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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 05, 2019


Not just images
Hebrew University scientists have successfully transformed an MRI from a diagnostic camera into a device that can record changes in the biological makeup of brain tissue.
Lessons in learning
A new Harvard study shows that, though students felt like they learned more from traditional lectures, they actually learned more when taking part in active learning classrooms.
New research discovers the financial cost of trachoma surveys
The global health community is working to eliminate trachoma, a bacterial disease that causes blindness.
New study confirms protective effect of diabetes drugs against kidney failure
A new meta-analysis published in Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology has found that SGLT2 inhibitors can reduce the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes.
A decade of renewable energy investment, led by solar, tops US $2.5 trillion
A UN-backed report shows global investment in new renewable energy capacity this decade -- 2010 to 2019 inclusive -- is on course to hit USD 2.6 trillion, with more gigawatts of solar power capacity installed than any other generation technology.
Fix and prevent health disparities in children by supporting mom, and dad
According to the recent National Academies report on health disparities in children, one of the most important factors in preventing and addressing disparities is the well-being of the child's primary caregiver.
Ancient DNA from Central and South Asia reveals movement of people and language in Eurasia
A genome-wide analysis of ancient DNA from more than 500 individuals from across South and Central Asia sheds light on the complex genetic ancestry of the region's modern people.
People can see beauty in complex mathematics, study shows
Ordinary people see beauty in complex mathematical arguments in the same way they can appreciate a beautiful landscape painting or a piano sonata.
Hunter-gatherers agree on what is moral, but not who is moral
Social psychologists from the University of Pennsylvania wanted to know whether there was a universal concept of moral character, by looking beyond Western populations.
Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum across Sub-Saharan Africa
Scientists from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research joined a network of scientists to publish a study in Science to identify a regional character to Plasmodium falciparum across Africa.
Do unmarried women face shortages of partners in the US marriage market?
One explanation for declines in marriage is a shortage of economically-attractive men for unmarried women to marry.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds wind shear pushing on Tropical Storm Gabrielle
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the eastern Atlantic Ocean and infrared data revealed that the storm was being adversely affected by wind shear, pushing its strongest storms northeast of its center.
PTSD linked to increased risk of ovarian cancer
Women who experienced six or more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point in life had a twofold greater risk of developing ovarian cancer compared with women who never had any PTSD symptoms, according to a new study from researchers at Harvard T.H.
Study links hearing aids to lower risk of dementia, depression and falls
Older adults who get a hearing aid for a newly diagnosed hearing loss have a lower risk of being diagnosed with dementia, depression or anxiety for the first time over the next three years, and a lower risk of suffering fall-related injuries, than those who leave their hearing loss uncorrected, a new study finds.
New method for imaging biological molecules
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have, together with colleagues from Aalto University in Finland, developed a new method for creating images of molecules in cells or tissue samples.
Taxing sweetened drinks by the amount of sugar could cut obesity and boost economic gains
Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by the amount of sugar they contain, rather than by the liquid volume of these drinks, as several US cities currently do, could produce even greater health benefits and economic gains, a team of researchers has concluded.
Climate change could bring short-term gain, long-term pain for loggerhead turtles
New research from conservation biologists at Florida State University and their collaborators suggests that while some loggerheads will suffer from the effects of a changing climate, populations in certain nesting areas could stand to reap important short-term benefits from the shifting environmental conditions.
A molecular 'atlas' of animal development
Scientists have studied the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans for decades, making essential contributions to basic science.
Hearing aids may help reduce risks of dementia, depression, and falls
Use of hearing aids was linked with lower risks of being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, anxiety, and injurious falls in an analysis of medical information on 114,862 older adults with hearing loss.
Vaping may harm fertility in young women
E-cigarette usage may impair fertility and pregnancy outcomes, according to a mouse study published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Updated Barrett's Guideline aims to improve patient outcomes
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) has released its updated 'ASGE guideline on screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus,' published in the September issue of GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Having an elder brother is associated with slower language development
Several studies had already demonstrated that children who have an elder sibling have poorer linguistic performance than those who have none.
Palaeontology: New hadrosaur from Japan sheds light on dinosaur diversity
The discovery of a previously unknown species of hadrosaur dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period is reported in Scientific Reports this week.
Largest-ever ancient-DNA study illuminates millennia of South and Central Asian prehistory
Researchers analyzed the genomes of 524 never before-studied ancient people, including the first genome of an individual from the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.
Coffee may protect against gallstones
Drinking more coffee may help reduce the risk of developing gallstones, according to a new study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Closing in on elusive particles
In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay.
