charge stripes' in superconducting mate
In independent studies, two research teams report important advances in understanding how charge stripes might interact with superconductivity.
Damage found in the bit area of most Finnish trotters
In a Finnish study, damage was found in the part of the mouth affected by the bit in more than 80% of trotters examined after a race.
Humans migrated to Mongolia much earlier than previously believed
Stone tools uncovered in Mongolia by an international team of archaeologists indicate that modern humans traveled across the Eurasian steppe about 45,000 years ago.
Differences in end-of-life interventions between men, women with advanced dementia
In a study of 27,000 nursing home residents in Canada with advanced dementia who died, researchers describe differences between men and women in receiving burdensome interventions in the last 30 days of life (including invasive procedures and physical restraints) and antibiotic therapy.
Feasibility of antimicrobial stewardship interventions in community hospitals
This study evaluated whether implementing two antimicrobial stewardship interventions (pharmacist approval to continue antibiotic use after the first dose and pharmacist engagement with the prescriber about antibiotic appropriateness after 72 hours of treatment) were feasible in community hospitals.
Discovery of anti-opioid pathway offers new route to designing safer pain medications
'A study like this makes it clear that even though we may think we know everything there is to know about the opioid response, we're actually just scratching the surface.' -- Kirill Martemyanov, PhD, Scripps Research Neuroscience Co-Chair
What exactly happened at Chernobyl? (video)
On April 26, 1986 the Soviet Union's Chernobyl Power Complex nuclear reactor 4 exploded.
Does the judicial system give justice to assaulted EMS first responders?
Violence toward first responders is widespread and can face a felony charge in Pennsylvania, yet new research shows that victims often feel they do not receive legal justice.
Physiological mechanisms leading to enterovirus opening revealed
Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide.
Identification of genes responsible for sex-related differences in cancer aggressiveness
An understanding of the molecular basis of differences in the incidence and survival of cancer between men and women may allow the discovery of specific and more effective treatments.
Archaeology at BESSY II
Researchers from the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin universities and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied a small piece of papyrus that was excavated on the island of Elephantine on the River Nile a little over 100 years ago.
Could biological clocks in plants set the time for crop spraying?
Plants can tell the time, and this affects their responses to certain herbicides used in agriculture according to new research led by the University of Bristol.
Transgender college students four times as likely to experience mental health problems
In the largest mental health survey of gender minority college students, BU researchers Sarah Lipson and Julia Raifman find that transgender, gender-nonconforming, genderqueer, and nonbinary college students face enormous mental health disparities.
Using Wall Street secrets to reduce the cost of cloud infrastructure
Inspired by Wall Street financial theories used to invest in the stock market, MIT and Microsoft researchers developed a 'risk-aware' model that improves the performance of cloud-computing infrastructure used across the globe.
Cannabis-related poison control cases in kids, teens in Massachusetts around medical marijuana legal
Rates of marijuana exposure cases in children and teens reported to a poison control center increased after Massachusetts legalized medical marijuana in 2012.
Researchers identify protein governing platinum resistant ovarian cancer
Researchers at the GW Cancer Center have identified the protein ERK as an important mechanism behind platinum-resistance in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
Each cell is a small world: the microbiome of ciliates has been studied
Microbiologists investigated the microbiome of a sessile free-living ciliate Stentor coeruleus.
Research offers new insight into bacterial infections found in the noses of healthy cattle
New research led by academics at the University of Bristol Veterinary and Medical Schools used the 'One Health' approach to study three bacterial species in the noses of young cattle and found the carriage of the bacteria was surprisingly different.
Unmet family expectations linked to increased mortality among older Chinese Americans
New Rutgers-led study explores the link between mortality and the discrepancy between older Chinese Americans' expectations versus receipt of filial piety.
Decoding the scent of a plant
A recent study led by Dr. Radhika Venkatesan has identified that herbivores are capable of decoding the scent of a plant and using these cues to brace up their immunity.
Researchers refine guidelines for pediatric brain injuries
There are no guideliInnes on whether a noninvasive method of measuring carbon dioxide from patients' exhalations, known as end-tidal capnography, is as effective as drawing blood through a child's artery.
