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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 28, 2019


UCI-led study: Plankton are more resilient to nutrient stress than previously thought
Surface ocean phosphate is a key mineral supporting the growth and diversification of phytoplankton, a marine organism the absorbs significant amounts of carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere.
Southern Ocean circulation patterns that keep the lid on stored carbon are more complex than previously thought
Scientists have found evidence that the horizontal circulation of carbon-rich ocean water in the subpolar Southern Ocean works in tandem with vertical circulation, together controlling how much carbon the region stores in the deep ocean or releases to the atmosphere.
Researchers describe a mechanism inducing self-killing of cancer cells
A KAIST research team has developed helical polypeptide potassium ionophores that lead to the onset of programmed cell death.
Signal blocks stem cell division in the geriatric brain
Scientists from Basel have investigated the activity of stem cells in the brain of mice and discovered a key mechanism that controls cell proliferation.
Parental burnout can lead to harmful outcomes for parent and child
When the daily stress of parenting becomes chronic it can turn into parental burnout, an intense exhaustion that leads parents to feel detached from their children and unsure of their parenting abilities, according to research published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Nuclear winter would threaten nearly everyone on Earth
If the United States and Russia waged an all-out nuclear war, much of the land in the Northern Hemisphere would be below freezing in the summertime, with the growing season slashed by nearly 90 percent in some areas, according to a Rutgers-led study.
HIV-positive New Yorkers are living longer but still dying from underlying infection, not just from old age
A review of the autopsy reports of 252 men and women who died of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in New York City between 1984 and 2016 reveals several long-term trends in combatting the epidemic.
Science wages a battle against the swine sector's costliest virus
A research team at the University of Córdoba has compared the behavior of two different strains of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, to expedite the production of an effective vaccine in the future.
Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association August 2019 issue
The August 2019 issue of the journal also features research about housing loss and cognitive decline, napping as an early marker of cognitive impairment and a special article on 'super-agers'.
Stretchable wireless sensor could monitor healing of cerebral aneurysms
A wireless sensor small enough to be implanted in the blood vessels of the human brain could help clinicians evaluate the healing of aneurysms -- bulges that can cause death or serious injury if they burst.
Clickbait secrets exposed! Humans and AI team up to improve clickbait detection
Humans and machines worked together to help train an artificial intelligence -- AI -- model that outperformed other clickbait detectors, according to researchers at Penn State and Arizona State University.
Clostridium difficile infections may have a friend in fungi
The pathogen Clostridium difficile, which causes one of the most common hospital-acquired infections in the United States, may have accomplices that until now have gone largely unnoticed.
Depression linked to costly chronic medical conditions and disability among aging minorities
More than 50% of older Chinese American immigrants experience depressive symptoms linked to increased disabilities and chronic health conditions, according to two new Rutgers studies.
Teen birth control use linked to depression risk in adulthood
Women who used oral contraceptives during adolescence are more likely to develop depression as adults, suggests new research from the University of British Columbia.
More than a billion fewer cigarettes smoked each year as people ditch the cigs
Around 1.4 billion fewer cigarettes are being smoked every year according to new research funded by Cancer Research UK, published today in JAMA Network Open.
High-tech gel aids delivery of drugs
High tech gel aids in the delivery of drugs.
How your brain remembers motor sequences
Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan, and Western University, Canada, have succeeded in visualizing how information is represented in a widespread area in the human cerebral cortex during a performance of skilled finger movement sequences.
New insights into genetic basis of bird migration
A gene newly associated with the migratory patterns of golden-winged and blue-winged warblers could lend insight into the longstanding question of how birds migrate across such long distances.
Kids wore video cameras in their preschool class, for science
They may all be in the same classroom together, but each child in preschool may have a very different experience, a new study suggests.
KAIST vaccine for tick-borne disease 'SFTS' protects against lethal infection
A KAIST research team reported the development of a DNA vaccine for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus (SFTSV) which completely protects against lethal infection in ferrets.