Zika virus infects the adult human brain and causes memory deficits in animal models
A new study conducted by Brazilian researchers found that Zika virus infects and replicates in adult human brain tissue.
SRL publishes focus section on Subduction Zone processes in the Americas
Researchers from around the globe share what they've learned from an unprecedented amount of data collected in the Latin American Subduction Zone over the past two decades.
As light as a lemon: How the right smell can help with a negative body image
The scent of a lemon could help people feel better about their body image, new findings from University of Sussex research has revealed.
Higher consumption of soft drinks linked with an increased risk of mortality
Higher consumption of soft drinks linked with an increased risk of mortality.
When physicians integrate with hospitals, costs go up, Rice study says
When physicians integrate with hospitals, the cost of health care rises even though there's no evidence patients get better treatment, according to a new paper by experts at Rice University and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Texas.
Study reveals new patterns of key ocean nutrient
The important nutrient phosphate may be less abundant in the global ocean than previously thought, according to a new paper in Science Advances.
The future of mind control
Harvard scientists are blurring the distinction between brain and machine, designing nanoelectronics that look, move, and feel like real neurons.
Social networking sites affect nurses' performance
Addiction to social networking sites reduces nurses' performance and affects their ability to concentrate on assigned tasks, according to a study published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.
New study tracks sulfur-based metabolism in the open ocean
Oceanographers found that marine microbes process sulfonate, a plentiful marine nutrient, in a way that is similar to soils.
Medication adherence may affect risk of hospitalization and early death
A recent analysis of published studies examined the clinical consequences of medication adherence.
UTA study shows how consumers rely on price to determine quality of products
A study by an assistant professor at The University of Texas at Arlington published in the Journal of Marketing shows that marketers of relatively high-priced products should consider keeping prices high, as many consumers associate high price with high quality.
Researchers find alarming risk for people coming off chronic opioid prescriptions
A recent study published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine found an alarming outcome: Patients coming off opioids for pain were three times more likely to die of an overdose in the years that followed.
Scientists confirm efficacy of a combination therapy for advanced liver cancer
Researchers from Taiwan and Japan, led by Dr Victor Kok of Kuang Tien General Hospital and Asia University Taiwan, found that when the anticancer drug Sorafenib was combined with TACE, a radiological treatment procedure, patients with liver cancer had higher survival.
Kilauea eruption fosters algae bloom in North Pacific Ocean
USC Dornsife and University of Hawaii researchers get a rare opportunity to study the immediate impact of lava from the Kilauea volcano on the marine environment surrounding the Hawaiian islands.
Research shows OB-GYNs hesitate to talk about fertility
A new study in The Journal of Reproductive Medicine shows many OB-GYNs are uncomfortable counseling their patients on fertility at a time when more women are delaying pregnancy and needing their doctors to be more vigilant about this education.
Scientists who raced to study Kilauea's lava as it fueled rare phytoplankton bloom find surprise
Results from a rapid-response oceanographic expedition in the North Pacific reveal a surprise about how lava from the Kilauea Volcano, which erupted on the island of Hawai'i during the summer of 2018, triggered a vast phytoplankton bloom.
Exotic physics phenomenon is observed for first time
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, an exotic physical phenomenon, has been directly observed for the first time, following decades of attempts.
Bots might prove harder to detect in 2020 elections
Bots or fake accounts enabled by artificial intelligence on social media have evolved and are now better able to copy human behaviors in order to avoid detection.
NASA measures Dorian's heavy rainfall from Bahamas to Carolinas
Hurricane Dorian continues to generate tremendous amounts of rainfall, and has left over three feet of rain in some areas of the Bahamas and is now lashing the Carolinas.
Tiny airborne particles from wildfires have climate change implications
Wildfires are widespread across the globe. They occur in places wherever plants are abundant -- such as the raging fires currently burning in the Brazilian Amazon.
FSU researchers find furry friends ease depression, loneliness after spousal loss
As Healthy Aging Month is underway this September, Florida State University researchers have found the companionship of a pet after the loss of a spouse can help reduce feelings of depression and loneliness in older adults.
Building water-efficient cities
A University of Arizona-led study shows a community's built environment is closely related to how much water single-family residences use.
Tuberculosis mutation discovery paves way for better treatments
A Rutgers New Jersey Medical School study has found a genetically tractable cause of drug tolerant tuberculosis, paving the way for researchers to develop new drugs to combat the global TB epidemic and cure the disease.
