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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 30, 2019


Danish-American research presents new ways of developing treatment of chronic inflammation
Researchers from Aarhus University Hospital and Aarhus University in Denmark in collaboration with researchers from Colorado in the United States have found a new way to treat the inflammation involved in chronic diseases such as psoriasis, asthma and HIV.
Number of years in NFL, certain positions portend greater risk for cognitive, mental health problems
Study shows link between longer NFL career and higher risk of cognitive, mental health problems.
Does appointment time influence primary care opioid prescribing?
Physicians at primary care appointments were more likely to prescribe opioids for pain later in the day and as appointments ran more behind schedule, although the absolute difference in the prescribing rate across the day was modest in this analysis of electronic health records.
FEFU scientists developed brand-new rapid strength eco-concrete
Engineers of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with colleagues from Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (KSUAE) have developed a brand-new rapid strength concrete, applying which there is possible to accelerate the tempo of engineering structures manufacturing by three to four times.
It's never too late to start exercising, new study shows
Older people who have never taken part in sustained exercise programs have the same ability to build muscle mass as highly trained master athletes of a similar age, according to new research at the University of Birmingham.
Humans were changing the planet earlier than we knew
Humans had caused significant landcover change on Earth up to 4000 years earlier than previously thought, University of Queensland researchers have found.
Amazon deforestation has a significant impact on the local climate in Brazil
The loss of forest cover in the Amazon has a significant impact on the local climate in Brazil, according to a new study.
Creation of new brain cells plays an underappreciated role in Alzheimer's disease
In a new study published in the Journal of Neuroscience, Sangram Sisodia and his colleagues show how in genetic forms of Alzheimer's, a process called neurogenesis, or the creation of new brain cells, can be disrupted by the brain's own immune cells.
New insights into how diet & medication impact the influence of gut bacteria on our health
Research published in Cell on 29th August by the groups of Filipe Cabreiro from the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences and Imperial College and Christoph Kaleta from Kiel University in Germany has demonstrated that diet can alter the effectiveness of a type-2 diabetes drug via its action on gut bacteria.
Understanding probiotic yeast
Researchers led by Prof. Johan Thevelein (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology) have discovered that Saccharomyces boulardii, a yeast with probiotic properties, produces uniquely excessive amounts of acetic acid, the main component of vinegar.
Scientists discover evidence for past high-level sea rise
An international team of scientists, studying evidence preserved in speleothems in a coastal cave, illustrate that more than three million years ago -- a time in which the Earth was two to three degrees Celsius warmer than the pre-industrial era -- sea level was as much as 16 meters higher than the present day.
Outcomes after donor kidneys declined by transplant centers on patients' behalf
This observational study used United Network for Organ Sharing data to examine how wait-listed kidney transplant candidates fared after deceased donor kidneys were offered but declined by transplant centers on patients' behalf.
Hurricane Dorian marching slowly across Atlantic
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami reports that an Air Force plane is finding Dorian a 'little stronger' as of the 8:00 a.m.
What if we paid countries to protect biodiversity?
Researchers from Sweden, Germany, Brazil and the USA have developed a financial mechanism to support the protection of the world's natural heritage.
Skin cancer risk in athletes: The dangers of ultraviolet radiation
The dangers of ultraviolet radiation exposure, which most often comes from the sun, are well-known.
Scientists uncover key new molecules that could help to tackle tooth loss and regeneration
New research published in the Journal of Dental Research has shed light on the science behind the formation of the periodontal ligament, which helps keep the tooth stable in the jawbone.
Deep snow cover in the Arctic region intensifies heat waves in Eurasia
Variations in the depth of snow cover in the Arctic region from late winter to spring determines the summer temperature pattern in Eurasia, according to Hokkaido University researchers.
NASA satellites on-hand as Dorian becomes a category 3 hurricane
As Hurricane Dorian was upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, NASA's fleet of satellites were gathering data during the day to assist weather forecasters and scientists.
AI uncovers new details about Old Master paintings
Artificial intelligence can be used to analyse high-resolution digital X-ray images of paintings, providing more insight for conservators and those restoring classic works of art.
New radiomics model uses immunohistochemistry to predict thyroid nodules
American Journal of Roentgenology researchers have validated a first-of-its-kind machine learning-based model to evaluate immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with suspected thyroid nodules, achieving 'excellent performance' for individualized noninvasive prediction of the presence of cytokeratin 19, galectin 3, and thyroperoxidase based upon CT images.
Defrosting surfaces in seconds
Researchers have developed a way to remove ice and frost from surfaces extremely efficiently, using less than 1% of the energy and less than 0.01% of the time needed for traditional defrosting methods.
Illinois engineer continues to make waves in water desalination
University of Illinois researcher Kyle Smith continues to build on his highly praised work to develop new methods of deionizing saltwater.
Providing more testing choices does not increase colorectal cancer screening rates
A study showed that choice between screening methods alone does not impact colorectal cancer screening rates, but how options are presented can alter patient decision-making.
