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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 19, 2019


Scientists extract H2 gas from oil and bitumen, giving potential pollution-free energy
Scientists have developed a large-scale economical method to extract hydrogen (H2) from oil sands (natural bitumen) and oil fields.
Online brain games can extend in-game 'cognitive youth' into old age, UCI-led study says
A University of California, Irvine-led study has found that online brain game exercises can enable people in their 70s and even 80s to multitask cognitively as well as individuals 50 years their junior.
Dacomitinib in advanced lung cancer: Disadvantages outweigh survival advantage
Longer survival is offset by more frequent -- and partly severe -- side effects and deterioration in symptoms and quality of life.
Religion associated with HPV vaccination rate for college women
A survey of female college students finds 25% had not been vaccinated for HPV and religion may be a contributing factor.
Common origin identified could bring tooth regeneration potential closer
A common origin shared by teeth and taste buds in a fish that has regenerative abilities has been identified by a team of researchers from the UK and the States.
Variation in the shape of speech organs influences language evolution
Why do speech sounds vary across languages? Does the shape of our speech organs play a role?
A second planet in the Beta Pictoris system
A team of astronomers led by Anne-Marie Lagrange, a CNRS researcher, has discovered a second giant planet in orbit around β Pictoris, a star that is relatively young (23 million years old) and close (63.4 light years), and surrounded by a disk of dust.
Mississippi River diversions: Driving land gain or land loss?
River diversions have not created or maintained land, but resulted in more land loss, according to a new paper in the peer-reviewed science journal Restoration Ecology.
Black hole holograms
Japanese researchers show how a holographic tabletop experiment can be used to simulate the physics of a black hole.
Genetic risk is associated with differences in gut microbiome
Children with a high genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes have different gut microbiomes than children with a low risk, according to a new study from Linköping University in Sweden and the University of Florida in the US.
Lithium fluoride crystals 'see' heavy ions with high energies
Lithium fluoride crystals have recently been used to register the tracks of nuclear particles.
Global change is triggering an identity switch in grasslands
Since the first Homo sapiens emerged in Africa roughly 300,000 years ago, grasslands have sustained humanity and thousands of other species.
Gastroesophageal reflux associated with chronic pain in temporomandibular joint
Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) is associated with chronic, painful temporomandibular disorder -- pain in the temporomandibular joint -- and anxiety and poor sleep contribute to this association, according to a study in CMAJ.
Challenging the totipotency of a zygote
Although the literature describes the mammalian zygote as a totipotent cell, one researcher challenges this view and has proposed a revised alternative model of mammalian cellular totipotency.
Nearly identical representations of spoken, written words in the brain
The brain activity evoked from processing written or heard semantic information is almost identical, according to research in adults published in JNeurosci.
Facts and stories: Great stories undermine strong facts
If someone is trying to persuade or influence others, should they use a story or stick to the facts?
Bone particles in blood
A researcher at The University of Texas at Arlington has found that blood vessels within bone marrow may progressively convert into bone with advancing age.
Towards an 'orrery' for quantum gauge theory
Physicists at ETH Zurich have developed a new approach to couple quantized gauge fields to ultracold matter.
Scientists uncover mystery of DNA methylation
To a large extent, DNA methylation, which regulates vital cell functions, is still a big mystery to the scientific world.
Montana examines best practices for wildfire adaptation and resilience
Montana State University's Dave McWethy is the lead author on a paper published in the journal Nature Sustainability that outlines best practices for social and ecological resilience in a Western landscape where wildfires are becoming inevitable.
New artificial compound eye could improve 3D object tracking
A newly created biologically inspired compound eye is helping scientists understand how insects use their compound eyes to sense an object and its trajectory with such speed.
Are attitudes contagious?
A new Northwestern University study examined whether people can acquire attitudes toward other individuals from the nonverbal signals that are directed toward them.
Bottles made of lignocellulose, perfumes of apples
Many companies are working on materials that would be as light and resistant as plastic but at the same time fully biodegradable.
Research shows TCOM and osteopathic approach making a difference
The 2.5-year study, conducted by the PRECISION Pain Research Registry and TCOM's John Licciardone, D.O., M.S., M.B.A., reaffirmed the importance of empathy and better interpersonal manner when treating patients with chronic pain.
