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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 03, 2019


A breakthrough in imaginative AI with experimental validation to accelerate drug discovery
Deep Knowledge Analytics salutes its parent company, Deep Knowledge Ventures, in the landmark Nature Biotechnology publication of its portfolio company, Insilico Medicine, demonstrating the design, synthesis and preclinical validation of a novel drug candidate in just 46 days.
Diabetes and heart attack is a particularly risky combination
Paris, France - 3 Sept 2019: After a heart attack, patients with diabetes are at greater risk of heart failure and subsequent death than those without diabetes, according to late breaking results from the FAST-MI registry presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.(1)
Scientists use advanced imaging to map uncharted area of genome
Using advanced imaging techniques, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have mapped a previously uncharted region of the human genome that gives rise to a variety of disease, setting the stage to potentially test for the conditions in the future.
The brain processes words placed on the right side of a screen more quickly
When reading words on a screen, the human brain comprehends words placed on the right side of the screen faster.
Extracting clean fuel from sunlight
The new study explores the subtle interplay of the primary components of such devices and outlines a theoretical framework for understanding the underlying fuel-forming reactions.
Heart failure care must address patients' broader health if survival rates are to be improved
Research published in JAMA Cardiology today presents new evidence that might explain why the prognosis of heart failure patients has improved so little over the past decade.
Breast cancer gene a potential target for childhood liver cancer treatment
Hepatoblastoma is a rare liver cancer that mainly affects infants and young children and is associated with mutations in the β-catenin gene.
Vitamin D: How much is too much of a good thing?
A three-year study by researchers at the Cumming School of Medicine's McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), showed there is no benefit in taking high doses of vitamin D.
The seeds of Parkinson's disease: amyloid fibrils that move through the brain
Researchers at Osaka University used microbeam X-ray diffraction to study the ultrastructure of Lewy bodies in post-mortem brains of Parkinson's disease patients.
Slowed metabolism helps migrating geese soar
Researchers have shed new light on how some geese can fly high for long periods of time, according to a study published today in eLife.
Overweight kids actually eat less right after stressful events
People often react to stress by binging on sweets or fattening comfort foods, cravings fueled by the appetite-stimulating stress hormone cortisol.
Unhappy mothers talk more to their baby boys, study finds
Mothers who are dissatisfied with their male partners spend more time talking to their infants -- but only if the child is a boy, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Cambridge.
Melatonin is a potential drug for the prevention of bone loss during space flight
Melatonin could be a novel drug for preventing bone loss of astronauts during space flight.
Fat-absorbing XX chromosomes raise heart disease risk in women
New research in mice at the University of Kentucky has confirmed that the presence of XX sex chromosomes increases the amount of fat circulating in the blood, which leads to narrowing of the arteries and ultimately a higher risk of heart attacks and coronary artery disease.
Rice reactor turns greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel
An electrocatalysis reactor built at Rice University recycles carbon dioxide to produce pure liquid fuel solutions using electricity.
Body's ageing process accelerated by DNA changes, study suggests
DNA changes throughout a person's life can significantly increase their susceptibility to heart conditions and other age-related diseases, research suggests.
Fetching water increases risk of childhood death
Water fetching is associated with poor health outcomes for women and children, including a higher risk of death.
NASA finds tropical storm 14W strengthening
Tropical Storm 14W formed as a depression a couple of days ago in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and strengthened into a tropical storm on Sept.
Researchers identify biomarker to predict if someone infected with malaria will get sick
Increased p53, the well-known tumor-suppressor protein, can predict whether malaria-infected children will develop fever or other symptoms, suggests a study publishing Sept.
Affordable multiferroic material
Toyohashi University of Technology has developed a novel liquid process for fabrication of an affordable multiferroic nanocomposite film in collaboration with an international joint research team.
Revolutionizing water quality monitoring for our rivers and reef
New, lower-cost help may soon be on the way to help manage one of the biggest threats facing the Great Barrier Reef.
Wealth can lead to more satisfying life if viewed as a sign of success vs. happiness
A new study featuring researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York found that viewing wealth and material possessions as a sign of success yields significantly better results to life satisfaction than viewing wealth and possessions as a sign of happiness.
Emory cardiologist introduces WHF Roadmap on CVD prevention with diabetes
Emory cardiologist Laurence Sperling introduced the World Heart Federation's new roadmap aimed at reducing the global burden of (CVD) in people living with diabetes at a conference in Paris on Monday, Sept.