Victorian child hearing-loss databank to go global
A unique databank that profiles children with hearing loss will help researchers globally understand why some children adapt and thrive, while others struggle.
Giving people a 'digital identity' could leave them vulnerable to discrimination, experts warn
Global efforts to give millions of people missing key paper documents such as a birth certificates a digital identity could leave them vulnerable to persecution or discrimination, a new study warns.
New ATS Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosing fungal infections
The American Thoracic Society has published an official clinical guideline on laboratory diagnosis of fungal infections in pulmonary and critical care medicine in the Society's Aug.
Researchers determine pollen abundance and diversity in pollinator-dependent crops
A new study provides valuable insights into pollen abundance and diversity available to honeybee colonies employed in five major pollinator-dependent crops in Oregon and California.
Breakthrough enables storage and release of mechanical waves without energy loss
A new discovery by researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center at The Graduate Center, CUNY could allow light and sound waves to be stored intact for an indefinite period of time and then direct it toward a desired location on demand.
Emotion recognition deficits impede community integration after traumatic brain injury
Dr. Helen Genova: 'Our findings suggest that deficits in facial emotion recognition may contribution to the social isolation experienced by so many people with traumatic brain injury.
Many who die waiting for a kidney had multiple offers, new study finds
Most patients who died or were removed from the kidney transplant waitlist before getting a transplant received multiple offers for a donor kidney.
UCI scientist identifies cone snail's strike as one of the quickest in the animal kingdom
With the use of ultra-high-speed videography, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Associate Professor Emanuel Azizi and colleagues from Occidental College Los Angeles have shed light on the hunting mechanism of the cone snail Conus catus.
Memphis study suggests transplanting Hep C-infected kidneys to uninfected donors safe
Transplantation of kidneys from Hepatitis C-infected donors to uninfected recipients is safe and can be successfully implemented as a standard of care, according to an observational study by physicians at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and the James D.
Oxygen depletion in ancient oceans caused major mass extinction
For years, scientists struggled to connect a mechanism to this mass extinction, one of the 10 most dramatic ever recorded in Earth's history.
Reconstructing Anak Krakatau flank collapse that caused Dec. 2018 Indonesian tsunami
A new study published in Geology presents the detailed observation of a tsunami-generating volcano collapse by remote sensing.
Air pollution under clear skies reduces sunlight reaching the Earth's surface
Scientists have found that the air pollution absorbs and disperses sunlight and thereby reduces the amount that reaches the Earth's surface.
Rethinking our resilience to wildfire
Wildfires are getting worse -- simply rebuilding after a disaster is no longer going to work in many communities.
New artifacts suggest people arrived in North America earlier than previously thought
Stone tools and other artifacts unearthed from an archeological dig at the Cooper's Ferry site in western Idaho suggest that people lived in the area 16,000 years ago, more than a thousand years earlier than scientists previously thought.
Chewing gum use in the perioperative period
Many anesthesiologists forbid patients from chewing gum in the immediate hours before surgery for fear that it would increase the risk that the patient's stomach contents might end up dumped (aspirated) into the patient's lungs, with potentially deadly consequences (aspiration pneumonitis).
Daisies that close at night have camouflaged petals to protect them from herbivores
Species of daisy that close their flowers at night, produce colour in their exposed lower petals that makes them harder to spot for herbivores, reducing herbivory rates of flowers.
Hand- versus machine-harvested juice and cider apples: A comparison of phenolic profiles
Study conducted to determine if there is a measurable impact of harvest method on the phenolic profile of 'Brown Snout' juice and cider to better inform equipment adoption.
Early start of 20th century arctic sea ice decline
Arctic sea-ice has decreased rapidly during the last decades in concert with substantial global surface warming.
USF-led team deciphers sea level rise from the last time Earth's CO2 set record highs
Mallorcan cave yields 3-million-year-old geologic evidence giving scientists new insight into past climate change.
Common stomach bacteria is attracted to bleach
The widespread stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is attracted to bleach, according to new research by Arden Perkins of the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, and colleagues.
The 'universal break-up criterion' of hot, flowing lava?
Thomas Jones' 'universal break-up criterion' won't help with meltdowns of the heart, but it will help volcanologists study changing lava conditions in common volcanic eruptions.
Moving faster in a crowd
Cell particles move more quickly through a crowded cellular environment when the crowding molecules are non-uniformly distributed.
How to simulate softness
What factors affect how human touch perceives softness, like the feel of pressing your fingertip against a marshmallow, a piece of clay or a rubber ball?
Discovery paves the way for earlier detection of type 1 diabetes
In new research published in Science Immunology, scientists at Scripps Research have discovered what may be the earliest possible biological marker of type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile type 1 diabetes.
Eliminating visual stimulation may help counter symptoms of spatial neglect after stroke
'We documented that while the patient was blindfolded, she sat up straighter, and her posture was more centered,' said Dr.

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