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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 17, 2019


Special journal issue brings focus to importance of studying landscape pattern
A new special issue of the journal Landscape Ecology organized by scientists at the USDA Forest Service and North Carolina State University assesses the state of the science of landscape pattern analysis.
Scientists in New York City discover a valuable method to track rats
A new paper in The Journal of Urban Ecology, published by Oxford University Press, finds that rats can be baited to, or repelled from, locations using pheromones found in the scents of other rats.
The effects of variation in T6SS and bacteria on competition in host environment
A group of scientists studying the ways plant-associated bacteria interact were surprised to find that strains predicted to be more sensitive to bacteria were able to coexist with aggressor strains.
Electronic nose can sniff out which lung cancer patients will respond to immunotherapy
An electronic nose that detects chemicals in the breath of lung cancer patients can identify with 85% accuracy those who will or will not respond to immunotherapy, according to new research published in the leading cancer journal Annals of Oncology.
Exercise could slow withering effects of Alzheimer's
Exercising several times a week may delay brain deterioration in people at high risk for Alzheimer's disease, according to a study that scientists say merits further research to establish whether fitness can affect the progression of dementia.
Synthetic cells capture and reveal hidden messages of the immune system
New research is highly relevant to how antibodies are made in response to infections, vaccines and in autoimmunity due to the its analysis of a signal that is associated with hyper IgM syndrome, a genetic deficiency of CD40 ligand (CD40L) that results in profound immunodeficiency.
Feeling depressed? Mahjong might be the answer
When it comes to boosting mental health among older Chinese, it might be as simple as a game of mahjong, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.
Radiation may lower potential for side effects of CAR T therapy in non-hodgkin's lymphoma
Treating non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients with radiation therapy as an additional treatment while they wait for their CAR T cells to be manufactured may reduce the risk of CAR T therapy side effects once it is administered.
NASA-NOAA satellite catches Hurricane Kiko at night
Hurricane Kiko continued to track west through the Eastern Pacific Ocean when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and provided a view of the storm.
Here's what you need to rise to the top
Passion, grit, the right mindset and support from others are what's needed to rank among the best in a given field.
Hello, world! A new approach for physics in de sitter space
For decades, physicists have been attempting to reconcile quantum mechanics, the physics of the very small, with gravity, the physics of the very large.
Researchers see need for action on forest fire risk
How do humans affect forest fires? An international team of researchers has now shown for a region in north-eastern Poland that forest fires increasingly occurred there after the end of the 18th century with the change to organised forestry.
North Atlantic haddock use magnetic compass to guide them
A new study found that the larvae of haddock, a commercially important type of cod, have a magnetic compass to find their way at sea.
How nitrogen-fixing bacteria sense iron
New research reveals how nitrogen-fixing bacteria sense iron - an essential but deadly micronutrient.
Screening mammography could benefit men at high risk of breast cancer
Selective mammography screening can provide potentially lifesaving early detection of breast cancer in men who are at high risk for the disease, according to a new landmark study.
Ethanol fuels large-scale expansion of Brazil's farming land
A University of Queensland-led study has revealed that future demand for ethanol biofuel could potentially expand sugarcane farming land in Brazil by 5 million hectares by 2030.
Research reveals the crucial role of recycling in the evolution of life in our universe
New research by astrophysicists at the University of Kent reveals how the gas and energy expelled by stars are returned to the universe, and in what forms.
Study stresses the importance of staying physically active and the negative effects of even short-term inactivity
A new study presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (Sept.
Rare 10 million-year-old fossil unearths new view of human evolution
Near an old mining town in Central Europe, known for its picturesque turquoise-blue quarry water, lay Rudapithecus.
Early signs of adult diabetes are visible in children as young as 8 years old
Early signs of adulthood type 2 diabetes can be seen in children as young as 8 years old, decades before it is likely to be diagnosed, according to a new genetic study being presented at this year's European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, Spain (Sept.
One way childhood trauma leads to poorer health for women
Researchers have long known that childhood trauma is linked to poorer health for women at midlife.