Canadian astronomers determine Earth's fingerprint
Two McGill University astronomers have assembled a 'fingerprint' for Earth, which could be used to identify a planet beyond our Solar System capable of supporting life.
New optical array, multisite stimulator advances optogenetics
In an article published in the peer-reviewed, open-access SPIE publication Neurophotonics, 'A multi-site microLED optrode array for neural interfacing,' researchers present an implantable optrode array capable of exciting below-surface neurons in large mammal brains at two levels, both by structured-light delivery and large-volume illumination.
A new drug could revolutionize the treatment of neurological disorders
The international team of scientists from Gero Discovery LLC, the Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca, and Nanosyn, Inc. has found a potential drug that may prevent neuronal death through glucose metabolism modification in stressed neurons.
Fresh water found in the Norwegian Sea
The discovery was made at 800 meters below the surface in two small canyons on the continental slope outside Lofoten archipelago.
Unusual mucous-like substance found buried within seafloor sediment
The location and microbial composition of recently found biofilms are challenging beliefs about methane diffusion.
High-end microscopy reveals structure and function of crucial metabolic enzyme
The enzyme transhydrogenase plays a central role in regulating metabolic processes in animals and humans alike.
New DNA sequencer method achieves early-stage and broad-range detection of wheat diseases
As wheat is one of the world's most important crops, a group of Australia-based scientists wanted to develop a new method for analyzing pathogen DNA in wheat leaf samples.
AAN issues guideline on vaccines and multiple sclerosis
Can a person with multiple sclerosis (MS) get regular vaccines?
Cancer cells 'corrupt' their healthy neighbors
The healthy cells immediately surrounding a tumor become more stem cell-like and support cancer growth, reveals a new study published in Nature.
NASA finds heavy rain potential in tropical storm Dorian
NASA's Aqua satellite provided forecasters at the National Hurricane Center with visible imagery and infrared data on Tropical Storm Dorian as it continued its western track into the Eastern Caribbean Sea.
Gout 'more than doubles' risk of kidney failure, according to UL led research study
Patients with gout are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure, according to new University of Limerick (UL), Ireland led research.
AI learns to model our Universe
An international team has used AI to create a 3D simulation of the Universe.
Busy older stars outpace stellar youngsters, new study shows
The oldest stars in our Galaxy are also the busiest, moving more rapidly than their younger counterparts in and out of the disk of the Milky Way, according to new analysis carried out at the University of Birmingham.
Singapore researchers reveal a common deficiency in genetic prediction methods
A study conducted by researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore and the School of Biological Sciences at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) revealed a common deficiency in existing artificial intelligence methods used to predict enhancer-promoter interactions, that may result in inflated performance measurements.
Estimate of the national burden of HPV-positive oropharyngeal head and neck cancers
Investigators from the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center (DFBWCC) have conducted the largest study to date on the incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the U.S., finding that 75 percent of oropharynx cancers are related to HPV and the U.S. incidence of HPV-related throat cancer is 4.6 per 100,000 people, peaking in those aged 60-64.
Scientists call for infiltration to be better incorporated into land surface models
Better simulating soil's processes helps better predict climate and land use effects
Youth: Transgender people should use bathroom they're most comfortable in
Young people clash with older adults when it comes to bathroom policies related to gender identity, a University of Michigan study suggests.
Cell biology -- Potential drop signals imminent danger
Misfolded proteins must be promptly eliminated as they can form toxic aggregates in cells.
NASA finds wind shear affecting Tropical Depression Erin
Visible and infrared imagery from NASA's Terra satellite revealed that strong wind shear was adversely affecting Tropical Depression Erin, located about 200 miles off the Carolina coast.
Changing climate linked to major changes in flooding across Europe
The impact of a changing climate on the severity of flooding has been demonstrated in the largest-scale study of its kind.