Self-monitoring solution in mobile app can help uncontrolled asthma
A study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows that a treatment adjustment algorithm based on lung function and symptoms in a mobile phone can be an efficient tool in managing uncontrolled asthma.
GPM analyzes tropical depression Kajiki's rainfall over Vietnam and Laos
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite provided a look at rainfall rates in Tropical Depression Kajiki after it made a quick landfall in Vietnam.
CVD leading cause of death worldwide, but cancer rising cause in rich countries
CVD is the major cause of death among middle-aged adults around the world; however, in high-income countries deaths from cancer have become twice as frequent as those from CVD.
Cannabis may hold promise to treat PTSD but evidence lags behind use
As growing numbers of people are using cannabis to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a new UCL study published in the Journal of Dual Diagnosis reports that prescriptions are not backed up by adequate evidence.
Genetics may play a role in reaction to CT contrast agents
Researchers in South Korea have found that patients with family and personal history of allergic reactions to contrast media are at risk for future reactions, according to a new large study.
New AI technology for advanced heart attack prediction
Technology developed using artificial intelligence (AI) could identify people at high risk of a fatal heart attack at least 5 years before it strikes, according to new research funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF).
Study finds most risks for heart attacks, strokes, deaths around world could be improved
A large international study, involving more than 155,000 people in 21 countries, has found some of the risks are the same around the world, such as hypertension or low education, but other risks vary by a country's level of economic development, such as air pollution and poor diet which impact health more in middle- and low-income countries.
New insights: Dementia, risk, risk reduction, and translation into practice
Globally, dementia cases are increasing at a rate of more than 20% a year.
Genes reveal kinship between 3 victims of Mongol army in 1238 massacre
Researchers from MIPT and the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Archaeology have used DNA testing to prove close genetic kinship between three individuals buried in a mass grave following the capture of the Russian city Yaroslavl by Batu Khan's Mongol army in 1238.
Diet's effect on gut bacteria could play role in reducing Alzheimer's risk
Could following a certain type of diet affect the gut microbiome -- the good and bad bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tract -- in ways that decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease?
Mouthwash use could inhibit benefits of exercise, new research shows
An international team of scientists has shown that the blood pressure-lowering effect of exercise is significantly reduced when people rinse their mouths with antibacterial mouthwash, rather than water - showing the importance of oral bacteria in cardiovascular health.
Achieving zero harm from healthcare -- new collection comments on 20 years of research
Over the past 20 years, has the US made significant progress to improve preventable medical errors?
Europe's future is renewable
Europe has enough solar and wind resources to meet its electricity demand entirely from renewable sources.
Human perception of colors does not rely entirely on language, a case study
After patient RDS (identified only by his initials for privacy) suffered a stroke, he experienced a rare and unusual side effect: when he saw something red, blue, green, or any other chromatic hue, he could not name the object's color.
Finding an effective way to reduce pressure ulcers
Expensive high-tech air mattresses are only marginally better at preventing pressure sores and ulcers than a specialist foam mattress, according to the results of a major study.
Spreading light over quantum computers
Scientists at Linköping University have shown how a quantum computer really works and have managed to simulate quantum computer properties in a classical computer.
Major Hurricane Juliette's emerging eye spotted in NASA satellite imagery
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and provided an image of Hurricane Juliette as its eye began to emerge.
Developed biodegradable anti-cancer treatment micro-robot
DGIST Professor Hongsoo Choi's team developed a biodegradable micro-robot that performs both drug release and hyperthermia treatment into a desired area.
At the edge of chaos, powerful new electronics could be created
A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen.
Natural 'breakdown' of chemicals may guard against lung damage in 9/11 first responders
The presence of chemicals made as the body breaks down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can predict whether Sept.
Why fruit flies eat practically anything
Kyoto University researchers uncover why some organisms can eat anything -- 'generalists -- and others have strict diets -- 'specialists'.
Research finds a new way to reduce food waste
In a society that equates beauty with quality, the perception that blemished produce is less desirable than its perfect peers contributes to 1.3 billion tons of wasted food a year globally.
Increased body weight in adolescent boys linked with heart attack before 65
A study in nearly 1.7 million 18-year-old boys has found that higher body mass index (BMI) is linked with greater risk of a heart attack before 65 years of age.
An astonishing parabola trick
Prospective digital data storage devices rely on novel fundamental magnetic phenomena.
Poverty as disease trap
The realities of subsistence living in a region of Senegal hard hit by schistosomiasis make reinfection likely, despite mass drug administration.