Research warns of the far-reaching consequences of measles epidemic and failure to vaccinate
The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) 5th Vaccine Conference will hear that the risks of failing to vaccinate children may extend far beyond one specific vaccine, although currently the most urgent problem to address is the resurgence of measles.
Research reveals new plan to maximize rideshare availability by routing empty cars
Time is money. Especially for rideshare drivers with companies like Uber and Lyft.
Researchers uncover role of earthquake motions in triggering a 'surprise' tsunami
In newly published research, an international team of geologists, geophysicists, and mathematicians show how coupled computer models can accurately recreate the conditions leading to the world's deadliest natural disasters of 2018, the Palu earthquake and tsunami, which struck western Sulawesi, Indonesia in September last year.
Silicon as a semiconductor: Silicon carbide would be much more efficient
In power electronics, semiconductors are based on the element silicon -- but the energy efficiency of silicon carbide would be much higher.
Kīlauea lava fuels phytoplankton bloom off Hawai'i Island
When Kīlauea Volcano erupted in 2018, it injected millions of cubic feet of molten lava into the nutrient-poor waters off the Big Island of Hawai'i.
Apathy as an indicator of progression in Huntington's disease
IDIBELL-UB researchers associate changes in white matter connectivity in different subtypes of apathy, one of the most common psychiatric syndromes in Huntington's disease (HD).
Scientists measure precise proton radius to help resolve decade-old puzzle
York University researchers have made a precise measurement of the size of the proton -- a crucial step towards solving a mystery that has preoccupied scientists around the world for the past decade.
Report cards on women in STEM fields finds much room for improvement
Data from a four-year study of institutional 'report cards' undertaken as part of the New York Stem Cell Foundation's (NYSCF) Initiative on Women in Science and Engineering (IWISE) suggest that although a growing number of women are training in the sciences, efforts to promote and maintain women in more senior scientific roles are still largely inadequate.
Selenium anchors could improve durability of platinum fuel cell catalysts
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new platinum-based catalytic system that is far more durable than traditional commercial systems and has a potentially longer lifespan.
High blood pressure treatment may slow cognitive decline
Among middle-aged and older adults, high blood pressure accelerated cognitive decline and treatment slowed the regression.
Helminthic infections may be beneficial against HIV-1
Infection with parasitic helminths can reduce the susceptibility of T-cells to HIV-1 infection, according to a study published Sept.
NASA finds a few strong storms left in Fernand's remnants over Northeastern Mexico
Tropical Storm Fernand made landfall in northeastern Mexico and began dissipating.
Infant model of HIV opens new avenues for research
Researchers have developed an animal model to test HIV infection and therapies in infants, allowing them to develop biomarkers to predict viral rebound after antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption.
Innovative technique for labeling and mapping inhibitory neurons reveals diverse tuning profile
Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience uncovered a diverse palette of inhibition within layer 2/3 of the visual cortex, suggestive of a more complex functional connectivity that may allow for enhanced flexibility of neuronal responses.
'Tiny fat bubbles' can boost immunity, calm disease
People living with inflammatory autoimmune disease could benefit from an 'immune system reboot', and researchers have isolated specific cells to target.
New study reveals 'smart' approach to detecting common heart condition
A new study, presented as 'Late Breaking Science' at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) annual congress and published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, highlights the feasible use of mobile health (mHealth) devices to help with the screening and detection of a common heart condition.
UTA scientist explores using nanoparticles to reduce size of deep-seated tumors
Another collaborative project from a nanoparticles expert at The University of Texas at Arlington has yielded promising results in the search for more effective, targeted cancer treatments.
Same-sex male couples losing out on paid parental leave
Same-sex male couples are losing out on paid parental leave when compared to both same-sex female and different-sex couples, according to new research.
Stopping progression of tissue injury after button battery ingestion
Button battery injuries in children have been increasingly severe -- resulting in devastating injuries and even death.
Following three failed replications of 2016 study, Science maintains 'EEoC'
After having issued an Editorial Expression of Concern on a 2016 Science study by Siddappa N.
Study shows the social benefits of political incorrectness
Using politically incorrect speech can incite controversy but also brings social benefits: It's a powerful way to appear authentic.
Modifiable risk factors contribute to gout
Elevated urate in the blood (hyperuricemia) is a precursor of gout, which is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis worldwide.
Traditional and electronic cigarettes linked to poor sleep
Use of traditional cigarettes or e-cigarettes was linked with more sleep difficulties in a recent Journal of Sleep Research study.
Migraines linked to higher risk of dementia
Dementia is the most common neurological disease in older adults, whereas headaches, including migraines, are the most common neurological disorder across all ages.
