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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 20, 2019


Selfie versus posie
If you lose sleep over the number of likes on your Instagram account, new WSU research suggests you might want to think twice before posting that selfie.
Physicists use light flashes to discover, control new quantum states of matter
Jigang Wang and the members of his research group are developing new tools and techniques to access new states of matter hidden within superconducting and other complex materials.
Kidney transplants covered by Medicaid increased in states after Medicaid expansion
Medicaid expansion has helped more young, low-income adults with advanced kidney disease to avoid the costs and poor quality-of-life associated with dialysis, reports a study from researchers at Drexel University College of Medicine and the Dornsife School of Public Health at Drexel.
Novel combination of drugs may overcome drug-resistant cancer cells
A new study led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital suggests that a combination of three drugs, including a new class of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, could overcome cross-therapy resistance.
Wave climate projections predict risks to Aussie coastlines
A team of researchers led by Griffith University has mapped out how much waves are likely to change around the globe under climate change and found that if we can limit warming to 2 degrees, signals of wave climate change are likely to stay within the range of natural climate variability.
Laser printing technology: Creating the perfect bioprinter
Scientists from Russia, China, and the US have drawn the attention of the scientific community to one of the newest and most promising areas in bioprinting -- laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT).
Vehicle exhaust pollutants linked to near doubling in risk of common eye condition
Long term exposure to pollutants from vehicle exhaust is linked to a heightened risk of the common eye condition age-related macular degeneration, or AMD for short, suggests research published online in the Journal of Investigative Medicine.
Amazon rainforest absorbing less carbon than expected
An international team of scientists, including climate scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, found that accounting for phosphorus-deficient soils reduced projected carbon dioxide uptake by an average of 50% in the Amazon, compared to current estimates based on previous climate models that did not take into account phosphorus deficiency.
Enabling longer space missions
The Hall thruster is a propulsion system that is often used by spacecraft enaged in longer missions.
Ammonia for fuel cells
Researchers at the University of Delaware have identified ammonia as a source for engineering fuel cells that can provide a cheap and powerful source for fueling cars, trucks and buses with a reduced carbon footprint.
Engineers make transistors and electronic devices entirely from thread
A team of Tufts University engineers has developed a transistor made from linen thread, enabling them to create electronic devices made entirely of thin threads that could be woven into fabric, worn on the skin, or even (theoretically) implanted surgically for diagnostic monitoring.
New protein spin labelling technique
University of Konstanz researchers develop a new site-directed spin labelling approach based on genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids amenable to Diels-Alder chemistry as well as a new spin label, PaNDA.
OHIO receives $1.7 million grant to study potential treatment for skin cancer
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has awarded Ohio University scientists Shiyong Wu and Lingying Tong a five-year $1.7 million grant to advance research on a potential prevention and treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers.
A new path to cancer therapy: developing simultaneous multiplexed gene editing technology
Dr. Mihue Jang's group at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) announced that they have developed a new gene editing system that could be used for anticancer immunotherapy through the simultaneous suppression of proteins that interfere with the immune system expressed on the surface of lymphoma cells and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte, based on the results of joint research conducted with Prof.
Doctors tell parents too late that their child is near death, survey suggests
Doctors tell parents too late that their child is near death, suggest the results of a small survey, published online in the journal BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.
Stardust in the Antarctic snow
The rare isotope iron-60 is created in massive stellar explosions.
Rise of dinosaurs linked to increasing oxygen levels
Scientists have found that increasing oxygen levels are linked to the rise of North American dinosaurs around 215 million years ago.
Alzheimer's drug reverses brain damage from adolescent alcohol exposure in rats
A drug used to slow cognitive decline in adults with Alzheimer's disease appears to reverse brain inflammation and neuron damage in rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence.
Cancer survivors likely to face increase in long-term risk of cardiovascular disease
Survivors from a wide range of cancers could experience increased risks of heart disease and blood circulation problems compared to those who have never had cancer, according to new estimates published in the Lancet.
