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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 03, 2019


Drinking more sugary beverages of any type may increase type 2 diabetes risk
People who increase their consumption of sugary beverages -- whether they contain added or naturally occurring sugar -- may face moderately higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
Laser precision: NASA flights, satellite align over sea ice
The skies were clear, the winds were low, and the lasers aligned.
How long does memory last? For shape memory alloys, the longer the better
Scientists captured live action details of the phase transitions of shape memory alloys, giving them a better idea how to improve their properties for applications.
Prototype smartphone app can help parents detect early signs of eye disorders in children
A Baylor University researcher's prototype smartphone app -- designed to help parents detect early signs of various eye diseases in their children such as retinoblastoma, an aggressive pediatric eye cancer -- has passed its first big test.
Study: Ibrutinib linked to high blood pressure and other heart problems
Over half of people prescribed the targeted blood cancer-fighting drug ibrutinib developed new or worsened high blood pressure within six months of starting the medication, according to a new study published online today in Blood.
An 'unprecedented' rise in infant mortality in England linked to poverty
New study, published in BMJ Open, links a rise in infant mortality in England to poverty.
Researchers outline policy approaches to transform fire management
A research team led by Colorado State University's Courtney Schultz has outlined governance and policy approaches to better manage wildfires.
NASA sees Post-tropical Cyclone Lorenzo affecting Ireland
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean early on Oct.
Large-scale mapping of protein networks behind tumor growth in the lungs
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have used highly sophisticated molecular analyses to identify key proteins in the signaling pathways that cancers use to spread in the body.
Eco-friendly electrochemical catalysts using solar cells to harvest energy from the sun
A research team from Tokyo Tech and Kanazawa University develops an eco-friendly device that uses solar energy to catalyze an electrochemical oxidation reaction with high efficiency.
Plants alert neighbors to threats using common 'language'
New research from Cornell University shows that plants can communicate with each other when they come under attack from pests.
Placenta pathology may clarify racial disparities in preemie health outcomes
African-American infants are twice as likely to die in the first year of life than white infants, for reasons that are complex and not well understood.
Uncovering drug-like small molecules in the human microbiome
Gene clusters once hidden in the human microbiome, whose products resemble clinically used drugs, are now more discoverable, thanks to a new bioinformatics approach.
Why the language-ready brain is so complex
In a review article published in Science, Peter Hagoort, professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University and director of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, argues for a new model of language, involving the interaction of multiple brain networks.
Poor health more likely to be associated with shorter sleep in older Irish population
Researchers from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) at Trinity College Dublin have found that poor health is more likely to be associated with shorter sleep in older Irish adults.
Stanford psychologists show leading with flavor encourages healthy eating
Most people want to eat healthier, but efforts to encourage healthy eating by providing nutrition information have not changed habits much.
Scientists discover interaction between good and bad fungi that drives forest biodiversity
Researchers from the University of Maryland and the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that the type of beneficial soil fungi living around tree roots determined how quickly the trees accumulated harmful, pathogenic fungi as they grew and could play a key role in determining forest biodiversity.
Murrow professor investigates gender-inclusive housing and friendships
Gender-inclusive spaces may help young people develop friendships across gender identities, according to a new study by a Washington State University researcher.
Identifying a gene for canine night blindness
An international team of researchers led by the University of Pennsylvania's Keiko Miyadera has identified the gene mutation responsible for a form of night blindness in dogs.
How to make carbon pricing palatable to air travellers
Travellers are willing to pay a little more for flights if they know the extra money will be used to address carbon emissions, a new study from the UBC Sauder School of Business has found.
Golden ratio observed in human skulls
The Golden Ratio, described by Leonardo da Vinci and Luca Pacioli as the Divine Proportion, is an infinite number often found in nature, art and mathematics.
This is how a 'fuzzy' universe may have looked
Scientists at MIT, Princeton University, and Cambridge University have found that the early universe, and the very first galaxies, would have looked very different depending on the nature of dark matter.
Combustion behavior of aromatics may provide keys to enhancing heavy oil extraction
The problem of petroleum depletion becomes more and pertinent every day.
High fiber diet associated with reduced CV risk in hypertension, type 2 diabetes patients
Patients with hypertension and Type 2 diabetes who consume a high fiber diet had improvement in their blood pressure, cholesterol and fasting glucose, according to a study presented at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Middle East Conference 2019 together with the 10th Emirates Cardiac Society Congress.
