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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 26, 2019


Army project brings quantum internet closer to reality
A US Army research result brings the quantum internet a step closer.
Stanford scientists find potential diagnostic tool, treatment for Parkinson's disease
Investigators at the Stanford University School of Medicine have pinpointed a molecular defect that seems almost universal among patients with Parkinson's disease and those at a high risk of acquiring it.
Machine learning at the quantum lab
The electron spin of individual electrons in quantum dots could serve as the smallest information unit of a quantum computer.
Massive exoplanet orbiting tiny star challenges planet formation theory
Astronomers have discovered a giant Jupiter-like exoplanet in an unlikely location -- orbiting a small red dwarf star.
Using the immune system as a defence against cancer
Research published today in the British Journal of Cancer has found that a naturally occurring molecule and a component of the immune system that can successfully target and kill cancer cells, can also encourage immunity against cancer resurgence.
Human kidney map charts our growing immune defense
The first cell atlas of the human kidney's immune system has been created after scientists mapped nearly 70,000 individual kidney cells from early life and adults.
Music is essential for the transmission of ethnobiological knowledge
Songs are a storehouse for ethnobiological knowledge and a means to construct, maintain and mobilize peoples' relations with their local environments.
AI identifies genes linked to heart failure
Genetic research led by Queen Mary University of London could open the way to earlier identification of people at risk of heart failure and to the development of new treatments.
Preserving old bones with modern technology
A team of University of Colorado Boulder anthropologists is out to change the way that scientists study old bones damage-free.
Shocking heat waves stabilize single atoms
Single atom catalysts are highly desirable, but difficult to stabilize.
MSU researchers lead team that observes exotic radioactive decay process
Researchers from the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University and TRIUMF have observed a rare nuclear decay.
Pay, flexibility, advancement: They all matter for workers' health and safety, study shows
The terms and conditions of your employment -- including your pay, hours, schedule flexibility and job security -- influence your overall health as well as your risk of being injured on the job, according to new research from the University of Washington.
PACIFIC survival explained: Cancer spread reduced, new distant growth most often in the brain
A new analysis of survival data for the randomized, phase III PACIFIC trial finds adding the immunotherapy cancer drug durvalumab to radiation and chemotherapy significantly decreased the recurrence of lung cancer both in the chest area and in distant sites outside the chest.
Air pollution linked to increased risk of infant death & reduced lung function in children
Two studies to be presented at the European Respiratory Society congress show that air pollution is linked to increased risk of infant deaths and reduced lung function in children.
A planet that should not exist
Astronomers detected a giant planet orbiting a small star. The planet has much more mass than theoretical models predict.
Sport has its benefits but do not overdo it
In top athletes, excess physical activity can be harmful, as cases of 'overtraining syndrome' suggest.
Galaxy found to float in a tranquil sea of halo gas
Using one cosmic mystery to probe another, astronomers have analyzed the signal from a fast radio burst, an enigmatic blast of cosmic radio waves lasting less than a millisecond, to characterize the diffuse gas in the halo of a massive galaxy.
Anxiety disorders linked to disturbances in the cells' powerhouses
The powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria, provides energy for cellular functions.
New studies question whether novel anti-cancer drugs are worth their extra cost
Many new anti-cancer medicines add little value for patients compared to standard treatment and are rarely worth the extra cost, according to results of two studies investigating links between clinical benefit and pricing in Europe and the USA, reported at the ESMO Congress 2019.
Teenage acne may be a natural, transient inflammatory state
Adolescent acne does not always result in a pathological condition; rather, it may be a natural, transient inflammatory state occurring when the maturing facial skin is exposed to new microbes and enhanced production of an oily substance called sebum.
New chip poised to enable hand-held microwave imaging
Researchers have developed a new microwave imager chip that could one day enable low-cost handheld microwave imagers, or cameras.
Living coral cover will slow future reef dissolution
The living tissue on corals protects their skeleton from dissolving as a result of ocean acidification according to an in situ experiment on Australia's Great Barrier Reef.