Origin of massive methane reservoir identified
New research provides evidence of the formation and abundance of abiotic methane -- methane formed by chemical reactions that don't involve organic matter -- on Earth and shows how the gases could have a similar origin on other planets and moons, even those no longer home to liquid water.
The journey of the pollen
When insects carry the pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them, the pollen must attach to and detach from different surfaces.
Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases
Together with their Munich-based colleagues, a team of physical chemists from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has clarified which chemical reactions take place during PUVA therapy.
Vaping impairs vascular function
Inhaling a vaporized liquid solution through an e-cigarette, otherwise known as vaping, immediately impacts vascular function even when the solution does not include nicotine, according to the results of a new study.
Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies
An international team led by NTU Singapore has grown 'miniature kidneys' in the laboratory that could be used to better understand how kidney diseases develop in individual patients.
Shasta dam releases can be managed to benefit both salmon and sturgeon, study finds
Cold water released from Lake Shasta into the Sacramento River to benefit endangered salmon can be detrimental to young green sturgeon, a threatened species adapted to warmer water.
More children suffer head injuries playing recreational sport than team sport
An Australian/ New Zealand study examining childhood head injuries has found that children who do recreational sports like horse riding, skate boarding and bike riding are more likely to suffer serious head injuries than children who play contact sport like AFL or rugby.
Brain takes a beating as arteries age
Researchers in Umeå, Sweden, have presented a model that explains why memory deteriorates as the body ages.
Moffitt Researchers complete largest genomic analysis of Merkel cell carcinoma patients
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have developed the largest descriptive genomic analysis of MCC patients to date, in collaboration with Foundation Medicine and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.
How to improve multiple sclerosis therapy
Medications currently used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) can merely reduce relapses during the initial relapsing-remitting phase.
Simple computational models can help predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis
Researchers from the University of Eastern Finland, in collaboration with the University of California in San Francisco, Cleveland Clinic, the University of Queensland, the University of Oulu and Kuopio University Hospital, have developed a method to predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis in patients with ligament ruptures using a simplified computational model.
Examining the link between caste and under-five mortality in India
In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes.
New rapid DNA test to diagnose chlamydia infection in koalas
A new DNA test to detect chlamydia infection in koalas which gives on-the-spot results within 30 minutes has been developed in a collaboration between researchers in Brisbane, Australia.
Machine learning models help clinicians identify people who need advanced depression care
Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University researchers have created decision models capable of predicting which patients might need more treatment for their depression than what their primary care provider can offer.
Antibiotic use linked to heightened bowel cancer risk
Antibiotic use (pills/capsules) is linked to a heightened risk of bowel (colon) cancer, but a lower risk of rectal cancer, and depends, to some extent, on the type and class of drug prescribed, suggests research published online in the journal Gut.
Shape-shifting sheets
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).
Longline fishing hampering shark migration
Longline fisheries around the world are significantly affecting migrating shark populations, according to an international study featuring a University of Queensland researcher.
Study reveals E. coli's secret weapon in launching infections
Most types of Escherichia coli are harmless, but the ones that aren't can cause severe life-threatening diarrhea.
Lung cell transplant boosts healing after the flu in mice
A serious case of the flu can cause lasting damage to the lungs.
Risk of psychotic disorders has disease-specific brain effects
Brain abnormalities in people at familial risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder emerge in unique patterns, despite the symptom and genetic overlap of the disorders, according to a study in Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier.
Scientists unpick the history of Western France, written in 300-million-year-old rainwater
For the first time scientists have been able to reconstruct the chemical composition of rainwater from 300-million-year-old minerals, allowing them to unpick some of the history of Brittany and Western France since the rain fell in the late Carboniferous period, just before the time of the dinosaurs.
Scientists find precise control of terminal division during plant stomatal development
A research group led by Prof. LE Jie at the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found a genetic suppressor of flp stomatal defects.
Low levels of vitamin D in elementary school could spell trouble in adolescence
Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new University of Michigan study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.