A new, unified pathway for prebiotic RNA synthesis
Adding to support for the RNA world hypothesis, Sidney Becker and colleagues have presented what's not been shown before -- a single chemical pathway that could generate both the purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, the key building blocks of RNA.
Rewarding teamwork is key to improving primary children's spelling, says study
Pupils do better in spelling tests if teachers reward them for team -- rather than individual -- performance, according to new findings published in the peer-reviewed journal Educational Psychology.
Bumble bee workers sleep less while caring for young
All animals, including insects, need their sleep. Or do they?
Changes over time in cases of head/neck melanoma among kids, teens, young people in US, Canada
This observational study looked at changes in new cases of head and neck melanoma among children, adolescents and young adults in the US and Canada over a 20-year period from 1995 to 2014.
Ant-plant partnerships may play unexpected role in ant evolution
Partnerships between ant and plant species appear to arise from -- but not drive -- rapid diversification of ants into new species.
Stanford scientists uncover genetic similarities among species that use sound to navigate
Insect-eating bats navigate effortlessly in the dark and dolphins and killer whales gobble up prey in murky waters thanks in part to specific changes in a set of 18 genes involved in the development of the cochlear ganglion -- a group of nerves that transmit sound from the ear to the brain, according to a study by researchers at Stanford University.
Tooth loss associated with higher risk of heart disease
Adults who have lost teeth due to nontraumatic reasons may have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease according to a presentation at the American College of Cardiology Middle East Conference 2019 together with the 10th Emirates Cardiac Society Congress.
Scientists predict the areas of the brain to stimulate transitions between different brain states
Using a computer model of the brain, Gustavo Deco, director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, and Josephine Cruzat, a member of his team, together with a group of international collaborators, have developed an innovative method published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Sept.
Pesticides likely caused 'Havana syndrome' that affected Cuba-based diplomats
The study details the nature of the injury, specifies the brain regions involved, including the blood-brain barrier and suggests a possible cause in the form of 'cholinesterase inhibitors,' with 'organophosphorus insecticides' being a likely source.
Different views on vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC)
There is considerable variations in different countries´ health care systems and professionals in the views on vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC), according to a European study.
Supercomputing, neutrons unite to unravel structures of intrinsically disordered protein
Using the Titan supercomputer and the Spallation Neutron Source at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, scientists have created the most accurate 3D model yet of an intrinsically disordered protein, revealing the ensemble of its atomic-level structures.
Daddy daycare: Why some songbirds care for the wrong kids
Interspecific feeding -- when an adult of one species feeds the young of another -- is rare among songbirds, and scientists could only speculate on why it occurs, but now, Penn State researchers have new insight into this behavior.
A filament fit for space -- silk is proven to thrive in outer space temperatures
Scientists from the universities of Oxford, Shanghai and Beijing who discovered that natural silks get stronger the colder they get, have finally solved the puzzle of why.
Sentinels in the mouth
Newly discovered chemical-sensing cells in the gums protect the mouth by standing guard against infections that damage soft tissue and destroy the bone that supports the teeth.
Living a long chimpanzee life
Researchers from Kyoto University report on the average life expectancy of chimpanzees in Japan.
Keeping cool with quantum wells
A research team at the University of Tokyo invented a semiconductor quantum well system that can efficiently cool electronic devices using established fabrication methods.
Evaluating value of senses
What senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, balance, temperature and pain) are most valued by the general public?
New method to purify cell types to high purity
Current biology research relies on the ability to purify cell types using antibodies or transgenic constructs.
High lead levels during pregnancy linked to child obesity, NIH-funded study suggests
Children born to women who have high blood levels of lead are more likely be overweight or obese, compared to those whose mothers have low levels of lead in their blood, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health and Health Resources and Services Administration.
'Dietary' vulnerability found in cancer cells with mutated spliceosomes
A research team from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center reports it has discovered a metabolic vulnerability in multiple types of cancer cells that bear a common genetic mutation affecting cellular machines called spliceosomes.
Printed electronics open way for electrified tattoos and personalized biosensors
Electrical engineers at Duke University have devised a fully print-in-place technique for printable electronics that is gentle enough to work on delicate surfaces ranging from paper to human skin.
