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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 02, 2019


Novel molecules designed by artificial intelligence in 21 days are validated in mice
Experimental validation confirms the ability of artificial intelligence to accelerate drug discovery
Lifestyle, not genetics, explains most premature heart disease
Physical inactivity, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol play a greater role than genetics in many young patients with heart disease, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Novel math could bring machine learning to the next level
In recent years, a theory called 'Topological Data Analysis,' stemmed from a branch of Mathematics so abstract that it did not seem to have any application whatsoever in the real world, has been making computers much better at recognizing meaningful structure inside all kinds of large datasets (a.k.a.
It takes a community to lower cardiovascular risk
People in 16 communities received usual care and those in 14 communities had an intervention that included the initiation and monitoring of treatments and controlling risk factors by non-physician health workers using computer tablet-based management algorithms and counselling; the provision of free antihypertensive and statin medicines recommended by non-physician health workers under supervision of physicians, and the involvement of a friend or family member to support adherence to medications and lifestyle advice.
Researchers uncover how popular drug helps in heart failure
Results were released today from the first two clinical studies designed specifically to examine the effects of the heart drug sacubitril/valsartan on the structure and function of the failing heart.
The Lancet: Non-physician health workers lead new approach to lowering risk of world's number one cause of death
A substantial reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, the world's leading cause of death, can be achieved in a year with a new comprehensive approach, according to a randomised controlled trial of 1,371 adults in two countries published in The Lancet and simultaneously presented at the ESC Congress 2019.
Heart failure patients have similar odds of dementia-type brain lesions as stroke patients
A type of brain damage linked with dementia and cognitive impairment is as common in heart failure patients as it is in patients with a history of stroke, according to findings from the LIFE-Adult-Study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Breast cancer can form 'sleeper cells' after drug treatment
Breast cancer medicines may force some cancer cells into 'sleeper mode,' allowing them to potentially come back to life years after initial treatment.
Poor diet causes blindness in a young 'fussy eater'
A poor diet caused a young patient's blindness, according to a case report published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
A comprehensive catalogue of human digestive tract bacteria
The human digestive tract is home to thousands of different strains of bacteria.
Chronic cocaine use modifies gene expression
Chronic cocaine use changes gene expression in the hippocampus, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci.
Sleeping too much -- or too little -- boosts heart attack risk
Even if you are a non-smoker who exercises and has no genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease, skimping on sleep -- or getting too much of it -- can boost your risk of heart attack, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study of nearly a half-million people.
Decline in sports-related sudden cardiac death linked with rise in bystander resuscitation
Fewer sports-related sudden cardiac arrest victims die nowadays, a trend linked with increased bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), reports a study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.(1) The late breaking study also found that the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during sports has not changed over the last decade.
Toxic frogs with weak defenses persist in the gene pool alongside stronger competitors
A multi-national team of evolutionary biologists investigated how two types of poison frog co-exist when we expect only one.
Impact of climate change on global banana yields revealed
Climate change could negatively impact banana cultivation in some of the world's most important producing and exporting countries, a study has revealed.
Study shows metabolic surgery associated with lower risk of death and heart complications
A large Cleveland Clinic study shows that weight-loss surgery performed in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity is associated with a lower risk of death and major adverse cardiovascular events than usual medical care.
Mumps study shows immunity gaps among vaccinated people
Immunity against mumps virus appears insufficient in a fraction of college-aged people who were vaccinated in childhood, research from Emory and CDC indicates.
Enzyme known for promoting cancer found to also protect healthy cells
New research from the University of Maryland and the NIH reveals a new role for the enzyme telomerase, which scientists thought was turned off in most normal adult cells, except in cancerous tumors where it promotes unlimited cell division.
Bacteria in pneumonia attack using bleaching agent
Research shows that bacteria use hydrogen peroxide to weaken the immune system and cause pneumonia.
Study finds increase in women giving TED talks but not ethnic minorities
Women gave more than half of TED talks in the first half of 2017, up from less than one-third in 2006, according to a new study published in Political Research Exchange.
Vintage film shows Thwaites Glacier ice shelf melting faster than previously observed
Newly available archival film has revealed the eastern ice shelf of Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica is melting faster than previous estimates, suggesting the shelf may collapse sooner than expected.
Cometh the hourglass
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a strong predictor of women's physical attractiveness.
How much carbon the land can stomach with more carbon dioxide in the air
Researchers from 28 institutions in nine countries succeeded in quantifying carbon dioxide fertilization for the past five decades, using simulations from 12 terrestrial ecosystem models and observations from seven field carbon dioxide enrichment experiments.
Mystery solved about the machines that move your genes
Researchers have discovered how the chromosome-dividing spindle avoids slowdowns: congestion.
