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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 07, 2019


An oral anticoagulant delays the appearance of Alzheimer's disease in mice
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have identified a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
Cancer patients who exercise have less heart damage from chemotherapy
Patients with cancer should receive a tailored exercise prescription to protect their heart, reports a paper published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Particles emitted by consumer 3D printers could hurt indoor air quality
The particles emitted from 3D printers can negatively impact indoor air quality and have the potential to harm respiratory health, according to a study from researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and UL Chemical Safety.
Diabetes advances poised to help manage blood sugar after meals
Mealtimes can become a difficult experience for individuals with diabetes.
25% of total US health care spending estimated to be waste
A new study estimates about one-quarter of total health care spending in the United States is waste, with a price tag ranging from $760 billion to $935 billion.
Revamped crew scheduling model cuts airline delays by as much as 30%
Delays and disruptions in airline operations annually result in billions of dollars of additional costs to airlines, passengers and the economy.
The Lancet HIV: Severe anti-LGBT legislations associated with lower testing and awareness of HIV in African countries
This first systematic review to investigate HIV testing, treatment and viral suppression in men who have sex with men in Africa finds that among the most recent studies (conducted after 2011) only half of men have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months.
New test for thyroid cancer could prevent unnecessary surgery
Each year, thanks to inconclusive tests for thyroid cancer, thousands of people undergo unnecessary surgeries to remove part or all of their thyroids.
Machine learning helps plant science turn over a new leaf
Salk researchers have developed machine-learning algorithms that teach a computer system to analyze three-dimensional shapes of the branches and leaves of a plant.
Diabetes-Alzheimer's link explored at Neuroscience 2019
Surprising links exist between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, and researchers are beginning to unpack the pathology that connects the two.
The cholera bacterium can steal up to 150 genes in one go
EPFL scientists have discovered that predatory bacteria like the cholera pathogen can steal up to 150 genes in one go from their neighbors.
Crohn's disease study identifies genetic variant with potential to personalize treatment
A genetic variant carried by 40% of the population explains why some patients develop antibodies against the anti-TNF drugs, infliximab and adalimumab and lose response.
Disappearing Peruvian glaciers
It is common knowledge that glaciers are melting in most areas across the globe.
Large genome-wide association study illuminates genetic risk factors for gout
Researchers, using a method called genome-wide association study, have illuminated the genetic underpinnings of high serum urate, the blood condition that brings on gout.
Cesium vapor aids in the search for dark matter
Physicists at Mainz University manage to further narrow down range of the search for dark matter
Models designed to predict when and how the roads of Bizkaia will deteriorate
A researcher at the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Engineering-Bilbao has developed behaviour models of the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Coefficient of Transverse Friction to predict the future situation of the highway network of Bizkaia.
Coordinated care model leads to decreases in unscheduled, preventable hospitalizations
Oregon Medicaid enrollees are less likely to make unscheduled trips to the hospital following the implementation of the state's accountable-care model, new research shows.
Ethiopian parents can't make up for effects of life shocks on children by spending more on education
Ethiopian parents try to level out the life chances least-advantaged children affected by early life shocks such as famine and low rainfall levels by investing more in their education.
US firearm death rate rose sharply in recent years across most states & demographic groups
The rate at which Americans died from firearm injuries increased sharply starting in 2015, a new study shows.
Novel compound interrupts malaria parasite's lifecycle
Compound inhibits key enzymes, interrupting the parasite's lifecycle in human organisms and preventing transmission to vector insects.
Molecular nanocarbons with mechanical bonds
Scientists at Nagoya University have succeeded in synthesizing molecular nanocarbons with knots and catenanes by using a novel method in which silicon atoms are used.
A Canadian essential medicines list must be evidence-based
An essential medicines list in Canada should be evidence-based and independent of conflicting interests, found a study of decision-makers and policy-makers that is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
The last mammoths died on a remote island
Isolation, extreme weather, and the possible arrival of humans may have killed off the holocene herbivores just 4,000 years ago.
Researchers discover critical process for how breast cancer spreads in bones
Researchers from the University of Notre Dame have identified a pair of proteins believed to be critical for spreading, or metastasizing, breast cancer to bone.