Fathers-to-be should avoid alcohol six months before conception
Aspiring parents should both avoid drinking alcohol prior to conception to protect against congenital heart defects, according to research published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
In Russia, declines in alcohol consumption and mortality have gone hand in hand
Since the early 2000s, Russia has seen significant declines in overall alcohol consumption, and a new review shows that there has been a parallel, steep decline in the country's mortality rates as well.
Glowing gas reveals faint filaments of the cosmic web
Faintly glowing wisps of gas, excited by the intense light of surrounding star-forming galaxies, have given astronomers a rare glimpse of one of the Universe's largest but most elusive features -- the intergalactic filaments of the cosmic web.
Global wildlife trade is higher than previous estimates show
At least one in five vertebrate species on Earth are bought and sold on the wildlife market, according to a new study, the trade estimates for which are 40-60% higher than prior recorded estimates.
Promotional games at retail stores increase consumer spending
Surprisingly, even when the discount won from a promotional game is smaller than a traditional discount -- say only 10% versus 20% -- researchers still saw the same phenomenon.
Shape-shifting structures take the form of a face, antenna
Researchers have created the most complex shape-shifting structures to date -- lattices composed of multiple materials that grow or shrink in response to changes in temperature.
L-chondrite breakup might have contributed to Ordovician biodiversification
About 466 Mya, a major impact event took place between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
NASA finds a transitioning cyclone Mitag filling the sea of Japan
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Sea of Japan on Oct.
Dealing a therapeutic counterblow to traumatic brain injury
A team of NJIT biomedical engineers are developing a therapy which shows early indications it can protect neurons and stimulate the regrowth of blood vessels in damaged tissue.
How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication
New insights on how subunits of the influenza virus polymerase co-evolve to ensure efficient viral RNA replication are provided by a study published Oct.
How much are you polluting your office air just by existing?
Could your basic acts of existence be polluting the air in the office room where you work?
Targeting regulator of mitochondrial cell death delivers anticancer activity
A novel anticancer molecule created by researchers at The Wistar Institute showed therapeutic activity in preclinical models of various cancer types.
Confronting colony collapse
Researchers from the Ecology and Evolution Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) sequenced the genomes of the two Varroa mite species that parasitize the honey bee.
Heart failure and the obesity paradox
While obesity significantly increases your chances of developing heart failure, for those with established heart failure it may confer a survival benefit compared with normal weight or underweight individuals.
Implanted memories teach birds a song
A new songbird study that shows memories can be implanted in the brain to teach vocalizations -- without any lessons from the parent.
Parkinson's disease is also present in the blood
The behaviour of immune cells in the blood is so different in patients with Parkinson's disease that it advocate for a new type of supplementary medicine, which can regulate the immune system and thus inhibit the deterioration of the brain.
New test assists physicians with quicker treatment decisions for sepsis
A new test to determine whether antibiotics will be effective against certain bacterial infections is helping physicians make faster and better prescription treatment choices.
Burt's Bees presents clinical data demonstrating proven efficacy of natural skin care
At this year's Integrative Dermatology Symposium, Burt's Bees, a pioneer in natural skin care, will be presenting research supporting the role of efficacy-first natural regimens for skin health.
2D topological physics from shaking a 1D wire
Published in Physical Review X, this new study propose a realistic scheme to observe a 'cold-atomic quantum Hall effect.'
New fluorescence method reveals signatures of individual microbes
University of Tsukuba researchers have developed a new method that reveals the unique fluorescence patterns produced by individual cells in mixtures of bacteria, yeast and fungi.
Careful monitoring of children following cardiac surgery may improve long-term outcomes
In a medical records study covering thousands of children, a US-Canadian team led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine concludes that while surgery to correct congenital heart disease (CHD) within 10 years after birth may restore young hearts to healthy function.
Cause of rare but deadly neurological disease identified
A deadly neurological disease that primarily affects infant boys is caused by increased sensitivity to iron in the brain, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, the University of California-San Francisco and the University of Cambridge.
Mounting brain organoid research reignites ethical debate
As research involving the transplantation of human 'mini-brains' -- known as brain organoids -- into animals to study disease continues to expand, so do the ethical debates around the practice.
Exposure to air pollution increases violent crime rates, study finds
Breathing dirty air can make you sick. But according to new research, it can also make you more aggressive.