Drawing inspiration from natural marvels to make new materials
The shape-shifting bristle worm has the unique ability to extend its jaw outside of its mouth and ensnare surprised prey.
New clues on stem cell transplant rejection revealed in study
'The role of mitochondria has been largely ignored in the field of regenerative medicine, but earlier efforts in our lab suggested that they may affect the outcome of stem cell transplants,' said Tobias Deuse, M.D., the Julien I.E.
Don't miss a beat: Computer simulations may treat most common heart rhythm disorder
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have successfully created personalized digital replicas of the upper chambers of the heart and used them to guide the precise treatment of patients suffering from persistent irregular heartbeats.
Antacid helps tuberculosis bacteria to survive
One reason why infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is so difficult to treat is that the bacteria can hide inside immune cells.
Football scores a health hat-trick for 55- to 70-year-old women with prediabetes
A new study from the University of Southern Denmark shows that football is a surprisingly efficient type of physical training for female prediabetes patients, with impressive effects on cardiovascular health after 16 weeks of training for 55- to 70-year old women with no prior football experience.
University of Michigan study indicates negative outcomes for Native American children who are spanked
Some people may believe that if you live in a community with different cultural values, spanking might not be harmful -- an assumption that does not appear to be correct, according to a new University of Michigan study.
Increasing blood pressure medications at hospital discharge may pose serious risk
Increasing medications for blood pressure when discharging older patients from the hospital may pose a greater risk of falls, fainting and acute kidney injury that outweighs the potential benefits, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco and the affiliated San Francisco VA Health Care System.
Insomnia tied to higher risk of heart disease and stroke
Data from more than a million people found that genetic liability to insomnia may increase the risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke.
Biochemists discover new insights into what may go awry in brains of Alzheimer's patients
Three decades of research on Alzheimer's disease have not produced major treatment advances for patients, says Steven Clarke, UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry.
New molecule could help improve heart attack recovery
Reparative medicine scientists at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute discovered a new compound that could shield heart tissue before a heart attack, as well as preserve healthy cells when administered after a heart attack.
Optic nerve stimulation to aid the blind
EPFL scientists are investigating new ways to provide visual signals to the blind by directly stimulating the optic nerve.
How coastal mud holds the key to climate cooling gas
Bacteria found in muddy marshes, estuaries and coastal sediment synthesise one of the Earth's most abundant climate cooling gases -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).
New tool makes web browsing easier for the visually impaired
Researchers have developed a new voice assistant that allows people with visual impairments to get web content as quickly and as effortlessly as possible from smart speakers and similar devices.
Dog down: Effort helps emergency medical staff treat law enforcement K-9s
Law enforcement K-9s face the same dangers their human handlers confront.
AJR publishes gender affirmation surgery primer for radiologists
Since gender incongruence is now categorized as a sexual health condition, an ahead-of-print article published in the December issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) contends that all subspecialties must be prepared to identify radiologic correlates and distinguish key postoperative variations in the three major categories of gender affirmation surgery: genital reconstruction, body contouring, and maxillofacial contouring.
When a diseased liver disrupts the brain
The liver plays a vital role as a filter in the body.
Interregional differences in somatic genetic landscape diversify prognosis in glioblastoma
Interregional differences in somatic genetic landscape diversify prognosis in glioblastoma.
5 cool technologies your tax dollars are funding
The latest brief video from NIBIB puts a spotlight on exciting technologies developed at labs around the country funded by the institute.
Microorganisms build the best fuel efficient hydrogen cells
With billions of years of practice, nature has created the most energy efficient machines.
Potential treatments for citrus greening
Finding a treatment for a devastating, incurable citrus disease was personal for Sharon Long and Melanie Barnett.
Was hospital move to all private rooms associated with reductions in health care-related infections?
A Montreal hospital moved from an older facility with ward-type rooms to a new facility with all private rooms and this analysis examined whether that was associated with reductions in multidrug-resistant organism colonization and health care-associated infections.