Snowfall frequency declining across Northwest, PSU study finds
With warming temperatures, average snowfall frequency is estimated to decline across the Pacific Northwest by 2100 -- and at a faster rate if greenhouse emissions are not reduced, according to a new Portland State University study.
Slowed metabolism helps geese fly high
A few years before NASA astronaut Jessica Meir began learning to fly a spacecraft for her upcoming trip to the International Space Station, she was in flight-training of a different kind: teaching bar-headed geese how to fly in a wind tunnel at the University of British Columbia.
Agrivoltaics proves mutually beneficial across food, water, energy nexus
Building resilience in renewable energy and food production is a fundamental challenge in today's changing world, especially in regions susceptible to heat and drought.
U of M researchers discover a new mechanism that could counteract obesity
Obesity rates worldwide have nearly tripled since 1975. Now, new research from the University of Minnesota Medical School has discovered, in rodents, critical mutations in molecules implicated in obesity, which may help inform the development of new anti-obesity therapies.
Birds in serious decline at Lake Constance
In the past 30 years, the number of breeding pairs in the region has dropped by 25 percent from 465,000 in the eighties to 345,000 by 2012.
Fashion brands' business practices undermining progress on ending garment worker exploitation
Top fashion companies that are pledging to end worker exploitation in their global supply chains are hampering progress through their own irresponsible sourcing practices, concludes a new report published today on working conditions in the Southern Indian garment industry powerhouse.
Temple scientists identify promising new target to combat Alzheimer's disease
In the case of Alzheimer's disease, Temple researchers show that mitochondrial calcium transport remodeling -- what appears to be an attempt by cells to compensate for flagging energy production and metabolic dysfunction -- while initially beneficial, ultimately becomes maladaptive, fueling declines in mitochondrial function, memory, and learning.
Student body diversity goals & giving parents a say in where their child goes to school
All parents want their children to get the best education possible, so how do school districts allow parents/guardians to have a say in where their child goes to school while still meeting diversity goals for the student body?
The Lancet journals: Papers at ESC Congress 2019
The following papers will be presented at the ESC Congress 2019, organised by the European Society of Cardiology in Paris and published simultaneously in either The Lancet or The Lancet Global Health journals.
Undercover evolution
Our individuality is encrypted in our DNA, but it is deeper than expected.
Researchers develop technique to de-ice surfaces in seconds
Airplane wings, wind turbines and indoor heating systems all struggle under the weight and chill of ice.
PrEParing family planning clinics in Kenya to prevent new HIV infections
In sub-Saharan Africa, many young women and adolescent girls are at high risk of HIV infection.
Social network interventions can lead to potential health benefits
Social network interventions can have a significant effect on a range of health behaviors and outcomes both in the short and long term, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Ruth Hunter of Queen's University Belfast, UK, and colleagues.
Tropical sea snake uses its head to 'breathe'
Humans use a snorkel and fish have gills. Now researchers have found a sea snake which uses a complex system of blood vessels in its head to draw in extra oxygen when it dives and swims underwater.
Novel approach leads to potential sepsis prevention in burn patients
Abdul Hamood, Ph.D., from the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine and his collaborative team investigated the feasibility of developing a topical treatment unrelated to conventional antibiotics that can be used to battle Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
World-first cardio trial shows shorter wait times and admissions
A major new cardiology study shows that up to 70% of patients presenting with chest pain to Australian hospital emergency departments could be safely discharged in less time than they currently are under standard Australian protocols.
Bigger spend, same end: Post-hospital care study suggests ways to save Medicare money
A new study reveals that spending on post-hospital care for patients who have traditional Medicare coverage costs much more than it does for an identical patient with private insurance.
Prescription drug monitoring program mandates
States that require prescribers to register with and use prescription drug monitoring programs in most clinical circumstances saw notably fewer opioid prescriptions and reduced opioid-related hospital use by Medicaid patients compared to states with weak or no drug monitoring program mandates, according to a new study from investigators at Weill Cornell Medicine.
Research letter focuses on association of inflammation in late adolescence with death over 3 decades
This study used a blood marker of inflammation to assess the association of inflammation in late adolescence with death among a group of apparently healthy men (born between 1952 and 1956) who had blood drawn for compulsory conscription in the Swedish Army (at ages 16 to 20) and who were observed up to age 57.
In Health Affairs: Moving deliveries to hospitals in low- and middle-income countries
In many low- and middle-income countries, maternal and neonatal mortality remains high.
Hardship during the Great Recession linked with lasting mental health declines
People who suffered a financial, housing-related, or job-related hardship as a result of the Great Recession were more likely to show increases in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and problematic drug use, research shows.