Research sheds new light on Antarctic control of global climate
Scientists have made a new discovery that challenges previous understanding of the relationship between the polar Southern Ocean, next to Antarctica, and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
Microbiota in home indoor air may protect children from asthma
Large amounts of a certain type of bacteria, most likely from outdoors, may reduce the child's risk of developing asthma.
Behavioral therapy, physical strengthening may prevent disability in minority elders
New disability prevention intervention indicates that improving coping skills and physical strengthening can improve functioning and mood in racial and ethnic minority and immigrant older adults.
Some vaccine doubters may be swayed by proximity to disease outbreak, study finds
An individual's trust in institutions such as the CDC, and how close they live to a recent measles outbreak, may affect their attitudes on measles vaccination, according to a study published Aug.
Could marriage stave off dementia?
Dementia and marital status could be linked, according to a new Michigan State University study that found married people are less likely to experience dementia as they age.
High-protein bedtime snacks no problem for active women
In a study of women weight lifters, nutrition scientists at FSU showed that protein consumption before bed compared to protein consumption during the day does not disturb overnight belly fat metabolism or whole-body fat burn.
Molecular big data, a new weapon for medicine
Being able to visualize the transmission of a virus in real-time during an outbreak, or to better adapt cancer treatment on the basis of the mutations present in a tumor's individual cells are only two examples of what molecular Big Data can bring to medicine and health globally.
Hydrophobic silica colloid electrolyte holds promise for safer Li-O2 batteries
A research team led by ZHANG Xinbo from the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences developed an electrolyte regulation strategy by in situ coupling of CF3SO3- on hydrophobic silica colloidal particles via electrostatic interactions in order to prevent lithium dendrite growth and corrosion.
Nanoparticles 'click' immune cells to make a deeper penetration into tumors
IBS scientists reported a novel targeting strategy that allows deep tumor penetration of drug-loaded nanoparticles.
First report of superconductivity in a nickel oxide material
Scientists at SLAC and Stanford have made the first nickel oxide material that shows clear signs of superconductivity - the ability to transmit electrical current with no loss.
A PoEM on breast cancer metastasis
When breast cancer cells spread through the body, they do so mainly through the lymph system that normally removes excess fluid and waste products from our tissues.
Break in temporal symmetry produces molecules that can encode information
Theoretical findings in a study performed by researchers with FAPESP's support and published in Scientific Reports could be exploited in the development of quantum computing.
Healthy foods more important than type of diet to reduce heart disease risk
In a study published in the International Journal of Cardiology, researchers at BIDMC examined the effects of three healthy diets emphasizing different macronutrients -- carbohydrates, proteins, or unsaturated fats -- on a biomarker that directly reflects heart injury.
New findings on human speech recognition at TU Dresden
Neuroscientists at TU Dresden were able to prove that speech recognition in humans begins in the sensory pathways from the ear to the cerebral cortex and not, as previously assumed, exclusively in the cerebral cortex itself.
Start-ups must be aware of star employee pitfalls
The presence of both a star inventor and founder within a company has a positive effect on the firm's performance, but when you have both of them together on a team, the outcomes can become diminished.
Ancient die-off greater than the dinosaur extinction
When significant oxygen entered the atmosphere, ancient life multiplied. But after a few hundred million years, Earth's oxygen plummeted, resulting in a die-off likely greater than the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Small changes, big gains: Low-cost techniques dramatically boost learning in STEM classes
Low-cost, active teaching techniques -- particularly group work and worksheets -- substantially improve learning in university science classes, according to a new study involving 3,700 University of British Columbia (UBC) biology students.
A 3.8-million-year-old fossil from Ethiopia reveals the face of Lucy's ancestor
Cleveland Museum of Natural History Curator of Physical Anthropology Dr.
NASA sees Dorian become a hurricane
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean as Dorian reached hurricane status during the afternoon of August 28, 2019.
Exposure to second-hand e-cigarettes increasing among young people
A growing number of middle- and high-school students are being exposed to second-hand aerosols from e-cigarettes by living with or being around individuals who are vaping, according to data from a national survey.