Earliest signs of life: Scientists find microbial remains in ancient rocks
Western Australia's famous 3.5-billion-year-old stromatolites contain microbial remains of some of the earliest life on Earth, UNSW scientists have found.
A comprehensive atlas of genetic regulation of lipid metabolism published
An international research team has identified several novel genetic variants associated with plasma levels of lipid species and cardiovascular disease risk in humans.
Can excessive athletic training make your brain tired? New study says yes
You'd expect excessive athletic training to make the body tired, but can it make the brain tired too?
New genes identified in hearing loss, providing treatment hope
A new study published today in The American Journal of Human Genetics has identified 44 genes linked to age-related hearing loss giving a much clearer understanding of how the condition develops and potential treatments.
NASA's TESS mission spots its 1st star-shredding black hole
For the first time, NASA's planet-hunting Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) watched a black hole tear apart a star in a cataclysmic phenomenon called a tidal disruption event.
Study suggests French ban on food additive may be premature
Michigan State University and University of Nebraska Medical Center researchers are refuting an earlier French government-funded study that claims titanium dioxide, a common food additive used worldwide, causes digestive inflammation and lesions in rats.
Research shows racial disparities in pregnant women on dialysis
New research from the University of Cincinnati finds that among patients with certain kidney disease there is a racial disparity as to who is more likely to become pregnant.
Jumping the gap may make electronics faster
A quasi-particle that travels along the interface of a metal and dielectric material may be the solution to problems caused by shrinking electronic components, according to an international team of engineers.
Galaxy surrounded by a halo of tranquil gas
Astronomers studying the outskirts of a distant galaxy have discovered the galaxy sits in a serene ocean of gas.
Scientists finally find superconductivity in place they have been looking for decades
SLAC/Stanford scientists prove a well-known model of material behavior applies to high-temperature superconductors, giving them a new tool for understanding how these materials conduct electricity with no loss.
U of M research discovers link between stress and circadian clock health
New research from the University of Minnesota Medical School found a little stress can make the circadian clock run better and faster.
NASA finds Tropical Storm Karen's strength on western side
NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Tropical Storm Karen on Sept.
Immune response against Toxocara roundworms helps explain disease
Neurotoxocarosis (NT) occurs in humans when larvae of the Toxocara roundworm migrate into the central nervous system.
How fungus-farming ants could help solve our antibiotic resistance problem
For the last 60 million years, fungus-growing ants have farmed fungi for food.
Long-term hormone tx increases mortality risk for men with low PSA after prostate surgery
A secondary analysis of a recent clinical trial that changed the standard of care for men with recurring prostate cancer finds long-term hormone therapy does more harm than good for many men and calls for rethinking treatment guidelines based on a patient's post-operative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.
Inflammation amps up neurite growth, gene expression involved in heat, cold sensitivity
Inflammation increases neuronal activity, gene expression and sensory nerve (neurite) outgrowth in neurons involved in thermal -- but not physical- sensations in mice.
Walking speed may predict return to work in young stroke survivors
A simple test of walking speed may be a reliable tool to evaluate whether young stroke survivors are ready to return to work.
Predicting a hurricane's intensity can prove difficult
Many scientists have said that storms are more intense than ever before - Cat.
NIST goes with the (slow) flow: New technique could improve biotech, precision medicine
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed an optical system that accurately measures the flow of extraordinarily tiny amounts of liquids -- as small as 10 billionths of a liter (nanoliters) per minute.
Link between assisted reproduction and risk for prostate cancer
In a new national register study from Lund University in Sweden, researchers have studied the link between prostate cancer and infertility.
Mosquitoes more likely to lay eggs in closely spaced habitats
Patches of standing water that are close together are more likely to be used by mosquitoes to lay eggs in than patches that are farther apart.
Gendered play in hunter-gatherer children strongly influenced by community demographics
The gendered play of children from 2 hunter-gatherer societies is strongly influenced by the demographics of their communities and the gender roles modelled by the adults around them, a new study finds.
UMD CONSERVE Center leading effort to advance water and food security
We're running out of water to grow food and the UMD CONSERVE Center of Excellence is leading the effort to develop and adopt solutions.