New study offers roadmap for detecting changes in the ocean due to climate change
When will we see significant changes in the ocean due to climate change?
Is childhood-onset of IBD associated with risk of psychiatric disorders, suicide attempt?
Data from Swedish national registers were used to examine the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt in individuals diagnosed as children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared with people in the general population and with siblings of patients with IBD.
Materials that can revolutionize how light is harnessed for solar energy
Columbia scientists designed organic molecules capable of generating two excitons per photon of light, a process called singlet fission.
Physical activity in adolescence and later life reduces the risk of colorectal adenoma
A study analyzing data from almost 30,000 nurses shows that the effects of physical activity throughout life are cumulative.
Police less proactive after negative public scrutiny, study says
Public safety officers know that their profession could draw them into the line of fire at any moment, as it did recently for six officers wounded in a shooting standoff in Philadelphia.
A novel T-cell subset associated with type 1 diabetes
A study conducted at the University of Eastern Finland demonstrated that a recently described T-cell subset, so-called peripheral T helper cells, may have a role in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Prescription omega-3 fatty acid medications effectively lower high triglycerides
Four grams per day of prescription omega-3 fatty acid medication effectively lower high triglyceride levels, but identification of secondary causes of high triglycerides, such as hypothyroidism and poorly managed type 2 diabetes as well as lifestyle changes should be addressed before prescribing drugs.
Research shows why there's a 'sweet spot' depth for underground magma chambers
Computer models show why eruptive magma chambers tend to reside between six and 10 kilometers underground.
Traumas change perception in the long term
People with maltreatment experiences in their childhood have a changed perception of social stimuli later as adults.
New lipid signaling target may improve T cell immunotherapy
T cell immunotherapy uses the immune system to kill cancer cells.
Researchers find hurricanes drive the evolution of more aggressive spiders
Researchers at McMaster University who rush in after storms to study the behavior of spiders have found that extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones may have an evolutionary impact on populations living in storm-prone regions, where aggressive spiders have the best odds of survival.
Increased risk of psychiatric disorders in children with IBD
Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) run a greater risk of psychiatric disorders, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in JAMA Pediatrics.
How NASA is becoming more business friendly
A new case study demonstrates the steps being taken by the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to make it easier for small businesses and entrepreneurs to understand its needs and do business with it.
Wired for sound: A third wave emerges in integrated circuits
A research renaissance into chip-based control of light-sound interactions could transform our 5G networks, satellite communications and defense industries.
Binge drinking may be more damaging to women
In a recently published study examining the effects of binge drinking on rats, researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine discovered that female rats who were of equal age and weight to male rats were more sensitive to alcohol and experienced alcoholic liver injury at a higher rate than male rats.
Lab-based dark energy experiment narrows search options for elusive force
An experiment to test a popular theory of dark energy has found no evidence of new forces, placing strong constraints on related theories.
Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots
The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications.
Blocking inflammatory pathway key to preventing brain metastasis from melanoma
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that melanoma-related brain metastasis occurs when tumor cells 'hijack' an inflammatory pathway in the brain.
Moffitt researchers discover possible new treatment strategy for lung cancer
It is estimated there will be roughly 228,000 new lung cancer cases this year, and nearly 30% of those patients will have mutations in the KRAS pathway.
WVU study investigates rural LBGTQ youth's motivations for participating in activism
Working with a lobbying organization in the rural southwest, WVU Assistant Professor of Social Work Megan Gandy-Guedes and KU Assistant Professor of Social Welfare Megan Paceley sought to understand the social, economic and environmental issues important to LGBTQ young adults living in the rural US and their motivations for engaging in activism and social justice efforts.
Need a mental break? Avoid your cellphone, Rutgers researchers say
Using a cellphone to take a break during mentally challenging tasks does not allow the brain to recharge effectively and may result in poorer performance, Rutgers researchers found.
A laser-driven programmable non-contact transfer printing technique
A laser-driven programmable non-contact transfer printing technique via an active elastomeric micro-structured stamp, which offers continuously thermal-controlled tunable adhesion with a large switchability of more than 103 at a temperature increase below 100 °C, is developed.