Stroke patients relearning how to walk with peculiar shoe
Clinical trials have been completed on a therapeutic shoe engineered to improve stroke recovery.
Study finds manufacturing, driving and cleaning jobs linked to the highest risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Professional drivers, manufacturing workers and cleaners have a threefold increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with university teachers and physiotherapists, according to a new study presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and published in Diabetologia (the journal of EASD).
Racism a factor in asthma control for young African-American children
A new article in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology shows an association between African-American parents/guardians who have experienced the chronic stress associated with exposure to racism and poor asthma control in their young children.
Suicide risk factors vary by ethnic group
A University of Houston professor of psychology is reporting that suicide risk factors vary by ethnic group.
From primordial black holes new clues to dark matter
Moving through cosmic forests and spider webs in deep space in search of answers on the origin of the Cosmos.
Deeper understanding of early life experiences can help combat chronic obesity and frequent bingeing
According to a new study in the journal Heliyon, published by Elsevier, dysfunctional eating patterns and habits in overweight and obese adults can be triggered by early life experiences that are deeply rooted within patients' personality features.
Bat influenza viruses possess an unexpected genetic plasticity
Bat-borne influenza viruses enter host cells by utilizing surface exposed MHC-II molecules of various species, including humans.
The market in your head
When bidding in a competitive market, our brains use a special type of heuristic to adjust the price depending on the success of previous attempts to buy goods.
Global warming makes it harder for birds to mate, study finds
New research led by the University of East Anglia (UEA) and University of Porto (CIBIO-InBIO) shows how global warming could reduce the mating activity and success of grassland birds.
A large study indicates how cities can promote walking for travel
Coinciding with the European Mobility Week, a study performed in seven European cities focuses on walking for travel, a strategy to increase physical activity in cities.
Study changes guidelines for sepsis management
University of Arizona Health Sciences researcher ends debate among physicians regarding sepsis management.
Complexity of plastics make it impossible to know which are dangerous
A recent study found that 3 out of 4 plastic consumer products contain harmful chemicals.
Scientists' design discovery doubles conductivity of indium oxide transparent coatings
esearchers at the University of Liverpool, University College London (UCL), NSG Group (Pilkington) and Diamond Light Source have made an important design discovery that could dramatically improve the performance of a key material used to coat touch screens and other devices.
Targeted radiotherapy technique could cut treatment time from two months to two weeks
Advanced radiotherapy technology could safely deliver curative treatment for some prostate cancer patients in just one or two weeks, according to new research published today.
Elusive compounds of greenhouse gas isolated by Warwick chemists
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent atmospheric pollutant. Although naturally occurring, anthropogenic N2O emissions from intensive agricultural fertilisation, industrial processes, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass are a major cause for concern.
Emissions from cannabis growing facilities may impact indoor and regional air quality
Scientists from the Desert Research Institute studied air quality inside of four cannabis growing facilities in Nevada and California.
UCI team uses machine learning to help tell which wildfires will burn out of control
An interdisciplinary team of scientists at the University of California, Irvine has developed a new technique for predicting the final size of a wildfire from the moment of ignition.
Electric pill bottles and text messaging not enough to affect blood pressure control
Blood pressure levels in patients with hypertension did not improve when patients took part in automated texting or were given electronic pill bottles.
Studying drivers behind cardiac arrhythmias
Despite advances in medical imaging, the mechanisms leading to the irregular contractions of the heart during rhythm disorders remain poorly understood.
March of the multiple penguin genomes
Published today in GigaScience is an article presenting 19 high-coverage penguin genome sequences.
Novel anti-cancer nanomedicine for efficient chemotherapy
Researchers have developed a new anti-cancer nanomedicine for targeted cancer chemotherapy.
Peatlands trap CO2, even during droughts
French scientists studied the two species of moss that make up the peatland.
Deprivation associated with increased risk of death following hospital admission with type 2 diabetes
New research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (Sept.
