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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 23, 2019


Laser-produced uranium plasma evolves into more complex species
When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion.
New study: Migrating mule deer don't need directions
Mule deer navigate in spring and fall mostly by using their knowledge of past migration routes and seasonal ranges.
Can't get thinner than this: synthesis of atomically flat boron sheets
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) find a simple method for producing atomically thin layers of oxidized borophene, a promising 2D boron-based nanomaterial that could serve in a variety of fields.
New approaches to heal injured nerves
Injuries to nerve fibers in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves usually result in functional losses as the nerve fibers are unable to regenerate.
Pollution and winter linked with rise in heart attack treatment
Heavily polluted areas have a higher rate of angioplasty procedures to treat blocked arteries than areas with clean air, according to research to be presented at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Brain's astrocytes play starring role in long-term memory
Salk researchers discover that star-shaped cells called astrocytes help the brain establish long-lasting memories.
Junk food intake in children reduced by health education that addresses emotional issues
Teacher training followed by classroom education with information, activities, and emotional support improves lifestyles in teachers and students, according to research to be presented at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Salt marshes' capacity to sink carbon may be threatened by nitrogen pollution
Salt marshes sequester carbon at rates an order of magnitude higher than land ecosystems.
Tech time not to blame for teens' mental health problems
A new study, published in the journal Clinical Psychological Science, suggests that the time adolescents are spending on their phones and online is not that bad.
Study suggests weight loss regardless of psychiatric medication use
A new Canadian study suggests that individuals who take anti-depressants and/or anti-psychotics and participate in a weight management program can lose weight whether or not they take psychiatric medications, according to a report published online today in Obesity, the flagship journal of The Obesity Society.
Caregivers of people with dementia are losing sleep
Caregivers of people with dementia lose between 2.5 to 3.5 hours of sleep weekly due to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep -- a negative for themselves and potentially for those in their care, according to Baylor University research published in JAMA Network Open.
Save time using maths: Analytical tool designs corkscrew-shaped nano-antennae
For the first time, an HZB team has derived analytically how corkscrew-shaped nano-antennas interact with light.
Evolution designed by parasites
In 'Invisible Designers: Brain Evolution Through the Lens of Parasite Manipulation,' published in the September 2019 issue of The Quarterly Review of Biology, Marco Del Giudice explores an overlooked aspect of the relationship between parasites and their hosts by systematically discussing the ways in which parasitic behavior manipulation may encourage the evolution of mechanisms in the host's nervous and endocrine systems.
The fat of the land: Estimating the ecological costs of overeating
Researchers have proposed a way to measure the ecological impact of global food wastage due to excessive consumption.
Heart attack patients with mild cognitive impairment get fewer treatments
University of Michigan research finds people with mild cognitive impairment don't always receive the same, established medical treatment that patients with normal cognitive functioning get when they have a heart attack.
Can researchers engage safely with the food industry?
Researchers from The University of Queensland and University of Cambridge are exploring ways to help scientists better protect their work from the influence of the food industry.
Who you see matters: Stroke patients benefit more from observing their own hand movements during therapy
Japanese scientists at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have found that for stroke patients, observing their own hand movements in a video-assisted therapy -- as opposed to someone else's hand -- could enhance brain activity and speed up rehabilitation.
Biophysicists discovered how 'Australian' mutation leads to Alzheimer's disease
A team of scientists from MIPT and IBCh RAS studied one hereditary genetic mutation to discover general molecular mechanisms that may lead both to early onset of Alzheimer's disease and to the form of the disease caused by age-related changes in human body.
A new method for quantifying crystal semiconductor efficiency
Japanese scientists have found a new way to successfully detect the efficiency of crystal semiconductors.
Your heart's best friend: Dog ownership associated with better cardiovascular health
Owning a pet may help maintain a healthy heart, especially if that pet is a dog, according to the first analysis of data from the Kardiozive Brno 2030 study.
Researcher works to understand how gonorrhea develops resistance to antibiotics
As public health officials worry about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea, an MUSC researcher is tracing how antibiotics bind to a gonococcal protein, information that can help lead to new antimicrobials.
Breath! Respiring microbes generate more energy
Now, researchers have shown that it is possible to evoke a shift in the metabolism from fermentation to respiration of E. coli and baker's yeast by optimizing fermentation conditions.
Researchers use machine learning to teach robots how to trek through unknown terrains
A team of Australian researchers has designed a reliable strategy for testing physical abilities of humanoid robots.
Novel paradigm in drug development
Targeted protein degradation (TPD) is a new paradigm in drug discovery that could lead to the development of new medicines to treat diseases such as cancer more effectively.