After 10-year search, scientists find second 'short sleep' gene
After a decade of searching, the UC San Francisco scientists who identified the only human gene known to promote 'natural short sleep' -- lifelong, nightly sleep that lasts just four to six hours yet leaves individuals feeling fully rested -- have discovered a second.
Animal ethics and animal behavioral science -- bridging the gap
Animal ethics is an emerging concern across many disciplines. In an article in BioScience, an interdisciplinary group of scholars urges that this issue be taken up actively by animal behavior scientists.
Using artificial intelligence to track birds' dark-of-night migrations
Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Cornell University have unveiled a machine learning system called 'MistNet' to extract bird data from the radar record and to take advantage of the treasure trove of bird migration information in the decades-long radar data archives.
Grassland biodiversity is blowing in the wind
Temperate grasslands are the most endangered but least protected ecosystems on Earth.
Exposing how pancreatic cancer does its dirty work
Pancreatic cancer is a puzzle -- tumors slough off cells into the bloodstream early in the disease, but the tumors themselves have almost no blood vessels in them.
Climate change affects floods in Europe
For a long time, scientists argued whether or not climate change is affecting floods.
New MRI computing technique can spot scar muscles of heart without damaging kidneys
3D MRI computing can measure strain in the heart using image registration method.
Waist size, not body mass index, may be more predictive of coronary artery disease
For years, women have been told that weight gain could lead to heart disease.
Global study reveals most popular marketing metrics
Satisfaction is the most popular metric for marketing decisions around the world, according to a new study from the University of Technology Sydney.
Study finds many psychiatric disorders have heightened impulsivity
The study analyzed data from studies across eight different psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, and others.
Millennials, think you're digitally better than us? Yes, according to science
Legend has it that millennials, specifically the 'Net Generation,' masterfully switch from one technology to the next.
Isotopes in poop show where secretive jaguars hunt
To track secretive jaguars in the forested mountains of Belize, the University of Cincinnati turned to geology and poop.
Planned delivery reduces impact of potentially fatal pregnancy complication, trial finds
In research published today in the Lancet and funded by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), researchers from King's College London have found that early, planned delivery for women with pre-term pre-eclampsia reduces complications and severe hypertension, as well as costs, compared to the current method of care.
Brain stem cells have a good memory
During embryogenesis, dozens of types of neurons with distinct functions come together to form the circuits that drive our thoughts and actions.
MIPT physicists create device for imitating biological memory
Researchers from the MIPT have created a device that acts like a synapse in the living brain, storing information and gradually forgetting it when not accessed for a long time.
Paleontologists discovered diversity of insect pollinators in 99-million-year-old amber
A team of paleontologists from the Borissiak Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) discovered four new species of extinct insects with sucking mouthparts in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.
The role of a single molecule in obesity
A single molecule, derived from cholesterol, lurks inside your bloodstream and will increase your body fat, even if you don't eat a diet filled with red meat and fried food.
Researchers identify a gene linked to needing less sleep
The genetics of circadian rhythms have been well studied in recent years, but much less is known about other types of genes that play a role in sleep.
A face for Lucy's ancestor
Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest-known species of Australopithecus and widely accepted as the progenitor of 'Lucy's' species, Australopithecus afarensis.
Little-used drug combination may extend the lives of lung transplant patients
Median survival after lung transplant is less than six years.
Narrowing risk of preeclampsia to a specific phenotype
In a recent paper in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, MUSC researchers look at preeclampsia when it coincides with type 1 diabetes.
Smarter experiments for faster materials discovery
A team of scientists from the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory designed, created, and successfully tested a new algorithm to make smarter scientific measurement decisions.
Community-based wildlife carcass surveillance is key for early detection of Ebola virus
WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) and NIH (National Institutes of Health) scientists partnered with the Republic of Congo Ministry of Health to develop a low-cost educational outreach program and surveillance system for wildlife mortality that has continued now for over a decade.