Brain may not need body movements to learn virtual spaces
A new study advances our understanding of how the brain learns in virtual reality, and shows that visual input, without body movement, is sufficient for learning virtual environments.
NASA's Terra Satellite sees the birth of Tropical Storm Imelda
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the western Gulf of Mexico during the early afternoon of Sept.
Gene editing enables researchers to correct mutation in muscle stem cells in DMD model
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare but devastating genetic disorder that causes muscle loss and physical impairments.
Nature documentaries increasingly talk about threats to nature, but still don't show them
Researchers analyzing recent BBC and Netflix nature documentaries found that although they increasingly mention threats to nature, visual depictions of these threats remain scarce, potentially misleading audiences on the state of the natural world.
Comparing effectiveness of 2 surgical methods for uterine prolapse
Uterine prolapse happens when weakened muscles and ligaments no longer provide enough support for the uterus, which then protrudes into or out of the vagina.
Tortillas tell the story of folate deficiency in Mexico: study
A new study hat accounts for folic acid fortification in staple foods made from wheat and corn, such as bakery bread and tortillas, found that large proportion of women of childbearing age have FA intake below levels recommended by the World Health Organization, potentially raising the risk for neural tube defects in their offspring.
Pros and cons of genetic scissors
Crispr technology has greatly facilitated gene editing. Associate Professor Thorsten Müller from Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Dr.
Novel mechanism of electron scattering in graphene-like 2D materials
Suggesting an unconventional way to manipulate the properties of 2D materials in the presence of a Bose-Einstein condensate, and an alternative strategy to design high-temperature superconductors.
A safer way for police to test drug evidence
Scientists have demonstrated a way for police to quickly and safely test whether a baggie or other package contains illegal drugs without having to handle any suspicious contents directly.
Fungicides as an underestimated hazard for freshwater organisms
Large amounts of fungicides, used in agriculture, leak into nearby surface waters.
New study investigates the role of Tambora eruption in the 1816 'year without a summer'
A new study has estimated for the first time how the eruption of Mount Tambora changed the probability of the cold and wet European 'year without a summer' of 1816.
Statistical inference to mimic the operating manner of highly-experienced crystallographer
A research team from Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), RIKEN, and the University of Tokyo developed a novel data analysis method for prior evaluation of single crystal structure analysis.
Genomic migration analysis shows antibiotic resistance moving from humans to animals
Clemson professor Vince Richards has published results showing that human-acquired antibiotic resistance genes are being transmitted to livestock, companion animals and wildlife.
Does adding therapy before, after surgery for urinary incontinence help?
Adding behavioral and physical therapy before and after surgery for women with stress and urgency urinary incontinence resulted in a small improvement in symptoms compared to women who just had surgery but that difference in symptoms may not be clinically important.
Study supports taking blood cultures before beginning treatment for sepsis
In a new study led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital, a team performed a prospective study in seven centers across North America and found that blood cultures drawn after antimicrobial administration resulted in a loss of almost 50 percent of available clinical information.
Nutrition programs alone are not enough to support healthy brain development
Caregiving programs are five times more effective than nutrition programs in supporting smarter, not just taller, children in low- and middle-income countries.
Scientists create fully electronic 2-dimensional spin transistors
Physicists from the University of Groningen constructed a two-dimensional spin transistor, in which spin currents were generated by an electric current through graphene.
Research suggests how environmental toxin produced by algae may lead to ALS
A computer generated-simulation allowed researchers to see how a toxin produced by algal blooms in saltwater might cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).
Programmable swarmbots make flexible biological tools
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed a new platform to create biological drugs using specially engineered bacteria that burst and release useful proteins when they sense that their capsule is becoming too crowded.
Did microbes assist life in colonizing land?
The microbiome of terrestrial organisms, regardless of their kinship relationships, differs significantly from those of aquatic organisms.
Alzheimer's memory loss reversed by new head device using electromagnetic waves
Phoenix, AZ (September 17, 2019) - There is finally some encouraging news for the millions of Americans suffering from Alzheimer's Disease.