The Lancet Neurology: Pioneering study suggests that an exoskeleton for tetraplegia could be feasible
A whole-body exoskeleton, operated by recording and decoding brain signals, has helped a tetraplegic patient to move all four of his paralysed limbs, according to results of a 2-year trial published in The Lancet Neurology journal.
Virtual reality may help foster learning and collaboration across health professions
One of the biggest challenges to implementing interprofessional education for health professions students is scheduling.
WVU researchers study link between low birth weight and cardiovascular risk
In a recent study, West Virginia University researcher Amna Umer discovered that if children had a low birth weight, they were more likely to exhibit cardiovascular risk factors in fifth grade.
Just add water: U-M chemists suggest a fix for insoluble drugs
Stable metal organic frameworks are prized for their ability to capture carbon dioxide or harvest atmospheric water, but U-M researchers have developed a use for unstable metal organic frameworks: as a system for drug delivery.
Paleontology: New Australian pterosaur may have survived the longest
The discovery of a previously unknown species of pterosaur, which may have persisted as late as the Turonian period (90-93 million years ago), is reported in Scientific Reports this week.
Response rate to albumin-bound paclitaxel plus gemcitabine plus cisplatin treatment among patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: A phase 1b/2 pilot clinical trial
Published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Oncology, researchers at HonorHealth Research Institute and TGen, an affiliate of City of Hope, found that among a clinical trial of 25 patients, adding the drug cisplatin to a current standard-of-care drug regimen resulted in substantial tumor shrinkage for 71 percent of those patients, and dramatically increased survival beyond one year.
The diabetes pandemic and the promise of connected care
Digital diabetes management systems ('connected diabetes care') have the potential to become part of a new diabetes care model, augmenting the traditional practice of diabetes care by providing continuous and on-demand care that aligns with the 24/7 demands of diabetes as a chronic disease.
New 'fuzzy' dark matter research disrupts conventional thinking
New research conducted at the University of Sussex has simulated dark matter in a new way for the first time, disrupting conventional thinking about the make-up of the universe.
Incidence of pediatric, adolescent and young adult head and neck melanoma is up 51 percent
ead and neck melanoma among pediatric, adolescent and young adult populations in the United States and Canada increased by 51.1% from 1995 to 2014, per research from Saint Louis University.
Anticipating performance can hinder memory
Anticipating your own performance at work or school may hinder your ability to remember what happened before your presentation, a study from the University of Waterloo has found.
Key to learning and forgetting identified in sleeping brain
Distinct patterns of electrical activity in the sleeping brain may influence whether we remember or forget what we learned the previous day, according to a new study by UC San Francisco researchers.
Kidney function may affect risks associated with prescription opioids
Compared with other pain medications, prescription opioids were linked with higher risks of death and hospitalization, particularly with higher doses.
Cost-effectiveness of multigene testing of all patients with breast cancer
Researchers estimated the cost-effectiveness and health effects of multigene testing for all patients with breast cancer compared with selective testing based on family history or clinical criteria using data for nearly 12,000 women with breast cancer from the US, UK and Australia.
Toxin promotes cattle-to-cattle transmission of deadly Escherichia coli strains
Shiga toxin subtype 2a (Stx2a) may play a key role in promoting the colonization and transmission of life-threatening Escherichia coli strains in cattle, according to a study published Oct.
First maps of areas suitable for spotted lanternfly's establishment in US and world
Maps identifying the areas suitable for establishment of the spotted lanternfly (SLF) in the United States and other countries have been published in the Journal of Economic Entomology by Agricultural Research Service scientists.
TAU and Ichilov researchers develop treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis
Researchers from Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (Ichilov Hospital) have developed an innovative drug treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a rare, inherited condition that affects adolescents and young adults and often leads to colorectal cancer.
Patients say ask before using medical records for research
A new study led by Michigan Medicine researchers finds that even when patients understand the overall benefit to society, they still want to be able to give consent at least once before their de-identified data is used for research.
Complete genome of devastating soybean pathogen assembled
An international research collaboration has successfully assembled the complete genome sequence of the pathogen that causes the devastating disease Asian soybean rust.
How the Texas puma saved the Florida panther
Scientists have pieced together the first complete picture of the Florida panther genome -- work that could serve to protect that endangered population and other endangered species going forward.
Stem cell studies offer hope for childhood neurological condition
Two new studies by an international team of researchers report progress in using stem cells to develop new therapies for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a rare genetic condition affecting boys that can be fatal before 10 years of age
Tension around autonomy increases family conflict at end of life
Conflict within families can be stressful and confusing, and it can lead to feelings of sadness.