New study is 'chilling commentary' on future of antibiotics
The health care market is failing to support new antibiotics used to treat some of the world's most dangerous, drug-resistant 'superbugs,' according to a new analysis by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine infectious disease scientists.
How common is high blood pressure among children worldwide?
This study, called a review and meta-analysis, combined the results of 47 articles published from 1994 to 2018 to estimate worldwide how common high blood pressure is among children and adolescents age 19 and younger.
How plants react to fungi
Using special receptors, plants recognize when they are at risk of fungal infection.
Meningioma molecular profile reliably predicts tumor recurrence
Researchers report tumor's molecular profiles that might better predict meningioma recurrence.
How the colon prioritizes gas detox over energy use
Smelly farts are one way our bodies manage our well-being.
Nodulation connected to higher resistance against powdery mildew in legumes
Scientists have long known that nodulation is important to plant health.
How bike sharing in Seattle rose from the ashes of Pronto's failure
University of Washington transportation researchers looked into why the docked bike-share program Pronto failed while dockless bike sharing has been so successful.
Gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy safely preserves muscle function
A gene therapy being developed at Penn Medicine to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) successfully and safely stopped the severe muscle deterioration associated with the rare, genetic disease in both small and large animal models, according to a first-of-its-kind study from Penn Medicine researchers.
Early humans evolved in ecosystems unlike any found today
To understand the environmental pressures that shaped human evolution, scientists must reconstruct the ecosystems in which they lived.
Computer kidney sheds light on proper hydration
A new computer kidney developed at the University of Waterloo could tell researchers more about the impacts of medicines taken by people who don't drink enough water.
Medicare overpayments for graduate medical education could total $1.28 billion annually
If Medicare capped funds for Graduate Medical Education (GME) at the rate of $150,000 per resident, the move would free up more than $1 billion a year, according to a study published today in JAMA Internal Medicine.
Navigating 'Neuralville': Virtual town helps map brain functions
Experiments showed that the brain's parahippocampal place area is involved in recognizing a particular kind of place, while the brain's retrosplenial complex is involved in mentally mapping the locations of particular places.
CTE risk, severity increases with years playing American football
The risk and severity of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) increases with the number of years playing American football according to a new study that appears online in Annals of Neurology.
Icaros: Flight simulator home trainer
Epidemiological studies show significant correlations between periods spent sitting and the prevalence of chronic diseases.
Traffic experts, parents don't always see eye to eye on safe cycling routes for children
Parents often disagree with transportation experts over what streets are safe for children to ride bikes, a Rutgers-led study finds.
Proximity to paths and roads is a burden for white-tailed sea eagles
A research team led by Dr. Oliver Krone from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) has now measured concentrations of the hormone corticosterone and its metabolic products in white-tailed sea eagles in northern Germany and correlated these values with potential causes of stress.
Study shows Housing First program significantly reduces homelessness over long term
The longest running study of its kind on the 'Housing First' model has found that it significantly reduces homelessness over the long term compared to treatment as usual, according to a study published in The Lancet Psychiatry by scientists at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and St.
E-cigarette smoke caused lung cancer in mice
Exposure to electronic-cigarette (E-cig) smoke caused mice to develop lung cancer, a new study finds.
OTC medications commonly used in cases of attempted suicide by self-poisoning in youth
A new study from Nationwide Children's Hospital and the Central Ohio Poison Center found rates of suicide attempts by self-poisoning among youth and adolescents are higher in rural communities, higher during the academic school year and involve common medications found in many households.
Early hunter-gatherers interacted much sooner than previously believed
A nearly 4,000-year-old burial site found off the coast of Georgia hints at ties between hunter-gatherers on opposite sides of North America, according to research led by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
From sleeping cell to assassin -- how immune cells work
Scientists at the University of Dundee have carried out one of the most comprehensive studies into how immune cells sense and respond to their environment to fight infection and destroy tumours.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, October 2019
ORNL story tips: Reaching the boiling point for HVACs; showcasing innovation for technology transfer; using neutrons to lend insight into human tissue; and heating the core in a fusion prototype experiment.