Study gives clues to the origin of Huntington's disease, and a new way to find drugs
Using a new technique to study brain development, scientists were able to trace the causes of Huntington's back to early developmental stages when the brain has only just begun to form.
New piece of Alzheimer's puzzle found
In a study published in Scientific Reports, University of Alberta researcher Jack Jhamandas and his team found two short peptides, or strings of amino acids, that when injected into mice with Alzheimer's disease daily for five weeks, significantly improved the mice's memory.
Female athletes seek specialty care for concussion later than males
Female athletes seek specialty medical treatment later than male athletes for sports-related concussions (SRC), and this delay may cause them to experience more symptoms and longer recoveries.
Microbiome may be involved in mechanisms related to muscle strength in older adults
New study suggests the gut microbiome has a role in mechanisms related to muscle strength in older adults.
AI-guided robotics enable automation of complex synthetic biological molecules
This article describes a platform that combines artificial intelligence-driven synthesis planning, flow chemistry and a robotically controlled experimental platform to minimize the need for human intervention in the synthesis of small organic molecules.
Study: Bigger cities boost 'social crimes'
The same underlying mechanism that boosts urban innovation and startup businesses can also explain why certain types of crimes, like car theft and robbery, thrive in a larger population.
Scientists discover one of world's oldest bird species in Waipara, New Zealand
The ancestor of some of the largest flying birds ever has been found in Waipara, New Zealand.
Every step a cell takes, every move they make -- scientists will be watching
An interdisciplinary team has found a solution to a problem plaguing developmental biology -- long-term cell tracking and manipulation.
Familial hypercholesterolemia patients at high risk for cardiovascular events
Individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) were able to lower their cholesterol under FH specialty care, but many are still not meeting LDL-cholesterol targets, according to the FH Foundation's CASCADE FH® Registry.
Cancer cells turn to cannibalism to survive chemotherapy, study suggests
Researchers from the Tulane University School of Medicine have discovered that some cancer cells survive chemotherapy by eating their neighboring tumor cells.
CU researchers identify potential target for cardiac fibrosis treatment
A research team led by scientists at the University of Colorado School of Medicine has identified a potential target for treating heart failure related to fibrosis.
UK study shows increasing proportion of younger adults with type 2 diabetes, with younger cases having a worse metabolic profile
New research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (Sept.
Scientists identify previously unknown 'hybrid zone' between hummingbird species
We usually think of a species as being reproductively isolated -- that is, not mating with other species in the wild.
Researchers find building mutations into Ebola virus protein disrupts ability to cause disease
Creating mutations in a key Ebola virus protein that helps the deadly virus escape from the body's defenses can make the virus unable to produce sickness and activate protective immunity in the infected host, according to a study by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
Diamonds are forever: New foundation for nanostructures
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have fabricated a novel glass and synthetic diamond foundation that can be used to create miniscule micro -- and nanostructures.
Emphasizing social play in kindergarten improves academics, reduces teacher burnout
Emphasizing more play, hands-on learning, and students helping one another in kindergarten improves academic outcomes, self-control and attention regulation, finds new UBC research.
Married CEOs are more committed to social issues than non-married peers
Firms led by married CEOs were associated with significantly higher scores on a respected corporate social responsibility index.
New method for detecting quantum states of electrons
Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method -- called image charge detection -- to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states.
Northern France was already inhabited more than 650,000 years ago
The first evidence of human occupation in northern France has been put back by 150,000 years, thanks to the findings of a team of scientists from the CNRS and the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle at the emblematic site of Moulin Quignon.
Acoustic energy harnessed to soften shear-thickening fluids
Researchers are using ultrasonic waves to manipulate the viscosity of shear-thickening materials, turning solids to slush -- and back again.
UM study abroad students fuel understanding of gaps in conservation data
A new collaborative study between students from University of Montana and the Universidad de Concepcion in Chile seeks to understand the type and magnitude of gaps in scientific information as a way to improve conservation planning.