Study shows exposure to multiple languages may make it easier to learn one
A new study from the University of Washington finds that, based on brain activity, people who live in communities where multiple languages are spoken can identify words in yet another language better than those who live in a monolingual environment.
Similar information rates across languages, despite divergent speech rates
Spanish may seem to be spoken at a higher speed than Vietnamese, but that doesn't make it any more 'efficient'.
Beliefs about uncommitted sex may put marriages at risk
An individual's behaviors and attitudes in relation to uncommitted sexual relationships, even before the marriage, can contribute to marital satisfaction or dissolution.
Global analysis finds early onset colorectal cancer rising in many high-income countries
A new American Cancer Society study finds that colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is increasing exclusively in young adults in nine high-income countries spanning three continents.
Study shows how serotonin and a popular anti-depressant affect the gut's microbiota
A new UCLA-led biology study in mice strongly suggests that serotonin and drugs that target serotonin, such as anti-depressants, can have a major effect on the gut's microbiota -- the 100 trillion or so bacteria and other microbes that live in the human body's intestines.
Unique report details dermatological progression and effective treatment of a severe jellyfish sting
A detailed case report and comprehensive sequence of photographs in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, published by Elsevier, document the dermatological progression of a patient stung by a jellyfish off the coast of Cambodia.
New WHO autoantibody reference reagent will benefit SLE patients
Reference reagents are important in diagnostics and care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
ASHG asserts core genetic data privacy principles for all research and funding arenas
The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) today affirmed the crucial role of genetic and genomic data sharing to advance medicine and health research, and asserted core principles about privacy protections that should apply to all human genetics and genomics research regardless of funding source.
Using nature to produce a revolutionary optical material
An international team of researchers has reported a new way to safeguard drones, surveillance cameras and other equipment against laser attacks, which can disable or destroy the equipment.
First ancient DNA from Indus Valley civilization links its people to modern South Asians
Researchers have successfully sequenced the first genome of an individual from the Harappan civilization, also called the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC).
Obesity and psychosocial well-being among patients with cancer
In a study published in Psycho-Oncology, excess weight was linked with poorer psychosocial health among older adults diagnosed with breast cancer or prostate cancer.
Decrease in greenhouse gas emissions linked to Soviet Union's collapse
As the authors posit, the collapse of the Soviet Union led to decreasing meat product consumption, abandonment of cultivated land, and restructuring of food sales chains; which, in turn, elicited a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.
Students who do not date are not social misfits
Prior research identified four distinct dating trajectories from 6th to 12th grade: Low, Increasing, High Middle School, and Frequent.
Nanowires replace Newton's famous glass prism
Scientists have designed an ultra-miniaturized device that could directly image single cells without the need for a microscope or make chemical fingerprint analysis possible from a smartphone.
NIST team shows atoms can receive common communications signals
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated a new type of sensor that uses atoms to receive commonly used communications signals.
Resistance can spread even without the use of antibiotics
Antibiotic resistance does not spread only where and when antibiotics are used in large quantities, ETH researchers conclude from laboratory experiments.
Gender equality report card reveals systematic underrepresentation of women in STEM
The New York Stem Cell Foundation and the University of Michigan have used the NYSCF Institutional Report Card for Gender Equality to evaluate the representation of women in STEM across more than 500 institutions.
Children and partners are key
Fewer children, distant relatives or friends, and an increasing plurality of family models: These factors impact on the availability of support and care in old age.
Satellite finds a 'hook' of heavy rainfall in Hurricane Juliette
From its vantage point in orbit around the Earth, when the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean, it gathered data on rainfall rates occurring in Hurricane Juliette.
Size matters: How cells pack in epithelial tissues
Small-cell clones in proliferating epithelia -- tissues that line all body surfaces -- organize very differently than their normal-sized counterparts, according to a recent study from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research.
Researchers characterize lung inflammation associated with some cancer immnunotherapy
Immune checkpoint inhibitors uses the immune system to fight cancer.
Study examines personality and motivation in relation to internet gaming disorder
A new Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling study examining the relationships among personality, motivation, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) found that predictors of IGD include male gender, neurotic and introverted personality traits, and motivation related to achievement.
Possible treatment breakthrough for the rare disease arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) and Puerta de Hierro hospital in Majadahonda have found a possible treatment for this disease.
MouseLight project maps 1,000 neurons (and counting) in the mouse brain
Janelia Research Campus scientists have mapped more than 1,000 neurons in the mouse brain.
