Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 04, 2019
Global danger
Freiburg hydrologist presents new results showing how sinking groundwater levels threaten the vitality of riverine ecosystems

A cosmic pretzel
Astronomers using ALMA have obtained an extremely high-resolution image showing two disks in which young stars are growing, fed by a complex pretzel-shaped network of filaments of gas and dust.

The fast dance of electron spins
Metal complexes show a fascinating behavior in their interactions with light, which for example is utilized in organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, quantum computers, or even in cancer therapy.

New insights into the genomic landscape of meningiomas identified FGFR3 in a subset of patients with favorable prognoses
The identification of oncogenic mutations has provided further insights into the tumorigenesis of meningioma and the possibility of targeted therapy.

Inhibition of histone deacetylase 2 reduces MDM2 expression and reduces tumor growth in dedifferentiated liposarcoma
Here the researchers present in silico, in vitro, and mouse xenograft studies that suggest that specifically targeting HDAC2 reduces MDM2 expression and has anti-tumor affects in DDLPS.

Targeting certain rogue T cells prevents and reverses multiple sclerosis in mice
Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder, is known to be driven by 'helper' T cells, white blood cells that mount an inflammatory attack on the brain and spinal cord.

CNIO uses organoid technology and single-cell sequencing to advance in the study of bladder cancer
* Bladder cancer research has been hampered by the inability to establish stable long-term cultures of normal urothelial cells, responsible for 90% of these tumours * CNIO researchers used organoid technology to establish long-term cultures that maintain their identity, from which they identified a population of proliferating stem cells that could not be studied until now * The results of this work may usher in a new era in the study of urinary system diseases and tissue regeneration

NUS scientist designs 'express courier service' for immune cells
Dr Andy Tay, a researcher with the National University of Singapore (NUS) who is currently doing his post-doctoral training at Stanford University, has successfully invented a novel transfection method to deliver DNA into immune cells with minimal stress on these cells.

The 'Goldilocks' principle for curing brain cancer
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers found that a stable body temperature holds the key to awakening the body's immune response to fight off brain cancer.

Long-term study data shows DBS is effective treatment for most severe form of depression
A study published online on Friday, October 4, in The American Journal of Psychiatry found that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of an area in the brain called the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) provides a robust antidepressant effect that is sustained over a long period of time in patients with treatment-resistant depression--the most severely depressed patients who have not responded to other treatments.

Researchers discover a link between two important products of nitric oxide
Oxide plays a key role in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer.

Major NIH grant will support early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease via skin testing
An expert team from Case Western Reserve University has received a five-year, $3.6 million grant from the National Institutes of Health for diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD) via an innovative skin testing approach.

Salk scientists find way to quantify how well cutting-edge microscopy technique works
Salk scientists provide a foundation for quantitatively determining how differences in viewing angles affect the resulting 3D structures of proteins, and could help other researchers determine the best setup for experiments to improve the imaging technique called cryo-EM.

MSU economist's research on colony collapse disorder published in national journal
Randy Rucker and two colleagues are the authors of a paper published last month that examines the economic impacts of colony collapse disorder.

More energy means more effects -- in proton collisions
The higher the collision energy of particles, the more interesting the physics.

Graphene turns 15 on track to deliver on its promises
In a special Nature Nanotechnology issue celebrating 15 years since the Nobel Prize-winning 'ground-breaking experiments on graphene,' the Graphene Flagship analyses the current graphene landscape and market forecast for graphene over the following decade.

New metasurface design can control optical fields in three dimensions
A team led by scientists at the University of Washington has designed and tested a 3D-printed metamaterial that can manipulate light with nanoscale precision.

Impact of exosomal HIV-1 Tat expression on the human cellular proteome
The researcher's previous work has demonstrated that exosomal formulations of Tat can reverse HIV-1 latency in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes isolated from long term antiretroviral treated individuals suggesting a potential role for Tat as a therapeutic HIV-1 Latency Reversal Agent.

Chinese activists protest the use of traditional treatments -- they want medical science
In China, traditional Chinese medicine has the same status in the health system as modern medical science.

Researchers unlock potential to use CRISPR to alter the microbiome
Researchers at Western University have developed a new way to deliver the DNA-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 into microorganisms in the lab, providing a way to efficiently launch a targeted attack on specific bacteria.

Researchers find antibiotic resistant genes prevalent in groundwater
The spread of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) through the water system could put public safety at-risk.

Next-generation single-photon source for quantum information science
University of Illinois Physics Professor Paul Kwiat and his former postdoctoral researcher Fumihiro Kaneda (now at Tohoku University) have built what Kwiat believes is 'the world's most efficient single-photon source.' And they are still improving it.

Promising steps towards hope for a treatment for schizophrenia
The latest brain scan research from the Psychiatric Imaging group at the MRC LMS published on 3 October in Nature Communications has reported how the MOR system contributes to the negative symptoms displayed in schizophrenia patients.