Heat waves could increase substantially in size by mid-century, says new study
Scientists found that by mid-century, in a middle greenhouse emissions scenario, the average size of heat waves could increase by 50%.
Study provides insights on treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer
A recent analysis reveals that treatment of male breast cancer has evolved over the years.
Analysis of US labor data suggests 'reskilling' workers for a 'feeling economy'
A study of US labor data suggests AI is already taking 'thinking economy' jobs from humans, and this trend will grow in the future.
Initiating breastfeeding in vulnerable infants
The benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and child are well-recognized, including for late preterm infants (LPI).
Did providing free essential medicines increase adherence?
More patients who said they couldn't afford their medications adhered to treatment when they received free essential medicines for one year in a randomized clinical trial, but not all measures of health outcomes improved.
Axion particle spotted in solid-state crystal
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden, Princeton University, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have spotted a famously elusive particle: The axion - first predicted 42 years ago as an elementary particle in extensions of the standard model of particle physics.
Histone modifications are the influencers of zygotic genome awakening
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) observed changes to the gene-regulating factors during zebrafish development and discovered that modifications to 'histone H3', one of the proteins around which DNA is bound, play an important role in 'zygotic genome activation' or transition of control of zebrafish embryonic development from maternal material to the zygote.
Scientists have identified the presence of cancer-suppressing cells in pancreatic cancer
Researchers have identified cells containing a protein called Meflin that has a role in restraining the progression of pancreatic cancer.
Was early stick insect evolution triggered by birds and mammals?
Stick and leaf insects are a strikingly bizarre group of insects with a worldwide distribution.
Study explores how to make conservation initiatives more contagious
New research shows conservation initiatives often spread like diseases, helping scientists and policymakers design programmes more likely to be taken up.
Electrode-fitted microscope points to better designed devices that make fuel from sunlight
Using an atomic-force microscope fitted with an electrode tip 1,000 times smaller than a human hair, University of Oregon researchers have identified in real time how nanoscale catalysts collect charges that are excited by light in semiconductors.
SwRI, international team use deep learning to create virtual 'super instrument'
A study co-written by a Southwest Research Institute scientist describes a new algorithm that combines the capabilities of two spacecraft instruments, which could result in lower cost and higher efficiency space missions.
The benefits of updating agricultural drainage infrastructure
The massive underground infrastructure that allows farmers to cultivate crops on much of the world's most productive land has outlived its design life and should be updated, according to a new study.
Archaea hold clues to ancient ocean temperatures
Scientists at Stanford have identified molecules that tough microbes use to survive in warming waters, opening a window more broadly into studying conditions in ancient seas.
Groundbreaking method detects defective computer chips
A technique co-developed by researchers at the Paul Scherer Institut in Switzerland and researchers at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering would allow companies and other organizations to non-destructively scan chips to ensure that they haven't been altered and that they are manufactured to design specifications without error
New silk materials can wrinkle into detailed patterns, then unwrinkle to be 'reprinted'
Tufts engineers have developed silk materials that can wrinkle into highly detailed patterns -- including words, textures and images as intricate as a QR code or a fingerprint.
Picoscience and a plethora of new materials
The revolutionary tech discoveries of the next few decades may come from new materials so small they make nanomaterials look like lumpy behemoths.
UVA discovers surprise contributor to multiple sclerosis
The discovery suggests new avenues for devising treatments and is a vital step toward finding a cure.
Modified quantum dots capture more energy from light and lose less to heat
Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have synthesized magnetically-doped quantum dots that capture the kinetic energy of electrons created by ultraviolet light before it's wasted as heat.
Another casualty of climate change? Recreational fishing
Another casualty of climate change will likely be shoreline recreational fishing, according to new research.
Antipsychotics linked to accumulation of hospital days in persons with Alzheimer's disease
People with Alzheimer's disease who used antipsychotic drugs had a higher number of accumulated hospital days than people with Alzheimer's disease who did not use antipsychotics, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland.
Big data reveals extraordinary unity underlying life's diversity
Limits to growth lie at the heart of how all living things function, according to a new study carried out by ICTA-UAB researchers.