Groundwater studies can be tainted by 'survivor bias'
Bad wells tend to get excluded from studies on groundwater levels, a problem that could skew results everywhere monitoring is used to decide government policies and spending.
Ancient DNA study tracks formation of populations across Central Asia
Ethically sourced and informed by archaeology, an ambitious new study reports genome-wide DNA information from 523 ancient humans collected at archaeological sites across the Near East and Central and South Asia.
A new duck-billed dinosaur, Kamuysaurus japonicus, identified
The dinosaur, whose nearly complete skeleton was unearthed from 72 million year old marine deposits in Mukawa Town in northern Japan, belongs to a new genus and species of a herbivorous hadrosaurid dinosaur, according to the study published in Scientific Reports.
Should patients continue blood thinners after experiencing gastrointestinal bleeding?
Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, which are blood thinners such as warfarin and aspirin, are commonly taken to reduce the risk of potentially fatal blood clots, but they carry an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
The paradox of different house flies with few genetic differences
University of Houston evolutionary biologist Richard Meisel has published findings on sex determinates of house flies.
Weight change and bone health in older adults with obesity
Weight loss in older adults is accompanied by loss in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of bone fracture.
Eating mushrooms may help lower prostate cancer risk
A new study published in the International Journal of Cancer found an inverse relationship between mushroom consumption and the development of prostate cancer among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men, suggesting that regular mushroom intake might help to prevent prostate cancer.
Discovery of neuronal ensemble activities that is orchestrated to represent one memory
The brain stores memories through a neuronal ensemble, termed engram cells.
Breakdown of spawning synchrony silently threatens coral survival in red sea reefs
Changes to the environmental conditions that underpin the reproductive success of some corals may be causing their highly synchronized mass-spawning strategy to break down, a new study finds.
Study reveals links between extreme weather events and poor mental health
People with homes damaged by extreme weather events are more likely to experience mental health issues such as depression and anxiety even when the damage is relatively minor and does not force them to leave their homes, a new study suggests.
Tropical storm Faxai gets a name and NASA gets an infrared picture
Tropical Storm 14W has been moving through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean for several days and has now been renamed Faxai.
Best strategy for managing hypertension and preeclampsia at end of pregnancy
In 2009, the Hypertension and Preeclampsia Intervention Trial At near Term-I (HYPITAT- I) trial showed that inducing labor in women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at the end of pregnancy reduces the number of high risk situations for the mother, without compromising the health of newborns.
Diversity increases ecosystem stability
Freiburg's forestry scientists prove that forests that are more diverse are also more productive and more resilient
Time saving software in an age of ever-expanding data
Before embarking on a new research project, a thorough and exhaustive review of existing literature must be done to make sure the new project is novel.
Study offers new insights on impacts of crop trading in China
Feeding the world's growing population is one of the great challenges of the 21st century, particularly in China, which has nearly a quarter of the world's population but a fraction of the cropland.
Plant research could benefit wastewater treatment, biofuels and antibiotics
Chinese and Rutgers scientists have discovered how aquatic plants cope with water pollution, a major ecological question that could help boost their use in wastewater treatment, biofuels, antibiotics and other applications.
Source water key to bacterial water safety in remote Northern Australia
In the wet-dry topics of Australia, drinking water in remote communities is often sourced from groundwater bores.
SPEECHLESS, SCREAM and stomata development in plant leaves
A Nagoya University and Washington University-led team of scientists with two disparate sets of expertise -- in plant biology and protein structural chemistry -- have unraveled the atomic basis of how optimal numbers of stomata are made in leaves.
Synthetic biologists extend functional life of cancer fighting circuitry in microbes
Bioengineers at University of California San Diego developed a method to significantly extend the life of gene circuits used to instruct microbes to do things like produce and deliver drugs, break down chemicals and sense the environment.
UB and IRBio experts sequence the genome of an endemic spider from the Canary Islands
A research team of the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of Barcelona has sequenced the genome of the spider Dysdera silvatica Schmidt 1981, an endemic species living in the laurel forests in the islands La Gomera, La Palma, and El Hierro -in the Canary Islands (Spain).
Financial education programs, income-based repayment plans promote prosperity
Financial education programs and income-based repayment plans help young adults with student loan debt prosper after college, according to a study led by University of Illinois social work professor Min Zhan.
Novel study reveals presence of fungal DNA in the fetal human gut
A recent human study published in The FASEB Journal discovered the presence of fungal communities in the fetal gut.
Breakdown in coral spawning places species at risk of extinction
Synchronized coral spawning has become erratic, endangering the long-term survival of coral species, Tel Aviv University researchers say.

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