From the tiny testes of flies, new insight into how genes arise
A common birthplace of new genes, the male testes are a hotspot for biological innovation.
Stanford builds a heat shield just 10 atoms thick to protect electronic devices
Atomically thin materials developed by Stanford researchers could create heat-shields for cell phones or laptops that would protect people and temperature-sensitive components and make future electronic gadgets even more compact.
Nylon as a building block for transparent electronic devices?
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) led by Dr.
Research brief: A novel cellular process to engulf nano-sized materials
University of Minnesota researchers discovered a cellular process that allows nanomaterial entry into cells.
Study reveals how stress can curb the desire to eat in an animal model
Eating disorder researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have discovered a neurocircuit in mice that, when activated, increased their stress levels while decreasing their desire to eat.
Scientists assess reliability of multiple precipitable water vapor datasets in Central Asia
Scientists evaluated multiple satellite and reanalysis precipitable water vapor (PWV) datasets against radiosonde observations in Central Asia.
uSEE breakthrough unlocks the nanoscale world on standard biology lab equipment
Standard optical microscopes can image cells and bacteria but not their nanoscale features which are blurred by a physical effect called diffraction.
Discovery of a bottleneck relief in photosynthesis may have a major impact on food crops
Scientists have found how to relieve a bottleneck in the process by which plants transform sunlight into food, which may lead to an increase in crop production.
Revealed: How E. coli knows how to cause the worst possible infection
The discovery could one day let doctors prevent the infection by allowing E. coli to pass harmlessly through the body.
Unraveling the stripe order mystery
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, collaborating with scientists at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, have shed new light on how superconductivity and charge order can exist adjacent to one another.
Satellite view of tropical storm Krosa transition in sea of Japan
Tropical Storm Krosa continued to erode after it moved into the Sea of Japan and satellite data showed it as a ragged and shapeless storm on August 16, 2019.
UMN researcher decodes the brain to help patients with mental illnesses
Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the United States experience mental illness in a given year.
Doctors help parents talk with their teens about sex, alcohol
Parents and teens find it difficult to talk about sex and alcohol, and this study finds that doctors can help.
Guidelines for managing severe traumatic brain injury continue to evolve
New evidence continues to drive the evolution of guideline recommendations for the medical management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Wearable sensors detect what's in your sweat
A team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, is developing wearable skin sensors that can detect what's in your sweat.
Cannabis-related poison control calls for Massachusetts kids doubled after medical pot legalized
After medical marijuana became legal in Massachusetts, cannabis-related poison control calls involving the commonwealth's children and teenagers doubled, according to a public health investigation led by University of Massachusetts Amherst injury prevention researcher Jennifer Whitehill.
Tiny GPS backpacks uncover the secret life of desert bats
A new study from the University of Helsinki using miniaturized satellite-based tags revealed that during drier periods desert bats must fly further and longer to fulfil their nightly needs.
Researchers show how probiotics benefit vaginal health
Researchers have shown that three genes from a probiotic Lactobacillus species, used in some commercial probiotic vaginal capsules, are almost certainly involved in mediating adhesion to the vaginal epithelium.
A laser for penetrating waves
The 'Landau-level laser' is an exciting concept for an unusual radiation source.
Gene regulation behind the choice of the correct receptor for olfaction
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have uncovered the genetics behind two distinct types of olfactory sensory neurons; the so called 'class I olfactory neurons' that has persisted from aquatic to terrestrial animals and the 'class II olfactory neurons' that only terrestrial animals possess.
University of Utah studies safe gun storage practices in military homes
Active-duty US military personnel who have had thoughts of suicide or self-harm are less likely to keep a firearm at home, but also less likely to store a firearm safely.
Researcher discovers gene mutation that contributes to addiction
A researcher at the OU College of Medicine, William R.
Firearm storage practices among military personnel with suicidal thoughts
This observational study analyzed survey data from 1,652 active-duty military personnel to examine associations between firearm ownership and storage practices with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

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