Getting an 'eel' for the water: The physics of undulatory human swimming
A team of researchers led by the University of Tsukuba captured the 3D motion of an athlete performing undulatory swimming.
The phenological index
As climate change accelerates, recording shifts in plant flowering times is critical to understanding how changes in climate will impact ecosystem interactions.
Study presents first genome sequence of Florida panther
Once dwindling in numbers and suffering from the hereditary effects of inbreeding, the Florida panther is on the rebound, and researchers now have more genetic data to prove it.
New ideal housewife image being created by social media influencers and bloggers
The new generation of successful female bloggers and influencers on social media are changing the identity of the stereotypical 'ideal' housewife.
U of G researchers discover potential drug to treat heart attacks
Administered within hours of an attack, the potential drug would prevent scarring that can lead to heart failure.
Protein associated with many diseases fully visualized for first time
For the first time, researchers have learned at the molecular level how the P2X7 protein receptor - which is associated with inflammation, coronary artery disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis and more - works.
New study discovers the three-dimensional structure of the genome replication machine
Mount Sinai researchers have discovered how the enzyme DNA polymerase delta works to duplicate the genome that cells hand down from one generation to the next.
Immune cell identity crisis: What makes a liver macrophage a liver macrophage?
UC San Diego researchers investigated how a type of immune cell called a macrophage becomes specialized to the liver.
Study finds managed forests in new hampshire rich in carbon
A Dartmouth-led study examining carbon stocks in an actively managed mixed wood forest in New Hampshire finds that places with more trees have more carbon stored in both the trees and the soil.
New parents? Tired of nighttime feedings? Bees can relate
Bumble bees tasked with caring for larvae and pupae sleep less than colony members who do not care for the young.
Massive filaments fuel the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes
Based on direct observations researchers have discovered massive filaments between galaxies in a proto-cluster, extending over more than 1 million parsecs and providing the fuel for intense formation of stars and the growth of super massive black holes within the proto-cluster.
Engineered viruses could fight drug resistance
MIT biological engineers can program bacteriophages to kill different strains of E. coli by making mutations in the protein that the viruses use to bind to host cells.
Imprinting on mothers may drive new species formation in poison dart frogs
By rearing frogs with parents -- or foster parents -- of different colors, a team from the University of Pittsburgh working at the Smithsonian in Panama discovered that behavior in response to color may be more important than genetics in the evolution of new species.
Severe morning sickness associated with higher risk of autism
Children whose mothers had hyperemesis gravidarum -- a severe form of a morning sickness -- during pregnancy were 53% more likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, according to Kaiser Permanente research published in the American Journal of Perinatology.
A breath test for opioids
A test to detect opioid drugs in exhaled breath has been developed by engineers and physicians at UC Davis.
UNH researchers find northern forests have lost crucial cold, snowy conditions
Winter conditions are changing more rapidly than any other season and researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found clear signs of a decline in frost days, snow covered days and other indicators of winter that could have lasting impacts on ecosystems, water supplies, the economy, tourism and human health.
Analysis of HIV-1B in Indonesia illuminates transmission dynamics of the virus
Research into the molecular phylogeny (evolutionary history) of the HIV-1B virus in Indonesia has succeeded in illuminating the transmission period and routes for three clades (main branches of the virus).
The relationship between lifetime drinking and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction
New research from the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation suggests that the impact of alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease may be underestimated.
Early menopause predictor of heart disease
Women who reach menopause before the age of 50 have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to researchers from The University of Queensland.
CNIC scientists discover a new mechanism for the transfer of maternal genetic material
CNIC researchers have identified a mechanism involved in the prevention of possible errors during the transfer of mitochondrial DNA from mothers to their offspring.
Breakthrough in sex-chromosome regulation
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have uncovered a chromosome-wide mechanism that keeps the gene expression of sex chromosomes in balance in our cells.
Study finds large potential range for invasive spotted lanternfly
A new study published today in the Journal of Economic Entomology models potential suitable habitat for the invasive spotted lanternfly and shows large swaths of the United States and beyond are likely to be vulnerable should the spotted lanternfly continue to spread.
Genetics researchers find new neurodevelopmental syndrome
Researchers have identified a gene mutation that causes developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities and musculoskeletal problems in children.

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