Laboratory studies identify a potential way to treat human cancers with ARID1A mutations
A new study shows that tumor cells depleted of ARID1A -- a protein that acts as a cancer suppressor -- become highly sensitive to anticancer poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor drugs after radiation treatment.
Highly uniform and low hysteresis pressure sensor to increase practical applicability
Researchers have designed a flexible pressure sensor that is expected to have a much wider applicability.
Spinning lightwaves on a one-way street
Researchers at Purdue University have created a quantum spin wave for light.
Crossover from 2D metal to 3D Dirac semimetal in metallic PtTe2 films with local Rashba effect
Shuyun Zhou's group from Tsinghua University reported the evolution of the electronic structure of PtTe2 thin films using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.
Comparing your house to your neighbors' can lead to dissatisfaction
Satisfaction with your home can depend on its size compared to your neighbors' homes, according to new Iowa State University research.
Peer influence, social networks might be leveraged to aid gun violence reduction efforts
Researchers: Reductions in violence might be increased if focused-deterrence programs can enhance network diffusion.
Research using mechanics and physics could predict diseases that 'stress out' cells
Using ultrasonic tweezers, live imaging and a micro-mechanical substrate, NYU Tandon researchers found energy patterns in cellular allostasis that could predict the presence of disease.
Aggressive brain tumor could be diagnosed with simple blood test in future
New research by Sussex scientists could be the first step towards developing a blood test to diagnose the most aggressive type of brain tumor, known as glioblastoma.
Study analyzes outcomes of dual antiplatelet therapy after minor stroke or TIA
An analysis of combined patient-level data from two randomized clinical trials  examined outcomes of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin after minor stroke or transient ischemic attack.
HKUST-PKU unveiled first quantum simulation of 3D topological matter with ultracold atoms
Physicists from HKUST and PKU have successfully created the world's first 3D simulation of topological matter consisting of ultracold atoms.
Weather on ancient Mars: Warm with occasional rain, turning cold
A new study of conditions on Mars indicates that the climate 3 to 4 billion years ago was warm enough to provoke substantial rainstorms and flowing water, followed by a longer cold period where the water froze.
These migratory birds will risk their lives for a good nap
As reported in the journal Current Biology on Aug. 19, migrating birds that are low on fat reserves will tuck their heads under their feathers for a deep snooze.
Parent-targeted interventions in primary care improve parent-teen communication on alcohol and sex
New research shows that brief parent-targeted interventions in the primary care setting can increase communication between parents and their teens about sexual and alcohol-related behavior.
Uncertainty in emissions estimates in the spotlight
National or other emissions inventories of greenhouse gases that are used to develop strategies and track progress in terms of emissions reductions for climate mitigation contain a certain amount of uncertainty, which inevitably has an impact on the decisions they inform.
DGIST succeeded in materials synthesis for high efficiency in biological reaction
DGIST Professor Jaeheung Cho in the Department of Emerging Materials Science secured materials that lead aldehyde deformylation reaction.
Lighting up proteins with Immuno-SABER
Harvard researchers have developed a new DNA-nanotechnology-based approach called Immuno-SABER, that combines the protein targeting specificity of commonly available antibodies with a DNA-based signal-amplification strategy that enables the highly multiplexed visualization of many proteins in the same sample with pre-programmable and tunable fluorescence signals at each target site.
Innovative valve train saves 20% fuel
Empa has developed an innovative, electrohydraulically actuated valve train for internal combustion engines, that enables completely free adjustment of stroke and timing, while at the same time being robust and cost effective.
Study examines maternal exposure to fluoride in pregnancy, kids' IQ scores
An observational study of 601 mother-child pairs from six cities in Canada hints at an apparent association between maternal exposure to fluoride during pregnancy and lower IQ scores measured in children ages 3 to 4.
Targeting cell division in pancreatic cancer
Study provides new evidence of synergistic effects of drugs that inhibit cell division and support for further clinical trials.
Microgravity changes brain connectivity
An international team of Russian and Belgian researchers, including scientists from HSE University, has found out that space travel has a significant impact on the brain: they discovered that cosmonauts demonstrate changes in brain connectivity related to perception and movement.