Floods are impacted by a changing climate
A large international research project led by the Vienna University of Technology has demonstrated, for the first time on such a scale, that climate change is altering the magnitude of flood events.
Ecopipam reduces stuttering symptoms in proof-of-concept trial
A team led by a psychiatrist at the University of California, Riverside, has tested the orally administered investigational medication ecopipam on adults who stutter in an open-label, uncontrolled clinical trial and found that it reduced their stuttering symptoms from the start of therapy after eight weeks of dosing.
Estimate of cigarette consumption in England
Estimated total cigarette consumption in England fell by almost one-quarter between 2011 and 2018 in a study comparing survey and sales data.
Clues to early social structures may be found in ancient extraordinary graves
Elaborate burial sites can provide insight to the development of socio-political hierarchies in early human communities, according to a study released Aug.
Music-based biofeedback shows promise in improving deadlift technique
A study of 31 recreational weightlifters suggests that a real-time, music-based feedback system helps improve deadlift technique.
What we don't know about prenatal opioid exposure
'Will the baby be OK?' In cases of prenatal opioid exposure, the answer is unclear.
Kaiser Permanente reduces secondary cardiac events through virtual cardiac rehabilitation program
Kaiser Permanente has demonstrated promising results in reducing secondary cardiac events and rehospitalizations by creating a virtual cardiac rehabilitation program that fits seamlessly into patients' lives.
More rain yet less water expected for up to 250 million people along the Nile
An increase in the frequency of hot and dry years could impact the water and food supplies for hundreds of millions of people in the Upper Nile region toward the end of the century.
How blood sugar levels affect risks in type 1 diabetes
A major new study on the association between blood glucose levels and risks of organ impairment in people with type 1 diabetes can make a vital contribution to diabetes care, in the researchers' view.
Probiotic use can lead to major economic and health savings related to flu-like illnesses
General probiotic use in the US could save the health care payer and the economy around $1.4 billion in medical bills and lost productivity due to acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a new study found.
Autism rates increasing fastest among black, Hispanic youth
Autism rates among black and HIspanic children are catching up to and, in many states, exceeding rates among white youth, who have historically had higher prevalence, a new study shows.
New sequencing study provides insight into HIV vaccine protection
Scientists led by the US Military HIV Research Program (MHRP) identified a transcriptional signature in B cells associated with protection from SIV or HIV infection in five independent trials of HIV-1 vaccine candidates.
A dual imaging approach may improve diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer
A new platform that combines two established imaging methods can peer into both the structure and molecular makeup of the prostate in men with prostate cancer.
Climate change, human activity lead to nearshore coral growth decline
New research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill compares the growth rates between nearshore and offshore corals in the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, the world's second-largest reef system.
Europe warming faster than expected due to climate change
Climate change is increasing the number of days of extreme heat and decreasing the number of days of extreme cold in Europe, posing a risk for residents in the coming decades, according to a new study.
Popular pain medication associated with greater risk of hypoglycemia
As the opioid tramadol has grown in popularity so too have documented cases of adverse effects.
Robotic thread is designed to slip through the brain's blood vessels
MIT engineers have developed a magnetically steerable, thread-like robot that can actively glide through narrow, winding pathways, such as the labrynthine vasculature of the brain.
A gentle grip on gelatinous creatures
Jellyfish are about 95% water, which makes them very difficult to study because most of the underwater tools available to marine biologists are clunky, heavy, and often shred jellyfish and other delicate creatures to pieces.
Chance, not ideology, drives political polarization
Michael Macy, Cornell University professor and director of the Social Dynamics Laboratory, published new research examining a phenomena called an 'opinion cascade' -- in which partisans pile onto whatever emerging position they identify with their party.
Giving trauma patients blood pressure stabilizing hormone cuts transfusions by half
Giving trauma patients with severe blood loss the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) cut the volume of blood products required to stabilize them by half, according to results of a new, first-of-its-kind clinical trial from Penn Medicine.

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