New immune system understanding may help doctors target cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center study overturns conventional wisdom to show that immune system natural killer cells recognize cancer DNA displayed by HLA class 2 genes, offering a new way to point the immune system at cancer.
Skeletal shapes key to rapid recognition of objects
In the blink of an eye, the human visual system can process an object, determining whether it's a cup or a sock within milliseconds, and with seemingly little effort.
BRCA1/2 genetic testing recommendations still leave issues unresolved
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force offers new guidelines on BRCA1/2 genetic testing.
New tools to minimize risks in shared, augmented-reality environments
UW security researchers have created ShareAR, a toolkit that lets developers build collaborative and interactive features into AR apps without sacrificing their users' privacy and security.
A new way to 'hoard' resources in nano-sized factories targeted for biotech
The lab of Cheryl Kerfeld at Michigan State University has created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria.
USPSTF recommendation on screening, genetic counseling and testing for BRCA-related cancer
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is broadening its recommendation on screening for potentially harmful mutations of the breast cancer susceptibility BRCA1/2 genes, which are associated with increased risk of certain cancers.
Lifelong study links early blood pressure change to poorer brain health
Changes in blood pressure in those as young as 36 are linked to markers of poorer brain health in later life, finds UCL-led research involving participants of Britain's oldest running birth cohort study.
To make lakes healthy, you first need the right recipe
Pollution of lakes is a worldwide problem. Restoration attempts take a lot of time and effort, and even then they might backfire.
Studying animal cognition in the wild
Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers and their study animals face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest and that many say are 'impossible' to control for.
Depression, cannabis use and binge drinking increase the risk of relapse among former smokers
The prevalence of depression, cannabis use, and alcohol abuse increased among former smokers from 2005 to 2016 in the U.S., according to a new study by researchers at Columbia Mailman School of Public Health.
Painting a bigger biosociological picture of chronic pain
An integrated approach that unifies psychosocial factors with neurobiology sheds light on chronic pain traits and their underlying brain networks, according to a study published Aug.
Free rides could lead to better health outcomes for seniors
Older adults are enthusiastic adopters of ridesharing technology. Access to on-demand ride sharing improves their access to health care and improves their overall quality of life.
Discharge incentives in emergency rooms could lead to higher patient readmission rates
In an effort to address emergency department overcrowding, pay-for-performance (P4P) incentive programs have been implemented in various regions around the world, including hospitals in Metro Vancouver.
Studying organ crosstalk leads to a deeper understanding of sepsis
Sepsis, a complex systemic response to infection leading to organ failure, is generally studied at the level of individual organs; this research has hinted at altered metabolic changes.
Is pollution linked to psychiatric disorders?
Researchers are increasingly studying the effects of environmental insults on psychiatric and neurological conditions, motivated by emerging evidence from environmental events like the record-breaking smog that choked New Delhi two years ago.
Some pregnant women are exposed to gadolinium in early pregnancy
A small but concerning number of women are exposed to a commonly used MRI contrast agent early in their pregnancy, likely before many of them are aware that they're pregnant, according to a new study.
Decades-old puzzle of the ecology of soil animals solved
An international research team led by the University of Goettingen has deciphered the defence mechanism of filamentous fungi.
Multi-tasking protein at the root of neuropathic pain
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from nerve injury and is characterized by increased pain sensitivity.
Antibiotics report highlights stewardship, workforce, research needs
A CDC report on antibiotics use in health care US healthcare settings show progress made in promoting appropriate use of infection-fighting drugs, but strengthened and continued efforts needed.
A lack of self control during adolescence is not uniquely human
Impulsiveness in adolescence isn't just a phase, it's biology. And despite all the social factors that define our teen years, the human brain and the brains of other primates go through very similar changes, particularly in the areas that affect self-control.
Study supports link between pollution and neuropsychiatric disorders
Based on analysis of large population data sets from both the United States and Denmark, a new study found poor air quality associated with increased rates of bipolar disorder and major depression in both countries.