Semen miRNAs could be non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer
Researchers of the Human Molecular Genetics group at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), led by Dr.
Molecular link between chronic pain and depression revealed
Researchers at Hokkaido University have identified the brain mechanism linking chronic pain and depression in rats.
How to tie microscopic knots
Physicists from the University of Colorado Boulder have discovered a new way to tie microscopic knots within a solution of liquid crystals.
International study finds similar results from total or partial hip replacement
The trial was conducted on 1,495 patients 50 or older who had been able to walk before having a displaced femoral neck fracture, at 80 centres in the 10 countries of Canada, the US, Spain, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, Finland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Nearly 1 in 3 patients with lupus use prescription opioids for pain
A new study finds nearly one in three adults with lupus use prescription opioids to manage pain, despite a lack of evidence that opioids are effective for reducing pain from rheumatic diseases.
Viruses as modulators of interactions in marine ecosystems
Viruses are mainly known as pathogens - often causing death.
Women's clinic closures associated with higher cervical cancer mortality, lower screening
Following the closure of nearly 100 women's health clinics across the United States from 2010 to 2013, fewer women were screened for cervical cancer, more women were diagnosed with advanced stages of the disease and mortality rates rose.
Severe silicosis found among fabricators of engineered quartz stone
In this week's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, researchers from California, Colorado, Texas and Washington report 18 cases of severe silicosis, and two fatalities, among young, mostly Hispanic men, who worked at engineered stone fabrication plants.
Dishing the dirt on an early man cave
Fossil animal droppings, charcoal from ancient fires and bone fragments litter the ground of one of the world's most important human evolution sites, new research reveals.
Study champions inland fisheries as rural nutrition hero
Researchers from MSU and the FAO synthesize new data and assessment methods to show how freshwater fish feed poor rural populations in many areas of the world.
Looking confident key to raising money in Initial Coin Offerings -- new research
The key to raising money in an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) appears to be about how confident your team look to potential investors, new research shows.
Enigmatic radio burst illuminates a galaxy's tranquil halo
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have for the first time observed that a fast radio burst passed through a galactic halo.
Genomic map implicates broad immune cell involvement in multiple sclerosis
In a study of 115,803 individuals, the authors have identified 233 sites or loci in the human genome that contribute to the onset of MS.
Neurons' response to seizure-induced stress reduces seizure severity
In response to seizures, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a network of flattened tubes in the cell that packages and transports proteins, triggers a stress response that reduces brain activity and seizure severity.
Teens share stories to deter other students from using tobacco
An innovative strategy called Teens Against Tobacco Use showed promise as an effective strategy to deter tobacco use in middle and high school students, according to a research study by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Public Health.
Researchers uncover molecular changes associated with treating lymphatic filariasis
The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis delivers mass drug administration to 500 million people each year, and adverse events are common following treatment.
Chemists clarify a chiral conundrum?
Rice University researchers set out to untangle the mysterious interactions in mixtures of proteins and gold nanorods.
Disparities persist in early kidney transplantation despite policy changes
The proportion of preemptive transplants -- when a patient receives a kidney transplant before starting dialysis -- increased after implementation of the 2014 Kidney Allocation System from 9.0% to 9.8% of all kidney transplants.
Adding radiation after immunotherapy improves PFS for some pts with metastatic NSCLC
Adding precisely aimed, escalated doses of radiation after patients no longer respond to immunotherapy reinvigorates the immune system in some patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), increasing progression-free survival (PFS).
Scientists connected fragments of pine savanna and new species keep showing up
By connecting small, restored patches of savanna to one another via habitat corridors at an experimental landscape within the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, a nearly 20-year-long study has shown an annual increase in the number of plant species within fragments over time, and a drop in the number of species disappearing from them entirely.
How neural circuits form in a developing embryo
A new imaging method follows young neurons in a developing embryo as they progress from a messy jumble of cells into a coordinated control center.
Teenagers less likely to respond to mothers with controlling tone of voice
Teenagers are less likely to cooperate and put effort into their mother's requests when they are said in a controlling tone of voice, researchers have found.