Study tests performance of electric solid propellant
Electric solid propellants are being explored for use in dual-mode rocket engines because they aren't susceptible to ignite from a spark or flame and can be turned on and off electrically.
Researchers improve drug delivery through mesoporous materials
In a paper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, a group of researchers from Guiyang, China, have conducted a study based on previous experimental research on DOX as a model drug and introduced a reverse method in which organic groups are grafted after removing the template agent.
Use of medical imaging
This observational study looked at patterns of use for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and nuclear medicine imaging in the United States and in Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2016.
Who benefits from a defibrillator?
Implantable defibrillators can save lives, but also harbor risks. A major European study headed by three researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), LMU München and University Medical Center Göttingen has found that a special ECG method can help to identify the patients most likely to benefit from these devices.
Colour-change urine test for cancer shows potential in mouse study
A simple and sensitive urine test developed by Imperial and MIT engineers has produced a colour change in urine to signal growing tumours in mice.
A new alphabet to write and read quantum messages with very fast particles
Quantum information relies on the possibility of writing messages in a quantum particle and reading them out in a reliable way.
Medical imaging rates continue to rise despite push to reduce their use
The rates of use of CT, MRI and other scans have continued to increase in both the US and Ontario, Canada, according to a new study of more than 135 million imaging exams conducted by researchers at UC Davis, UC San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente.
Oldest lake in Europe reveals more than one million years of climate history
The results of large-scale research project spearheaded by geologists from the University of Cologne on Lake Ohrid's climate history have been published in 'Nature'.
Receptor protein in brain promotes resilience to stress
Scientists have discovered that a receptor on the surface of brain cells plays a key role in regulating how both animals and people respond to stress.
It is never too late to start statins for clogged leg arteries
Statins are linked with reduced mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease, even when started late after diagnosis, reports a study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.
Corals take control of nitrogen recycling
Corals use sugar from their symbiotic algal partners to control them by recycling nitrogen from their own ammonium waste.
NASA's IMERG estimates hurricane Dorian's rain
In the early hours of Tuesday, September 3, Hurricane Dorian had been stationary over the island of Grand Bahama for 18 hours, most of the time as a category 5 hurricane.
Patients with cardiac devices do not adhere to driving ban
Nearly one-third of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) resume driving despite it being medically contraindicated -- a practice that is dangerous for themselves and others, and is illegal in some countries.
New whale species discovered along the coast of Hokkaido
A new beaked whale species Berardius minimus, which has been long postulated by local whalers in Hokkaido, Japan, has been confirmed.
NASA infrared data reveals rainmaking potential in tropical depression 7
Another Atlantic Ocean basin depression formed while Hurricane Dorian is still wreaking havoc on the Bahamas and affecting the southeastern US Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite shows that Tropical Depression 7 in the western Gulf of Mexico has developed powerful thunderstorms with heavy rain capabilities.
UM physical therapy professor authors new guideline on treating runner's knee
University of Montana Assistant Professor Richard Willy is the lead author on a paper that offers new guidelines for treating patellofemoral pain, often known as 'runner's knee.'
Share your goals -- but be careful whom you tell
If you want to achieve a goal, make sure you share your objective with the right person.
The Lancet: Cancer now leading cause of death in high-income countries - while heart disease burden persists in low-income and middle-income countries
Two reports from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiologic (PURE) study published in the Lancet and presented together at the ESC Congress 2019 provide unique information on [1] common disease incidence, hospitalisation and death, and [2] modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, in middle-aged adults across 21 High-Income, Middle-Income, and Low-Income Countries (HIC, MIC, LIC).
Identification of new populations of immune cells in the lungs
In an article published in Nature Communications, the Immunophysiology Laboratory of the GIGA Institute, headed by Prof.
Study reveals 'radical' wrinkle in forming complex carbon molecules in space
A team of scientists has discovered a new possible pathway toward forming carbon structures in space using a specialized chemical exploration technique at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source.
AI learns the language of chemistry to predict how to make medicines
Researchers have designed a machine learning algorithm that predicts the outcome of chemical reactions with much higher accuracy than trained chemists and suggests ways to make complex molecules, removing a significant hurdle in drug discovery.
Fighting frostbite: Focusing on prevention and early drug treatment are the keys to success
Frostbite is an injury which usually affects the extremities, such as fingers and toes, and has the potential of causing irreversible tissue loss.
The neurobiological mechanisms behind schizophrenia may depend on gender
The neurobiological pathophysiology of schizophrenia differs significantly between males and females, according to a new study.