Study reveals profound patterns in globally important algae
A globally important ocean algae is mysteriously scarce in one of the most productive regions of the Atlantic Ocean, according to a new paper.
Folded paper creates portable lab for field laboratory tests
Monitoring and tracking biological threats or epidemics require the ability to carry out tests in the field during austere situations.
Embryology: a sequence of reflexive contractions triggers the formation of the limbs
It normally takes about 21 days for chicken embryos to develop into chicks.
British food crowned the healthiest in major global survey
It turns out that British food isn't that terrible, after all.
Applying machine learning in intelligent weather consultation
Machine learning is an important future research direction to incorporate weather forecast data and coupled models into a hybrid computing framework to explore and study the structure and features of observational and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) data.
Treatment for sexual and domestic violence offenders does work
A first-of-its-kind meta-study has found that specialised psychological programmes for sexual and domestic violence offenders have led to major reductions in reoffending but best results are achieved with consistent input from a qualified psychologist.
Nicotine-free e-cigarettes can damage blood vessels
A Penn study reveals single instance of vaping immediately leads to reduced vascular function.
All-in-one: New microbe degrades oil to gas
The tiny organisms cling to oil droplets and perform a great feat: As a single organism, they may produce methane from oil by a process called alkane disproportionation.
Quitting smoking associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease
Heavy cigarette smokers with at least a 20 pack-year smoking history can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 39% within five years if they quit, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
Climate is changing faster than animal adaptation
An international team of scientists reviewed more than 10,000 published climate change studies and has reached a sobering conclusion.
BU finds alternative to 'revolving door' of opioid detox and relapse
In a first-ever randomized trial, patients at a short-term inpatient program began long-term outpatient treatment with buprenorphine before discharge, with better outcomes than detox patients.
Depression, cannabis use, and binge drinking are on the rise among US former smokers
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, found that the prevalence of depression, cannabis use, and alcohol abuse increased among former smokers from 2005 to 2016 in the United States.
Biomolecular analyses of Roopkund skeletons show Mediterranean migrants in Indian Himalaya
A large-scale study conducted by an international team of scientists has revealed that the mysterious skeletons of Roopkund Lake -- once thought to have died during a single catastrophic event - belong to genetically highly distinct groups that died in multiple periods in at least two episodes separated by one thousand years.
City parks lift mood as much as Christmas, Twitter study shows
New research shows that visitors to urban parks use happier words and express less negativity on Twitter than before their visit -- and that their elevated mood lasts for up to four hours.
New rechargeable CCNY aqueous battery challenges Lithium-ion dominance
A new rechargeable high voltage manganese dioxide zinc battery, exceeding the 2 V barrier in aqueous zinc chemistry, is the latest invention by City College of New York researchers.
Plants could remove six years of carbon dioxide emissions -- if we protect them
By analysing 138 experiments, researchers have mapped the potential of today's plants and trees to store extra carbon by the end of the century.
What's at the 'heart' of a heartbeat?
A new finding has changed the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation.
New hydrogels show promise in treating bone defects
Bioengineers and dentists from the UCLA School of Dentistry have developed a new hydrogel that is more porous and effective in promoting tissue repair and regeneration.
Connected forest networks on oil palm plantations key to protecting endangered species
Set-aside patches of high-quality forest on palm oil plantations may help protect species like orangutans, as well as various species of insects, birds and bats -- many of which are threatened with extinction in areas of Indonesia and Malaysia, where 85% of the world's palm oil is produced.
New research explores the use of New Psychoactive Substances by young people
A research study into New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) -- formerly referred to as 'legal highs' -- provides new evidence about why young people were attracted to the drugs, and the health and social risks associated with taking them.
BAFfling cancer growth strategies
More than one-fifth of all human cancers harbor mutations in one of the members of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex.
The Lancet Neurology: High blood pressure and rising blood pressure between ages 36-53 are associated with smaller brain volume and white matter lesions in later years
A study of the world's oldest, continuously-studied birth cohort tracked blood pressure from early adulthood through to late life and explored its influence on brain pathologies detected using brain scanning in their early 70s.