Chemistry in motion
For the first time, researchers have managed to view previously inaccessible details of certain chemical processes.
Suicide and self-harm risk nearly triple in people with restless leg syndrome
Restless legs syndrome was associated with a nearly tripled risk of suicide and self-harm in a new study led by Penn State researchers.
Researchers advance organ-on-chip technology to advance drug development
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore have developed an organ-on-an-electronic-chip platform, which uses bioelectrical sensors to measure the electrophysiology of the heart cells in three dimensions.
Do single people suffer more?
Researchers at the University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT, Hall, Austria) and the University of the Balearic Islands (Palma de Mallorca, Spain) have confirmed the analgesic effects of social support - even without verbal or physical contact.
How memories form and fade
Caltech researchers identify the neural processes that make some memories fade rapidly while other memories persist over time.
Osteoarthritis: A chip 'mimics' the disease to devise effective drugs
A sophisticated chip the size of a coin in which cartilage can be cultivated and which can later be subjected to mechanical stress such that it generates the effects of Osteoarthrosis (OA).
UCalgary researchers find a way to stop lung damage due to the body's immune response
University of Calgary researchers at the Cumming School of Medicine (CSM) led by Dr.
Children of incarcerated parents have more substance abuse, anxiety
Children of incarcerated parents are six times more likely to develop a substance use disorder in adulthood and nearly twice as likely to have diagnosable anxiety compared to children whose parents were not incarcerated, according to new research from the Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University.
Successful egg harvest breaks new ground in saving the northern white rhinoceros
There are only two northern white rhinos left worldwide, both of them female.
Exciting new vaccine targets killer disease TB
Australian medical researchers from the Centenary Institute and the University of Sydney have successfully developed and tested a new type of vaccine targeting tuberculosis (TB), the world's top infectious disease killer.
Bioprinting complex living tissue in just a few seconds
Researchers from EPFL and the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands have developed an extremely fast optical method for sculpting complex shapes in stem-cell-laden hydrogels and then vascularizing the resulting tissue.
A novel technology for genome-editing a broad range of mutations in live organisms
Salk Institute researchers have developed a new tool -- dubbed SATI -- to edit the mouse genome, enabling the team to target a broad range of mutations and cell types.
The technology behind Bitcoin may improve the medications of the future
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have developed a prototype of an app that may potentially prescribe the optimal dose of medicine for the individual patient, as well as prevent counterfeit products.
Study models new method to accelerate nanoparticles
In a new study, researchers at the University of Illinois and the Missouri University of Science and Technology modeled a method to manipulate nanoparticles as an alternative mode of propulsion for tiny spacecraft that require very small levels of thrust.
Addressing causes of mortality in Zambia
Despite the fact that people in sub-Saharan Africa are now living longer than they did two decades ago, their average life expectancy remains below that of the rest of the world population.
Scientists use a new method to track pollution from cooking
Scientists find that black carbon is a good tracer to separate cooking organic aerosol from traffic-related organic aerosol.
Elite athletes have poor oral health despite brushing twice daily
Elite athletes have high rates of oral disease despite brushing their teeth more frequently than most people, finds a new UCL study published in the British Dental Journal.
Scientists have found longevity biomarkers
An international group of scientists studied the effects of 17 different lifespan-extending interventions on gene activity in mice and discovered genetic biomarkers of longevity.
Detraction-free light-matter interaction
Certain semiconductor structures, so-called quantum dots, might constitute the foundation of quantum communication.
Child death rate linked to hospital preparedness for pediatric emergencies
Critically ill children brought to hospital emergency departments that are ill-prepared to care for pediatric emergencies have more than three times the odds of dying compared to those brought to hospitals well-equipped to care for them.
Study shows frying oil consumption worsened colon cancer and colitis in mice
In their paper published Aug. 23, 2019 in Cancer Prevention Research, University of Massachusetts Amherst food scientists showed that feeding frying oil to mice exaggerated colonic inflammation, enhanced tumor growth and worsened gut leakage, spreading bacteria or toxic bacterial products into the bloodstream.
Think declining mental sharpness 'just comes with age'? Think again, say experts
Declining mental sharpness 'just comes with age,' right? Not so fast, say geriatrics researchers and clinicians gathered at a prestigious 2018 conference hosted by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA).
Big brains or big guts: Choose one
A global study comparing 2,062 birds finds that, in highly variable environments, birds tend to have either larger or smaller brains relative to their body size.
Simple blood test unmasks concussions absent on CT scans
Many patients with concussion have normal CT scans and are discharged from the hospital without follow-up.

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