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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | October 08, 2019


Fun run
Attention runners: The next time you go out for a jog, you might want to strap a light resistance band between your feet.
Smaller than a coin
ETH researchers have developed a compact infrared spectrometer. It's small enough to fit on a computer chip but can still open up interesting possibilities -- in space and in everyday life.
Thin to win
University of Utah electrical and computer engineering researchers have developed a new kind of optical lens that is much thinner and lighter than conventional camera lenses that also works with night imaging, a future boon for smartphones that could flatten those unsightly 'camera bumps' as well as for drones and night vision cameras for soldiers.
The effectiveness of electrical stimulation in producing spinal fusion
Researchers from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data on the effect of electrical stimulation therapies on spinal fusion.
Air pollution linked to hair loss, new research reveals
The research was conducted by exposing cells from the human scalp at the base of hair follicles, known as human follicle dermal papilla cells, to various concentrations of PM10-like dust and diesel particulate.
Pressure runs high at edge of solar system
Out at the boundary of our solar system, pressure runs high.
Scientists observe a single quantum vibration under ordinary conditions
Scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature.
A cool alternative to air conditioning
An inexpensive passive cooling technology could be used to cool buildings in cities, reducing energy consumption.
DNA metabarcoding useful for analyzing human diet
A new study demonstrates that DNA metabarcoding provides a promising new method for tracking human plant intake, suggesting that similar approaches could be used to characterize the animal and fungal components of human diets.
Experimental growth factor shows promise for treating knee osteoarthritis
A new experimental growth factor therapy appears to prevent a worsening of osteoarthritis by increasing the thickness of cartilage in the knee joint and preventing further loss, according to results from an early clinical trial that were published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Scientists discover new antibiotic in tropical forest
Scientists from Rutgers University and around the world have discovered an antibiotic produced by a soil bacterium from a Mexican tropical forest that may help lead to a 'plant probiotic,' more robust plants and other antibiotics.
Fish in early childhood reduces risk of disease
It doesn't take that much fish for young children to reap big health benefits.
New addiction treatments hold promise for stemming the opioid crisis, scientists say
Concerns over the opioid epidemic have sparked a strong scientific interest in why some people become addicted while others don't.
A close up on the real world --- atomic migration under ambient conditions
Osaka University researchers have reported an environmental transmission electron microscopy technique that has allowed in situ visualization of the atomic changes of a metal surface in an electric field under ambient conditions.
Weight stigma affects gay men on dating apps
Weight stigma is an issue for queer men using dating apps, says a new University of Waterloo study.
Sweet corn growers, processors could dramatically increase yield, profit
In an industry struggling to maintain profitability, it's curious that U.S. processing sweet corn - the corn that ends up in cans and freezer bags - is falling so far below its potential.
Patented concept from Halle: novel, high-performance diodes and transistors
Today's computer processors are increasingly pushed to their limits due to their physical properties.
A simple way to control swarming molecular machines
The swarming behavior of about 100 million molecular machines can be controlled by applying simple mechanical stimuli such as extension and contraction.
Identifying a cyanobacterial gene family that helps control photosynthesis
A new Michigan State University study has identified a family of genes in cyanobacteria that help control carbon dioxide fixation.
Research identifies factors influencing how religious identity interacts with workplace
To address gaps in the literature on how employees' religious and work identities interact, a new study reviewed relevant research to help employers support religious identity and reduce conflict in the workplace.
Details of dental wear revealed
The teeth of mammals experience constant wear. However, the details of these wear processes are largely unknown.
Tau-mediated RNA splicing errors linked to Alzheimer's disease
A collaborative study provides evidence for a new molecular cause for neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease that links alterations in RNA splicing and tau-mediated neurodegeneration.
In 2 states, legalization of recreational marijuana found to have little effect on crime
A new study funded by a grant from the National Institute of Justice sought to determine the effect of this legal change on crimes rates.
Low intelligence linked to suicide risk later in life
People with low scores on intelligence tests in adolescence run a higher risk of suicide and suicide attempt later in life.
Lymphoma stage at diagnosis may predict when and where new cancer forms
Colorado study shows the stage at which lymphoma is originally diagnosed impacts the types of second cancers that may form after treatment.
The Lancet: Evidence of mistreatment of women during childbirth in four low-income countries
Physical and verbal abuse during childbirth peaked between 30 minutes before birth until 15 minutes after birth, and mistreatment was more common in younger, less educated women, according to a study in The Lancet which combined observations of 2,016 women during labour and childbirth with surveys of 2,672 women post-childbirth in Ghana, Guinea, Myanmar, and Nigeria.
Cooling nanotube resonators with electrons
In a study in Nature Physics, ICFO researchers report on a technique that uses electron transport to cool a nanomechanical resonator near the quantum regime.