Study finds toolkit could improve detection and management of iron deficiency in pregnancy
Iron deficiency in pregnancy is a common problem that often goes unrecognized and untreated due to a lack of knowledge of its implications and competing clinical priorities.
Lifestyle counselling and mobile application helped people change their lifestyle habits
'The wife urged me to come' -- Finnish StopDia study yielded promising preliminary results in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
A Stone Age boat building site has been discovered underwater
The Maritime Archaeological Trust has discovered a new 8,000 year old structure 11 metres below sea level on the Isle of Wight.
OHIO professor Hla develops robust molecular propeller for unidirectional rotations
A team of scientists from Ohio University, Argonne National Laboratory, Universitié de Toulouse in France and Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan led by OHIO Professor of Physics Saw-Wai Hla and Prof.
Spending on illicit drugs in US nears $150 billion annually
Spending on cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine fluctuated between $120 billion and $145 billion each year from 2006 to 2016, rivaling what Americans spend each year on alcohol, according to a new study.
Green space is good for your mental health -- the nearer the better!
Living within 300m of urban green space such as parks, nature reserves or play areas is associated with greater happiness, sense of worth, and life satisfaction -- according to a new study by researchers at the University of Warwick, Newcastle University and the University of Sheffield.
The mechanism that controls Chinese cabbage flowering
A research team led by Namiko Nishida from Kobe University have succeeded in comprehensively identifying the long noncoding ribonucleic acids (IncRNAs) that are expressed when Chinese cabbage is temporarily exposed to cold temperatures for four weeks.
Smart sink could help save water
An experiment with a water-saving 'smart' faucet shows potential for reducing water use.
African elephants demonstrate movements that vary in response to ecological change
Wild African elephants show markedly different movements and reactions to the same risks and resources, according to a new study from Colorado State University and Save the Elephants.
How many years after quitting heavy smoking until risk of cardiovascular disease similar to not having ever smoked?
An analysis of Framingham Heart Study data examined the association of the time between quitting smoking and new cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Queen bees face increased chance of execution if they mate with two males rather than one
Queen stingless bees face an increased risk of being executed by worker bees if they mate with two males rather than one, according to new research by the University of Sussex and the University of São Paulo.
Do hospital ads work?
Should hospital advertising be banned? A few policymakers in Washington, D.C., have recently considered such an action based on a long-standing debate on whether it poses the spread of misinformation, and that it is not an effective or responsible use of an already limited healthcare budget.
A single change at telomeres controls the ability of cells to generate a complete organism
Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants.
TGen and Ohio State collaborate on landmark precision medicine canine cancer study
Like many women who develop a particular type of breast cancer, the same gene -- HER2 -- also appears to be the cause of lung cancer in many dogs.
Helping skin cells differentiate could be key to treating common skin cancer
A new study from Penn researchers has identified the key regulator that controls how the skin replaces itself and which can determine if cells turn into cancer.
Centuries-old Japanese family firms make history relevant to today's business world
A study by researchers from Lancaster University, Politecnico di Milano, UCL and Aaalto University reveals that in many Japanese firms family mottos remain relevant for decades, or even centuries.
Poo transplants to help save koalas
Poo transplants are helping expand koala microbiomes, allowing the marsupials to eat a wider range of eucalypts and possibly survive habitat loss.
World's thinnest, lightest signal amplifier enables bioinstrumentation with reduced noise
A research group led by Professor Tsuyoshi Sekitani and Associate Professor Takafumi Uemura of The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, succeeded in developing the world's thinnest and lightest differential amplifier for bioinstrumentation.
The meat allergy: Researcher IDs biological changes triggered by tick bites
Researchers have identified key immunological changes in people who abruptly develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat, such as beef.
A battery-free sensor for underwater exploration
MIT researchers have developed a battery-free underwater communication system that uses near-zero power to transmit sensor data.

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