Unique fingerprint: What makes nerve cells unmistakable?
Protein variations that result from the process of alternative splicing control the identity and function of nerve cells in the brain.
What drives plate tectonics?
Scientists found ''switches'' between continental rupture, continental collision, and oceanic subduction initiation in the Tethyan evolution after a reappraisal of geological records from the surface and new global-scale geophysical images at depth.
Parkinson's disease may originate in the intestines
A theory that Parkinson's disease can arise in the intestinal system and from there migrate to the brain has now gained support from research conducted at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital.
A life of low cholesterol and BP slashes heart and circulatory disease risk by 80 per cent
Modest and sustained decreases in blood pressure and cholesterol levels reduces the lifetime risk of developing fatal heart and circulatory diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, according to research part-funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) and supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).
Researchers find a new pathological mediator of ALS
A research collaboration based in Japan has found a new pathological mediator of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which could have further implications for understanding the molecular breakdown that gives rise to the neurodegenerative disease that affects nearly half a million people around the world.
Malaria infection is associated with increased risk of heart failure
Malaria infection is linked with a 30% raised risk of heart failure, according to a small study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Plant gene discovery could help reduce fertilizer pollution in waterways
Excess phosphorus from fertilized cropland frequently finds its way into nearby rivers and lakes, resulting in a boom of aquatic plant growth, plunging oxygen levels in the water, fish die-offs and other harmful effects.
Protein shakes may not be the answer for post-gym muscle pain
Sports scientists at the University of Lincoln, UK, found that neither whey-protein based shakes nor milk-based formulas enhanced the rate of muscle recovery following resistance training when compared to a carbohydrate only drink.
Researchers reveal how bacteria behind hospital infections block out antibiotics
Drug-resistant bacteria responsible for deadly hospital-acquired infections shut out antibiotics by closing tiny doors in their cell walls.
AI learns complex gene-disease patterns
A deep learning model improves the ability to identify genes potentially involved in disease.
People believe achieving environmental sustainability could hinder quality of life
Social wellbeing and community, not wider economy, uppermost in people's concerns over sustainability policies.
Environmental exposures in pregnancy and childhood could affect blood pressure in children
A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) in six European countries used the exposome holistic approach to analyse more than 200 environmental exposures during pregnancy and childhood.
How humans have shaped dogs' brains
Dog brain structure varies across breeds and is correlated with specific behaviors, according to new research published in JNeurosci.
Men who live alone have problems taking 'blood thinning' drug
Living alone is associated with difficulties using the 'blood thinner' warfarin in men, but not women, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Early life environment may lead to high blood pressure in children
Where a mother lives and the temperature outside while she is pregnant, among other environmental factors, can impact whether her child is prehypertensive or hypertensive during childhood, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Poor diet can lead to blindness
An extreme case of 'fussy' or 'picky' eating caused a young patient's blindness, according to a new case report published today [2 Sep 2019] in Annals of Internal Medicine.
New feedback phenomenon found to drive increasing drought and aridity
A new Columbia Engineering study indicates that the world will experience more frequent and more extreme drought and aridity than currently experienced in the coming century, exacerbated by both climate change and land-atmosphere processes.
Methylation of microRNA may be a new powerful biomarker for cancer
Researchers from Osaka University found that levels of methylated microRNA were significantly higher in tissue and serum from cancer patients compared with that from normal controls.
Assisted reproduction technology leaves its mark on genes temporarily, study shows
Any effect that assisted reproduction technology has on babies' genes is largely corrected by adulthood, new research led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute has found.
Functional changes of thermosensory molecules related to environmental adaptation
Scientists from National Institute for Physiological Sciences and their collaborator in Japan have clarified the functional shift of thermal sensors among frog species adapted to different thermal niches and revealed the molecular basis for the shift in thermal perception related to environmental adaptation.
Heart attack care in Sweden superior to UK
People suffering from heart attacks in Sweden were less likely to die from them in the short and long-term than those in England and Wales, according to a new study.
Scotland's genetic landscape echoes Dark Age populations
The DNA of Scottish people still contains signs of the country's ancient kingdoms, with many apparently living in the same areas as their ancestors did more than a millennium ago, a study shows.
Single atoms as catalysts
Only the outermost layer of a catalyst can play a role in chemical reactions.
Native birds in South-eastern Australia worst affected by habitat
New research has found that habitat loss is a major concern for hundreds of Australian bird species, and south-eastern Australia has been the worst affected.
Plagiarism and inclusivity shown in new study into the arts, humanities and social sciences
A new study looking at the issues arising in publication ethics that journal editors face within the arts, humanities and social sciences has highlighted that detecting plagiarism in papers submitted to a journal is the most serious issue they tackle, something which over half of editors reported encountering.

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