Should doctors accept unvaccinated children as patients?
Four in 10 parents say they are very or somewhat likely to move their child to a different provider if their doctor sees families who refuse all childhood vaccines, according to a new national poll.
Case studies suggest that 'red flag' laws play a role in preventing mass shootings
Case studies of individuals threatening mass violence suggest that extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs), colloquially known as 'red flag' orders, may play a role in preventing mass shootings.
Study identifies possible genetic link between children's language and mental health
University of York-led study has examined genetic variants in six genes that are thought to contribute to language development in children.
Circulation of water in deep Earth's interior
Phase H is a hydrous mineral that is considered to be an important carrier of water into deep Earth.
Climate change to shrink economies of rich, poor, hot and cold countries alike unless Paris Agreement holds
Detrimental economic effects of global warming are likely to go beyond those being discussed in policy circles -- particularly for wealthier nations, say researchers.
National livestock movement bans may prove economically damaging
New research from the University of Warwick has pioneered an economic perspective on controlling livestock diseases.
The substance found in brown coal can help combat viruses
Scientists from Russia demonstrated a novel approach leveraging the combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemoinformatics to identify biologically active molecular components of humic substances extracted from coal, and discovered substances with antiviral activity against the tick-borne encephalitis virus.
10 million new cases of vitamin D deficiency will be prevented by adding vitamin D to wheat flour
Adding vitamin D to wheat flour would prevent 10 million new cases of vitamin D deficiency in England and Wales over the next 90 years, say researchers at the University of Birmingham.
Single event or epidemic?
A team of scientists led by the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research has carried out an analysis of long-term data of an outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boars in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern that occurred between 1993 and 2000.
Facial recognition technique could improve hail forecasts
The same artificial intelligence technique typically used in facial recognition systems could help improve prediction of hailstorms and their severity, according to a new study from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
Burning invasive western juniper maintains sagebrush dominance longer
Burning invasive western juniper increases the time -- post-fire -- that native mountain sagebrush will remain the dominant woody vegetation in the plant community by at least 44% compared to cutting juniper back, according to a new study in Ecology and Evolution by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and their collaborators.
Chinese Americans face increased risk of elder abuse, Rutgers studies find
More must be done to prevent elder abuse in the Chinese American community, according to four new Rutgers studies published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Engaging educational videos elicit similar brain activity in students
The most engaging educational videos are correlated with similar brain activity across learners, according to research in young adults recently published in eNeuro.
Regulating blood supply to limbs improves stroke recovery
Cutting off and then restoring blood supply to a limb following a stroke reduces tissue damage and swelling and improves functional recovery, according to a new study in mice published in JNeurosci.
Stanford researchers enhance neuron recovery in rats after blood flow stalls
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine report in a new study that they found a way to help rats recover neurons in the brain's center of learning and memory.
A map of the brain can tell what you're reading
UC Berkeley neuroscientists have created interactive maps that can predict where different categories of words activate the brain.
How ergonomic is your warehouse job? Soon, an app might be able to tell you
Researchers at the UW have used machine learning to develop a new system that can monitor factory and warehouse workers and tell them how ergonomic their jobs are in real time.
BTI researchers discover compound that speeds sexual development and decline
Every day, people are exposed to myriad chemicals both natural and synthetic, some of which may affect human physical development.
Malaria expert warns of need for malaria drug to treat severe cases in US
The US each year sees more than 1,500 cases of malaria, and currently there is limited access to an intravenously administered (IV) drug needed for the more serious cases.
Scarcity of scientific studies on interventions to reduce health inequities in LGBTQ youth
There is a dearth of scientifically investigated, evidence-based interventions to address substance use, mental health problems and violence victimization in sexual and gender minority youth, according to a research review.
NIH study in mice identifies type of brain cell involved in stuttering
Researchers believe that stuttering -- a potentially lifelong and debilitating speech disorder -- stems from problems with the circuits in the brain that control speech, but precisely how and where these problems occur is unknown.
Single protein plays important dual transport roles in the brain
Edwin Chapman of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Wisconsin-Madison reports that halting production of synaptotagmin 17 (syt-17) blocks growth of axons.

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