Basking sharks exhibit different diving behavior depending on the season
Tracking the world's second-largest shark species has revealed that it moves to different depths depending on the time of year.
New findings enable more heart donations
There is a risk of every fourth heart examined for possible donation being dismissed as unusable due to stress-induced heart failure.
Scientists watch a black hole shredding a star
A satellite searching space for new planets gave astronomers an unexpected glimpse at a black hole ripping a star to shreds.
Otherworldly worms with three sexes discovered in Mono Lake
The extreme environment of Mono Lake was thought to only house two species of animals -- until now.
Farmed oysters able to protect themselves from acidification
Oysters bred for fast growth and disease resistance are able to adapt their shell growth to protect themselves from environmental acidification, according to new research.
Positive relationships boost self-esteem, and vice versa
Does having close friends boost your self-esteem, or does having high self-esteem influence the quality of your friendships?
Catching evolution in the act
Researchers have produced some of the first evidence that shows that artificial selection and natural selection act on the same genes, a hypothesis predicted by Charles Darwin in 1859.
Disrupting daily routine of gut microbiota impacts host metabolic function, mouse study shows
Disrupting the daily routine of gut microbes in mice impacts their metabolism, increasing the risk for metabolic dysfunction, according to a new study.
UMass Amherst researchers release reports on economic impacts of MGM Springfield
In two highly anticipated reports about the economic impacts of MGM Springfield, University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers found that the resort-casino's construction was felt in every corner of the Commonwealth, and its development has been part of the strengthening housing and real estate markets of Greater Springfield.
Predicting cancer versus autism risk in PTEN patients
In a new study published in American Journal of Human Genetics, a team of researchers led by Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., Chair of Cleveland Clinic's Genomic Medicine Institute, identified a metabolite that may predict whether individuals with PTEN mutations will develop cancer or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
How a protein connecting calcium and plant hormone regulates plant growth
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that a unique mechanism involving calcium, the plant hormone auxin and a calcium-binding protein is responsible for regulating plant growth.
Virtual human hand simulation holds promise for prosthetics
Animating human hands has long been considered one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics.
Thousands of meltwater lakes mapped on the east Antarctic ice sheet
The number of meltwater lakes on the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is more significant than previously thought, according to new research.
Noninvasive radiation tx offers long-term benefits to pts with high-risk heart arrhythmia
Treating high-risk heart patients with a single, high dose of radiation therapy can dramatically reduce episodes of rapid, abnormal heartbeats for more than 2 years, offering hope to patients who have exhausted other treatment options.
Trial finds high-dose radiation effective for men whose prostate cancer has spread
A randomized clinical trial of targeted, high-dose radiation for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer has shown the treatment to be an effective and safe option for patients who wish to delay hormone-suppression therapy.
MIPT scientists come up with faster way to discover antibiotics
Russian biochemists have identified a promising new class of antibiotics.
Dog rabies vaccination programs affect human exposure, prophylaxis use
The World Health Organization has made it a goal to eliminate human rabies deaths due to dog bites by the year 2030.
Found: 'Poster child' for being shredded by a black hole
NASA's TESS has for the first time seen the aftermath of a star that was violently ripped apart by a supermassive black hole.
As we age, oral health plays increasing role in overall health
The need is evident, say the authors. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics indicates that the prevalence of cavities is more than twice as high in older adults than younger adults.
Interactive avatar boosts performance of children with ADHD
A new study has shown that an interactive avatar, which gives both instructions and feedback on the attention of the learner, can improve the performance of ADHD children on a complex problem-solving task.
Development of highly sensitive diode, converts microwaves to electricity
A group of Japanese researchers developed a highly sensitive rectifying element in the form of a nanowire backward diode, which can covert low-power microwaves into electricity.
Discovery in gallium nitride a key enabler of energy efficient electronics
Gallium nitride, a semiconductor that revolutionized energy-efficient LED lighting, could also transform electronics and wireless communication, thanks to a discovery made by Cornell researchers.