New method gives first global picture of mutual predictability of atmosphere and ocean
University of Maryland scientists have carried out a novel statistical analysis to determine for the first time a global picture of how the ocean helps predict the low-level atmosphere and vice versa.
Black and ethnic minority people face inequality in diabetes treatment
Black and ethnic minority people are not as likely to be prescribed newer medication for Type 2 diabetes and they experience less adequate monitoring of their condition compared to their white peers, new collaborative research from the University of Surrey and Eli Lilly and Company Limited finds.
New research furthers understanding about what shapes human gut microbiome
A new Northwestern University study finds that despite human's close genetic relationship to apes, the human gut microbiome is more similar to that of Old World monkeys like baboons than to that of apes like chimpanzees.
Rare 'Lazarus superconductivity' observed in promising, rediscovered material
A team of researchers has observed a rare phenomenon called re-entrant superconductivity in the material uranium ditelluride.
A timekeeper for siesta
External stimuli can rearrange the hierarchy of neuronal networks and influence behaviour.
Young infants with fever may be more likely to develop infections
Infants with a high fever may be at increased risk for infections, according to research from Penn State College of Medicine.
Costs of natural disasters are increasing at the high end
While the economic cost of natural disasters has not increased much on average, averages can be deceptive.
Predicting terror activity before it happens
Data scientist have developed a model that utilizes publicly available data to accurately predict how lethal a terror organization will become in the future based on only its first 10 attacks.
Future intent: Would you let an automated car do the driving?
Researchers have surveyed more than 2000 drivers across Australia, France and Sweden for two separate studies investigating what people think about travelling in automated cars.
Brain tunes itself to criticality, maximizing information processing
Criticality is truly a set point, and not a mere inevitability.
Treatment for 'low T' could someday come from a single skin cell, USC research shows
USC researchers have successfully grown human, testosterone-producing cells in the lab, paving the way to someday treat low testosterone with personalized replacement cells.
Complex energies, quantum symmetries
New research from Washington University in St. Louis realizes one of the first parity-time symmetric quantum systems, allowing scientists to observe how that kind of symmetry -- and the act of breaking of it -- leads to previously unexplored phenomena.
A new mathematical approach to understanding zeolites
A system developed at MIT helps to identify zeolites that can readily transform into other zeolite forms, which are widely used as catalysts in industrial processes.
Association of family relationships during adolescence with later depression risk
Positive family relationships during adolescence appeared to be associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms from adolescence to midlife in this observational study of about 18,000 adolescents followed up until they were 32 to 42 years old.
SUTD physicists unlock the mystery of thermionic emission in graphene
SUTD researchers discover a new theory that paves the way for the design of better graphene electronics and energy converters.
Community responders more likely to seek help during overdose when naloxone does not work
Calling emergency services is an integral part of overdose response training.
China is on track to meet its ultra-low emissions goals for 2020
Polluting emissions from Chinese thermal power plants declined significantly between 2014 and 2017, according to research involving UCL.
Soft robot programmed to move like an inchworm
University of Toronto Engineering researchers have created a miniature robot that can crawl with inchworm-like motion.
Violence linked to social isolation, hypervigilance and chronic health problems
Exposure to violence can negatively impact a person's physical and psychosocial health, according to two new studies published in the policy journal Health Affairs.
Early breeding season for some Arctic seabirds due global warming
The breeding season of some seabirds in Arctic regions takes place earlier as a result of the temperature rise caused by climate change, according to a science article with Francisco Ramírez, from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of Barcelona -as one of the main authors.
Common denominator that triggers asthma in favorable environments
Some so-called pro-allergic environments strongly promote the development of asthma and are responsible for the dramatic increase in the prevalence of asthma, especially in industrialized countries.
Genome-edited bull passes on hornless trait to calves
For the past two years, researchers at the University of California, Davis, have been studying six offspring of a dairy bull, genome-edited to prevent it from growing horns.
Ancient Maya canals and fields show early and extensive impacts on tropical forests
New evidence in Belize shows the ancient Maya responded to population and environmental pressures by creating massive agricultural features in wetlands, potentially increasing atmospheric CO2 and methane through burn events and farming, according to geographical research at The University of Texas at Austin published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Urban, home gardens could help curb food insecurity, health problems
Food deserts are an increasingly recognized problem in the United States, but a new study from the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, published by Elsevier, indicates urban and home gardens -- combined with nutrition education -- could be a path toward correcting that disadvantage.