Remora-inspired suction disk mimics fish's adhesion ability, offers evolutionary insight
NJIT researchers offer new insight into the evolution of the suction ability of remora fishes, showcasing a bioinspired suction disk that mimics, and can exceed, the fish's uncanny powers of adhesion.
NASA infrared eye analyzes typhoon Lingling   
The storm that became Typhoon Lingling strengthened very quickly in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and infrared imagery from NASA revealed the powerful thunderstorms fueling that intensification.
Do those retail apps increase customer engagement and sales in all channels?
Researchers from Texas A&M University published new research in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science (Editor's note: The source of this research is INFORMS), which shows that retailers' branded mobile apps are very effective in increasing customer engagement, increasing sales on multiple levels, not just on the retailer's website, but also in its stores.
Discovered a factor that predicts long survival in brain tumor
Researchers of the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute have discovered an epigenetic lesion that allows identifying those patients affected by brain tumors that have a longer life expectancy.
Graphene layer enables advance in super-resolution microscopy
Researchers at Göttingen University developed a new method that uses the unusual properties of graphene to interact with fluorescing molecules.
International scientists shed new light on demise of two extinct New Zealand songbirds
They may not have been seen for the past 50 and 110 years, but an international study into their extinction has provided answers to how the world lost New Zealand's South Island kokako and huia.
Deer browsing is not stopping the densification of Eastern forests
Selective browsing by white-tailed deer has been blamed by many for changing the character and composition of forest understories in the eastern US; however, its impact on the forest canopy was previously unknown.
Research into Parkinson's disease: Binding-protein prevents fibril proliferation
Several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's are closely linked to the aggregation of a specific protein, α-synuclein.
Soft drinks associated with risk of death in population-based study in 10 European countries
Greater consumption of soft drinks, including both sugar- and artificially sweetened, was associated with increased risk of overall death in a population-based study of nearly 452,000 men and women from 10 European countries.
The kombucha culture
In response to this, Aktipis teamed up with other researchers to take all the pieces of the puzzle she had found in pre-existing literature and put them together see the bigger picture on how kombucha operates and how the different species of microbes interact and cooperate within.
Surgical masks as good as respirators for flu and respiratory virus protection
The study reported 'no significant difference in the effectiveness' of medical masks vs.
Aesthetics of skin cancer therapy may vary by treatment type
In a meta-analysis of 58 studies, a study led by Penn State compared four types of skin cancer treatments and found that while all four had similar recurrence rates a year after treatment, a form of radiation called brachytherapy and a type of surgery called Mohs micrographic surgery had better cosmetic results.
Using lasers to study explosions
An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations.
Sexual selection influences the evolution of lamprey pheromones
In 'Intra- and Interspecific Variation in Production of Bile Acids that Act As Sex Pheromones in Lampreys,' published in Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Tyler J.
FAK protein linked to chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer
A new University of California San Diego School of Medicine study links changes in the gene for the protein focal adhesion kinase, or FAK, to ovarian cancer's ability to survive chemotherapy.
Eminent scientist's 160-year-old theories aid light wave discovery
A previously unknown type of light wave has been discovered by researchers, based on the pioneering work of a 19th century Scottish scientist.
Comparing primate vocalizations
The language of Old World monkeys, some of our primate cousins, may be more sophisticated than previously realized.
Scientists link 'hunger hormone' to memory in Alzheimer's study
Scientists at The University of Texas at Dallas have found evidence suggesting that resistance to the 'hunger hormone' ghrelin in the brain is linked to the cognitive impairments and memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Obesity pandemic shifting cancer to younger people
A new study looking at incidence of disease data nationwide from 2000 to 2016 found a shift in obesity-associated cancers (OACs) to younger individuals.
Fragmenting ions and radiation sensitizers
The anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) acts as a radiosensitizer: it is rapidly taken up into the DNA of cancer cells, making the cells more sensitive to radiotherapy.
USPSTF recommendation on medications to reduce breast cancer risk
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) added aromatase inhibitors to its recommendation that clinicians offer medications to reduce the risk of breast cancer (tamoxifen, raloxifene or aromatase inhibitors) to asymptomatic women 35 and older, including those with previous benign breast lesions, who are at increased risk of developing the disease but at low risk for adverse effects from the medications.
Arbovirus manipulation of plant immune systems to favor disease spread
A group of scientists led by Prof. YE Jian from the Institute of Microbiology discovered that viruses mobilize plant immunity to deter nonvector insect herbivores.

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