Cause of antibiotic resistance identified
Bacteria can change form in human body, hiding the cell wall inside themselves to avoid detection.
Habitat connectivity increases plant diversity over decades
Restoring habitat connectivity may be a powerful tool in restoring lost plant biodiversity in fragmented ecosystems, a new study suggests.
Researchers discover new, treatable pathway known to cause hypertension in obese people
There's no question that as body weight increases, so too does blood pressure.
New calculator will help clinicians diagnose diabetes more accurately
A new calculator developed by the University of Exeter will help clinicians classify whether a patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, ensuring they get the best treatment and reducing complications.
Technique can image individual proteins within synapses
Researchers at MIT and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT have devised a new way to rapidly image synaptic proteins at high resolution.
New function in a protein of plants essential to developing drought-tolerant crops
Researchers of the Universitat Politècnica de València and the University of Malaga have discovered a new function in the BAG4 plant protein.
Simple hydrothermal method to produce tin dioxide for lithium-ion battery
In a paper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, a group of researchers led by Wei Zhang from the Yunnan Minzu University, China have developed a simple, low cost and eco-friendly method to synthesize SnO2 nanorods for lithium ion batteries.
Tracking Alzheimer's disease pathology in single neuronal cells
University of Warwick researchers have developed a superior method to describe the very earliest effects that Alzheimer's Disease proteins have on the properties of brain cells.
Women equally satisfied with cosmetic results of partial, whole breast radiation after lumpectomy
Whole breast radiation and partial breast radiation following a lumpectomy yield similar cosmetic outcomes for women diagnosed with early stages of cancer who wish to preserve their breasts.
Tasmanian devil research could help tackle immunotherapy resistance
A cluster of interacting proteins that are active in both human cancers and Tasmanian devil facial tumours, may give clues to how cancers evade the immune system, according to a study part-funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Cancer Cell today (Thursday).
Lorenzo now a more organized and powerful hurricane on NASA satellite imagery
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided a full visible image of a strengthening Hurricane Lorenzo in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean.
Black hole shreds star, UH astronomer on discovery team
For the first time, astronomers have witnessed the immediate aftermath of a star being violently ripped apart by a supermassive black hole.
How neuronal recognition of songbird calls unfolds over time
A novel computational approach sheds new light on the response of neurons in the brain of a songbird when it hears and interprets the meaning of another bird's call.
Pancreatic cancer discovery reveals how the aggressive cancer fuels its growth
A new discovery about pancreatic cancer sheds light on how the cancer fuels its growth and may help explain how promising cancer drugs work -- and for whom they will fail.
The FASEB Journal: PML as potential treatment for pancreatic cancer
A recent study in The FASEB Journal identifies a new mechanism of pancreatic tumors' resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment.
People living near green spaces are at lower risk of metabolic syndrome
A study analyses for the first time the relation between long-term exposure to residential green spaces and a cluster of conditions that include obesity and hypertension.
How time affects the fate of stem cells
EPFL scientists have discovered how temporal fluctuations in the levels of two transcription factors can push embryonic stems cells into becoming different cell types.
Engineers produce water-saving crop irrigation sensor
Developed by the team of UConn engineers -- environmental, mechanical, and chemical -- the sensors expected to save nearly 35% of water consumption and cost far less than what exists.
Compute at the speed of light
A new way to achieve integrated photonics--a new device has been developed at the University of Delaware that could have applications in imaging, sensing and quantum information processing, such as on-chip transformation optics, mathematical operations and spectrometers.
The dark giraffe, the new dark horse
Darker male giraffes have been found to be more solitary and less social than their lighter-coloured counterparts, according to new research from The University of Queensland.
Spider silk: A malleable protein provides reinforcement
Scientists from the University of Würzburg have discovered that spider silk contains an exceptional protein.
The secret of motivation
Success is no accident: To reach your goal you need perseverance.
Artificial intelligence predicts radiation tx side effects for pts with head & neck cancers
For the first time, a sophisticated computer model has been shown to accurately predict two of the most challenging side effects associated with radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

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