Long-term mental health benefits of gender-affirming surgery for transgender individuals
For transgender individuals, gender-affirming surgery can lead to long-term mental health benefits, according to new research published online today in The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Researchers discover a new defensive mechanism against bacterial wound infections
Wound inflammation which results in impaired wound healing can have serious consequences for patients.

Microbiome provides new clues to determining development of colon cancer
Findings showcasing a connection between bacteria in the microbiome and colon cancer, which may be used to screen younger populations at risk, were published in the journal Gastroenterology by researchers from the George Washington University.

Scientists find timekeepers of gut's immune system
Shift work and jet lag disrupt not just sleep cycles, but feeding and digestive cycles as well.

Restrictive housing is associated with increased risk of death after release from prison
A new study led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has found that being held in restrictive housing (i.e., solitary confinement) is associated with an increased risk of death after a person is released from prison.

Weak spot in pathogenic bacteria
Antibiotics are still the most important weapon for combatting bacterial infections.

Were hot, humid summers the key to life's origins?
Chemists at Saint Louis University, in collaboration with scientists at the College of Charleston and the NSF/NASA Center for Chemical Evolution, found that deliquescent minerals, which dissolve in water they absorb from humid air, can assist the construction of proteins from simpler building blocks during cycles timed to mimic day and night on the early Earth.

Scientists create brain-mimicking environment to grow 3D tissue models of brain tumors
Researchers have developed 3-dimensional human tissue culture models of pediatric and adult brain cancers in a brain-mimicking microenvironment, that includes brain-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) -- the complex network of proteins and amino acids with bound sugars that not only provides support for surrounding neural tissue, but also helps to guide cell growth and development.

Study shows reduced Illinois Medicaid spending in pediatric population, limited savings from care coordination
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago are reporting in JAMA Network Open that Medicaid expenditures for children and young adults have decreased in Illinois.

Study pinpoints Alzheimer's plaque emergence early and deep in the brain
By scanning whole brains of Alzheimer's model mice from an early age, researchers were able to precisely trace the terrible march of amyloid plaques from deep brain structures outward along specific circuits.

American Journal of Roentgenology finds no consensus on handling outside imaging studies
According to an ahead-of-print article published in the January issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), there is 'no consensus' among academic radiologists regarding how to handle second-opinion consultations on outside studies.

Tanning salons cluster in gay neighborhoods in large US cities, Stanford study finds
Neighborhoods with high proportions of gay and bisexual men are twice as likely to have an indoor tanning salon than neighborhoods with fewer sexual minority men, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

New 3D printing technique for biomaterials
A new way of 3D printing soft materials such as gels and collagens offers a major step forward in the manufacture of artificial medical implants.

Trump tweets were systematic plan of attack in Presidential campaign -- study
Donald Trump used Twitter effectively to promote his campaign, communicate policy goals and attack opponents as part of a systematic campaign ahead of the 2016 US Presidential elections -- a new study reveals.

Some ICU admissions may be preventable, saving money and improving care
Many admissions to the intensive care unit may be preventable, potentially decreasing health care costs and improving care, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

People eat more when dining with friends and family -- Study
People eat more with friends and family than when dining alone -- a possible throwback to our early ancestors' approach to survival, according to a new study.

Treating pulmonary embolism: How safe and effective are new devices?
A new scientific statement from the American Heart Association identifies the risks and benefits of novel interventional devices compared to anticoagulation alone in the treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism.

Determining the activity of noble-metal-free catalyst particles
Chemists have developed a new method with which they can characterise individual noble-metal-free nanoparticle catalysts.

First video of viruses assembling
For the first time, researchers have captured images of the formation of individual viruses, offering a real-time view into the kinetics of viral assembly.

Dust in ice cores leads to new knowledge on the advancement of the ice before the ice age
Working with the ice core ReCap, drilled close to the coast in East Greenland, postdoc Marius Simonsen wondered why the dust particles from the interglacial period -- the warmer period of time between the ice ages -- were several times bigger than the dust particles from the ice age.

Study: Aggressive breast cancers store large amounts of energy, which enables it to spread
Researchers found that aggressive breast cancers store glycogen in very large amounts, offering an explanation of how cells can change their function to evade treatment, grow and spread.

Temple scientists ID new targets to treat fibrosis -- a feature of many chronic diseases
When it comes to repairing injured tissue, specialized cells in the body known as fibroblasts are called into action.

Household bleach inactivates chronic wasting disease prions
A 5-minute soak in a 40% solution of household bleach decontaminated stainless steel wires coated with chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions, according to a new study published in PLOS One.

Ingestible sensor allows patients to be independent but still supported during TB treatment
Ingestible sensor enables patients to take tuberculosis drugs independently and receive timely support from medical staff.

Optical imager poised to improve diagnosis and treatment of dry eye disease
Researchers have developed a new non-invasive optical imaging system that promises to improve diagnosis and treatments for dry eye disease.

Anesthetizing fish may affect research outcomes
Fish use colorful patterns to signal to each other, including advertising for mates and warding off rivals.
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