HTA in the European network: Osteoporosis screening without proof of benefit
For the first time, IQWiG was in charge of a health technology assessment for the European network EUnetHTA.
Elephant seal 'supermoms' produce most of the population, study finds
Most of the pups born in an elephant seal colony in California over a span of five decades were produced by a relatively small number of long-lived 'supermoms,' according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Mutant live attenuated Ebola virus immunizes non-human primates
Inoculation with an Ebola virus that has mutations in a protein called VP35 does not cause disease and elicits protection in monkeys, researchers show Sept.
NASA satellite provides a view of a large hurricane Humberto
NASA's Terra Satellite provided a visible image of Hurricane Humberto when it was off the coast of the Carolinas and slowly moving north.
Novel approach to ultrasound raises possibility of new medical applications
A new ultrasound technique provides a non-invasive way of assessing bone structure on the microscale.
UTSW researchers identify new pathway that controls fat formation
In work suggesting new therapeutic targets to fight obesity, UT Southwestern researchers have identified a novel mechanism that regulates the creation of fat in mammals.
New hunt for dark matter
Dark matter is only known by its effect on massive astronomical bodies, but has yet to be directly observed or even identified.
Hysterectomy and mesh support may have similar outcomes in repairing vaginal prolapse
Two surgical procedures used to repair vaginal prolapse -- hysterectomy and employing mesh support that preserves the uterus -- have comparable clinical outcomes after three years, according to new data from researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine.
Not the hairstyle, but the content: Hair indicates whether wild animals were 'stressed'
Scientists of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) have now demonstrated that the 'stress' hormone cortisol is deposited in hair of wild mongooses in Portugal and determined baselines for cortisol in these carnivores.
Shark pups lose gains in stressed environments
Scientists compared the growth and body condition of one species of shark in two different environments.
Stevens researchers to develop handheld device to diagnose skin cancer
Using shortwave rays installed in cellphones and airport security scanners, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have developed a technique that detects skin lesions and determines whether they are cancerous or benign -- a technology that could ultimately be incorporated into a handheld device that could rapidly diagnose skin cancer without a scalpel in sight.
HKUST researchers unlock cancer-causing mechanism of E. coli toxin with synthetic biology approach
An inter-disciplinary team of researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) unraveled how a toxin released by Escherichia coli (E. coli) - a human gut bacteria, is connected to colorectal cancer, offering new insights to the health impact of this prevalent bacteria and facilitating future research on the prevention of this third most common cancer worldwide*.
Kaleidoscope mirror symmetry inspires new design for optical tools, technologies
In a kaleidoscope, mirrors are placed at angles to create a visual illusion of multiple, symmetric images from one object.
New study measures how much of corals' nutrition comes from hunting
When it comes to feeding, corals have a few tricks up their sleeve.
Fruit flies' microbiomes shape their evolution
In just five generations, an altered microbiome can lead to genome-wide evolution in fruit flies, according to new research led researchers at the University of Pennsylvania.
Breast cancer screening found effective in men at high risk for the disease
Men at high risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from mammography, or breast X-ray, screening for the disease, a new study shows.
A Matter of concentration
Researchers are studying how proteins regulate the stem cells of plants.
Hyperbolic paraboloid origami harnesses bistability to enable new applications
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Tokyo are looking the 'hypar' origami for ways to leverage its structural properties.
Imaging reveals new results from landmark stem cell trial for stroke
Researchers led by Sean I. Savitz, M.D., at UTHealth Houston reported today in the journal Stem Cells that bone marrow cells used to treat ischemic stroke in an expanded Phase I trial were not only safe and feasible, but also resulted in enhanced recovery compared to a matched historical control group.
Miniaturizing medical imaging, sensing technology
Scientists have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis.
Quarter of teachers in England report 60-hour working week
The paper, published today and funded by the Nuffield Foundation, is the first piece of research to look at data from more than 40,000 primary and secondary teachers in England collected between 1992 and 2017.

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