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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 13, 2019


Land restoration in Latin America shows big potential for climate change mitigation
Land restoration in Latin America and the Caribbean is picking up pace and scaling up projects will help the region meet its pledges under the Bonn Challenge, which aims to restore 350 million hectares of degraded and deforested land worldwide by 2030.
New way to target cancer's diversity and evolution
Scientists have revealed close-up details of a vital molecule involved in the mix and match of genetic information within cells -- opening up the potential to target proteins of this family to combat cancer's diversity and evolution.
Gene editing tool gets sharpened by WFIRM team
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine scientists have fine-tuned their delivery system to deliver a DNA editing tool to alter DNA sequences and modify gene function.
Gemini observatory captures multicolor image of first-ever interstellar comet
The first-ever comet from beyond our Solar System has been successfully imaged by the Gemini Observatory in multiple colors.
Researchers identify focus points to reduce opioid overdose deaths
A new study identifies specific locations where medication and harm reduction services for people with opioid use disorder should be available in order to have the greatest impact on reducing opioid overdose deaths.
Paramagnetic spins take electrons for a ride, produce electricity from heat
Local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material -- where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so.
B cells linked to immunotherapy for melanoma
Immunotherapy uses our body's own immune system to fight cancer.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP tracks fire and smoke from two continents
Wherever fires are burning around the world NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite's Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) can track the smoke and aerosols.
Researchers have identified areas of the retina that change in mild Alzheimer's disease
Finding biomarkers that enable early detection of Alzheimer's disease is one of medicine's biggest challenges, and the retina is one of the most promising candidates.
New health monitors are flexible, transparent and graphene enabled
ICFO researchers develop low-power wearable devices that can monitor multiple humans' vital signs.
Microbes make chemicals for scent marking in a cat
Domestic cats, like many other mammals, use smelly secretions from anal sacs to mark territory and communicate with other animals.
Nonphysician providers rarely interpret diagnostic imaging -- except radiography, fluoroscopy
Although Medicare claims data confirm the increasing role of nonphysician providers in imaging-guided procedures across the United States, according to ARRS' American Journal of Roentgenology, nurse practitioners and physician assistants still rarely render diagnostic imaging services, compared with the overall number of diagnostic imaging interpretations.
Low sea-ice cover in the Arctic
The sea-ice extent in the Arctic is nearing its annual minimum at the end of the melt season in September.
Researchers find waterhemp has evolved resistance to 4 herbicide sites of action
When a waterhemp biotype in eastern Nebraska survived a post-emergent application of the PPO inhibitor fomesafen, a team of university scientists decided to take a close look.
Brain-inspired computing could tackle big problems in a small way
While computers have become smaller and more powerful and supercomputers and parallel computing have become the standard, we are about to hit a wall in energy and miniaturization.
Disabled people marginalised by paperwork and programmes which aim to help them
Research from Lancaster University Management School (LUMS), published in Organization Studies shows disabled people face being marginalized by the very programs that are designed to help them.
How IL-6 allows the immune response to develop for a key cell, the T follicular helper
A preclinical study published in Science Immunology shows how the interplay of two interleukin signaling proteins, IL-6 and IL-2, affects the development of T follicular helper cells and germinal centers.
Trapped by a flexible schedule
A flexible schedule is one of the main advantages of freelance work.
Inspired by natural signals in living cells, researchers design artificial gas detector
A cube one-fortieth the size of a human red blood cell can glow when it detects flammable gas.
Negative posts on Facebook business pages outweigh positive posts 2 to 1
There are more than 60 million business pages on Facebook and that number is from 2017.
Ancient Australia was home to strange marsupial giants, some weighing over 1,000 kg
Palorchestid marsupials, an extinct group of Australian megafauna, had strange bodies and lifestyles unlike any living species, according to a study released Sept.
The enigma of bronze age tin
The origin of the tin used in the Bronze Age has long been one of the greatest enigmas in archaeological research.
Multidrug resistance: Not as recent as we thought
Researchers from Osaka University found that the ancient RND-type multidrug efflux pump AcrB from Haemophilus influenzae targets the same drugs as its more evolved counterpart from Escherichia coli, showing that multidrug resistance is an ancient trait.
Blink and you'll miss it
Many natural and synthetic chemical systems react and change their properties in the presence of certain kinds of light.
High social support associated with less violence among male teens in urban neighborhoods
UPMC Children's researchers find that the presence of adult social support is linked to less violence among at-risk teen boys.
Patient survey highlights challenges for the 1 in 4 living with rheumatic disease
Americans living with rheumatic disease face significant healthcare challenges, according to a national patient survey released this week by the American College of Rheumatology and its Simple Tasks™ public awareness campaign.
Predicting risk of heart failure for diabetes patients with help from machine learning
A new study led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and UT Southwestern Medical Center unveils a new, machine-learning derived model that can predict, with a high degree of accuracy, future heart failure among patients with diabetes.
NASA-NOAA satellite's night-time look at Tropical Storm Kiko
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean in the early hours of Sept.
Groovy! These grooved patterns better mitigate shock waves
A team of engineers at UC San Diego has discovered a method that could make materials more resilient against massive shocks such as earthquakes or explosions.
Same but different: unique cancer traits key to targeted therapies
Melbourne researchers have discovered that the key to personalised therapies for some types of lung cancers may be to focus on their differences, not their similarities.
Parasitology: Mother cells as organelle donors
Microbiologists at LMU and UoG have discovered a recycling process in the eukaryotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii that plays a vital role in the organism's unusual mode of reproduction.