Dog owners often inaccurately measure out kibble, study finds
New University of Guelph research finds dog owners are often inaccurate when measuring out kibble using a scoop, putting the dogs at risk of under-nourishment or weight gain.
Large, long-term study suggests link between eating mushrooms and a lower risk of prostate cancer
Results from the first long-term cohort study of more than 36,000 Japanese men over decades suggest an association between eating mushrooms and a lower risk of prostate cancer.
Cell death blocker prevents healthy cells from dying
Researchers have discovered a proof-of-concept drug that can prevent healthy cells from dying in the laboratory.
Dual approach needed to save sinking cities and bleaching corals
Local conservation can boost the climate resilience of coastal ecosystems, species and cities and buy them time in their fight against sea-level rise, ocean acidification and warming temperatures, a study by scientists at Duke University and Fudan University suggests.
Bacteria trapped -- and terminated -- by graphene filter
Rice University chemists transform their laser-induced graphene into an air filter that not only traps pathogens but also kills them with a small blast of electricity.
Study: More behavioral health care linked to small drop in gun-related suicides
An increase in behavioral health providers is associated with a slight decrease in gun-related suicides, but the difference is small and points to a need to tackle gun violence in other ways, according to the authors of a new study.
Secrets of lung cancer spread found in patients' blood and biopsies
Early signs that a patient's lung cancer may spread and become untreatable can be picked up in samples of their blood and tumor, according to a trio of papers published in Nature Medicine.
Saturn surpasses Jupiter after the discovery of 20 new moons
Move over Jupiter; Saturn is the new moon king. A team led by Carnegie's Scott S.
The story of thalidomide continues
An international study co-authored by researchers at Tokyo Tech and Tokyo Medical University has unveiled a detailed view of how thalidomide, one of the most notorious drugs ever developed, causes abnormalities in limb and ear development.
Scientists observe year-long plateaus in decline of type Ia supernova light curves
A team of scientists, including a researcher from Queen's University Belfast, have discovered that the fading of infrared light following Type Ia supernovae explosions can be interrupted, with brightness staying the same for up to a year.
Pressure may be key to fighting climate change with thermoelectric generators
Pressure improves the ability of materials to turn heat into electricity and could potentially be used to create clean generators, according to new work from a team that includes Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov and Viktor Struzhkin published in Nature Materials.
UNAIDS HIV targets will be missed among gay men in Africa, study suggests
Despite improvements in HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa, many are missing out on HIV treatment.
Voltage gated calcium channels 'read' electric patterns in embryos to create cartilage and bone
Scientists have revealed how the electrical patterns formed within an embryo initiate a cascade of molecular changes that culminate in the development of cartilage and bone.
Computer model helps make sense of human memory
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and the RIKEN Center for Brain Science have created an artificial network to simulate the brain, demonstrating that tinkering with inhibitory circuits leads to extended memory.
Distributing essential medicines for free resulted in a 44% increase in adherence
A new study out of St. Michael's Hospital's MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions in Toronto found that distributing essential medicines at no charge to patients resulted in a 44% increase in people taking their medications.
Four UC Davis studies report on key issues in preventing gun violence
Three research studies by the UC Davis Violence Prevention Research Program (VPRP) -- all embargoed for release in Health Affairs Oct.
Research on US child firearm injuries lags far behind studies of other causes of death
Firearm injuries kill 2,500 American children each year, and send 12,000 to the ER.
Atopic dermatitis: How allergens get on our nerves
Atopic dermatitis, or eczema, primarily affects infants and children. A skin disease characterized by flare-ups, it is often treated with topical anti-inflammatories.
Mason scientists invent new technology to streamline drug discovery
George Mason University researchers have discovered the exact location where two proteins responsible for hiding cancer cells from the immune system bind using a transformative protein painting technology.
New capsule can orally deliver drugs that usually have to be injected
MIT engineers designed a drug capsule that can carry insulin or other protein drugs and protect them from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract.

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