Scientists create a nanomaterial that is both twisted and untwisted at the same time
A new nanomaterial developed by scientists at the University of Bath could solve a conundrum faced by scientists probing some of the most promising types of future pharmaceuticals.
Over one-fifth of injured US adult cyclists were not wearing a helmet -- new study
Men and ethnic minorities are less likely to wear cycle helmets and more likely to suffer from head and neck injuries in accidents, according to new research published in Brain Injury.
Predictable esports: Amateurs and professionals sit differently in a chair
A group of scientists from Skoltech, the MIPT, and the State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in St.
How new loops in DNA packaging help us make diverse antibodies
It's long been known that our immune cells mix and match bits of genetic code to make new kinds of antibodies to fight newly encountered threats.
Speeding up the drug discovery process to help patients
An international research team is perfecting a method to predict the potential clinical implications of new drugs before clinical trials even start.
MIT engineers develop 'blackest black' material to date
MIT engineers have cooked up a material made of carbon nanotubes that is 10 times blacker than anything that has previously been reported.
Cancer cells prefer a 'comfort cruise,' follow predictable paths of least resistance
New research from a group of Vanderbilt biomedical engineers reveals that while cancer cells move quickly in metastasis, they're rather lazy in which paths they choose -- opting to move through wider, easier to navigate spaces rather than smaller, confined spaces to reduce energy requirements during movement.
Children of refugees with PTSD are at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have studied what it means for children to have parents who are refugees and have PTSD.
Environmental pollution in China begins decreasing
For decades pollution in China has paralleled economic growth. But this connection has been weakened in recent years, according to a new international research study published in the Science Advances journal.
GPM analyzes rainfall in Bahamas from potential Tropical Cyclone 9
As the Bahamas continue to recover from Category 5 hurricane Dorian, a new developing tropical cyclone is bringing additional rainfall to an already soaked area.
Study finds certain drugs used to treat eye diseases excreted into human breast milk
Ranibizumab and aflibercept are medications used to treat several retinal diseases.
More severe OSA leads to higher blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension
In patients with high blood pressure resistant to treatment who also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the more severe their OSA, the higher their blood pressure, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
Tiny bubbles in our body could fight cancer better than chemo
Healthy cells in our body release nano-sized bubbles that transfer genetic material such as DNA and RNA to other cells.
Sticks and stones may break your bones, but this reaction edits skeletons
Marcos G. Suero and his research group at the Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) present a new reaction that allows for the edition of organic molecule's skeletons, opening up new avenues of research.
New vibration sensor detects buried objects from moving vehicle
At The Optical Society's (OSA) Laser Congress, held 29 September - Oct.
'Soft tactile logic' tech distributes decision-making throughout stretchable material
Inspired by octopuses, researchers have developed a structure that senses, computes and responds without any centralized processing -- creating a device that is not quite a robot and not quite a computer, but has characteristics of both.
Communities that Care prevention system helps to protect youth
Students in Pennsylvania school districts that participated in Communities that Care (CTC) coalitions were significantly less likely to use alcohol or marijuana, or to engage in delinquent behavior than those in non-CTC districts, according to a recent study published in Prevention Science.
Are differences in working memory development associated with crashes involving young drivers?
This study of 84 young drivers looked at the association between motor vehicle crashes and differences in the development of working memory, which is critical to awareness of hazards while driving.
Physical activity may attenuate menopause-associated atherogenic changes
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with a healthier blood lipid profile in menopausal women, but it doesn't seem to entirely offset the unfavorable lipid profile changes associated with the menopausal transition.
Developing therapeutic strategies for pregnant women with lupus
A highly gender-biased disease, lupus afflicts females some nine times more than males.
Study examines patterns of violence among young urban males
This observational study of adolescent men in urban neighborhoods examined associations between social support, patterns of violence, and violence-related risk behaviors or protective factors that might mitigate them.
Male Trinidad guppies find food thanks to females
For male Trinidad Guppies applies: if you are hungry, seek female company.
VISTA unveils a new image of the Large Magellanic Cloud
ESO's VISTA telescope reveals a remarkable image of the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our nearest galactic neighbors.
Team discovers polymorph selection during crystal growth can be thermodynamically driven
Lehigh University's Jeetain Mittal and his collaborators provide solid calculation to demonstrate the structural transformation in colloidal crystallization can be entirely thermodynamic, in contrast to the kinetic argument, from both theoretical and computational perspectives.
Extinction of Icelandic walrus coincides with Norse settlement
An international collaboration of scientists in Iceland, Denmark and the Netherlands has for the first time used ancient DNA analyses and C14-dating to demonstrate the past existence of a unique population of Icelandic walrus that went extinct shortly after Norse settlement some 1100 years ago.
Accounting for influencing factors when estimating suicide rates among US youth
Using unadjusted suicide rates to describe trends may be skewed because they are affected by differences in age and year of birth.
Addressing serious illness with a serious question to clinicians
A question: 'Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next month?' -- posed to elicit a clinician's overall impression of a patient -- produced a strong correlation.
How microtubules branch in new directions, a first look in animals
Cell biologist Thomas Maresca and senior research fellow Vikash Verma at the University of Massachusetts Amherst say they have, for the first time, directly observed and recorded in animal cells a pathway called branching microtubule nucleation, a mechanism in cell division that had been imaged in cellular extracts and plant cells but not directly observed in animal cells.
Slower growth in working memory linked to teen driving crashes
Research into why adolescent drivers are involved in motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of injury and death among 16- to 19-year-olds in the United States, has often focused on driving experience and skills.

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