Regular exercise is good for your heart, no matter how old you are!
Regular exercise is highly beneficial for all patients with cardiovascular disease regardless of age, report investigators in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, published by Elsevier.
Severe allergic reactions identified with peripherally inserted central catheters
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) that use a magnetized tip to guide insertion were associated with serious allergic reactions in patients, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal for the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Melanoma variability at the single-cell level predicts treatment responses
In a new study published in EBioMedicine, researchers with Moffitt Cancer Center's Donald A.
Online patient portal usage linked to higher rates of flu shots, blood pressure checks
Patients who use online platforms connected to their health records are more likely to take preventative health measures.
Study reveals limitations of method for determining protein structure
A new study by chemists at the University of Arkansas shows that X-ray crystallography, the standard method for determining the structure of proteins, can provide inaccurate information about membrane proteins, which in turn could lead to poor and inefficient drug design.
UA research shows drug can extend survival rates for heart failure patients
Blood pressure medication can prevent fluid retention and muscle wasting in heart failure.
Cheap as chips: identifying plant genes to ensure food security
An international team of scientists led by the University of Goettingen has developed a new approach enabling researchers to more efficiently identify the genes that control plant traits.
Relatively unhappy
Temporary or informally employed people are less satisfied with their lives than those with a permanent job.
Need to balance guides development of limb-body coordination
The need to feel balanced drives the development of coordination between body and limbs as zebrafish larvae learn to swim, a new study finds.
A simple intervention enduringly reduces anti-Muslim sentiment
Research from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Northwestern and University of Granada, found that a simple intervention can reduce anti-Muslim hostility by calling out the hypocrisy of blaming an entire group -- but not your own -- for the act of a single person.
Influenza evolution patterns change with time, complicating vaccine design
Skoltech scientists discovered new patterns in the evolution of the influenza virus.
Rice bran may help curb malnutrition, diarrhea for infants
A new study led by Colorado State University found that adding rice bran for infants who were being weaned from their mother's milk resulted in them receiving more nutrients that enhanced growth and reduced diarrhea.
Believing in climate change doesn't mean you are preparing for climate change, study finds
Notre Dame researchers found that although coastal homeowners may perceive a worsening of climate change-related hazards, these attitudes are largely unrelated to a homeowner's expectations of actual home damage.
Large study reveals PTSD has strong genetic component like other psychiatric disorders
In the largest and most diverse genetic study of PTSD to date, scientists from UC San Diego School of Medicine and more than 130 institutions in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium found that genetics accounts for 5 to 20% of the variability in PTSD risk following a traumatic event.
Buying less is better than buying 'green' -- for the planet and your happiness
A University of Arizona-led study found that people who consume less are happier than those who engage in other pro-environmental consumer behaviors, like buying environmentally friendly products.
Stabilizing multilayer flows may improve transportation of heavy oils
During the past 20 years, the oil industry has begun to transition away from light oils toward heavier oils.
Genes play a role in dog breed differences in behavior
Border collies are highly trainable, greyhounds love to chase, and German shepherds make good guard dogs.
The deeper these octopuses live, the wartier their skin
Deep beneath the ocean's surface, surprisingly cute pink octopuses creep along the seafloor.
Mapping normal breast development to better understand cancer
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, and some forms rank among the most difficult to treat.
Study: Innovative pancreatic cancer treatment may rev up immune system
A research team at the University of Rochester Wilmot Cancer Institute reports that combining a type of radiation therapy with immunotherapy not only cures pancreatic cancer in mice, but appears to reprogram the immune system to create an 'immune memory' in the same way that a vaccine keeps the flu away.
New large-sized insect species discovered in tropical forest
Scientists at the Biodiversity Unit of the University of Turku in Finland have studied the diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps for years.
Pharmacists provide patient value in team-based care
As part of an innovative model being used at UNT Health Science Center, Dr.
Accidental discovery of strong and unbreakable molecular switch
An organic material that can repeatedly change shape without breaking would have many useful applications, such as artificial muscles, pumps or as a switch.
The science Of Breaking Bad: Would you know if meth was cooked inside your house?
Researchers analysed the contamination levels in household items from a home suspected to have previously been used for cooking methamphetamine, to determine whether surface wipe samples can adequately establish contamination and define the health risks.
NYU scholar makes recommendations to end disparities in stem for English learners
In her latest research article, published in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), NYU Professor Okhee Lee provides recommendations to support a federal mandate in the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 which requires that English language proficiency standards align with content standards.
When laying their eggs, tobacco hawkmoths avoid plants that smell of caterpillar feces
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology demonstrated that not only plant odors determine the best oviposition site for egglaying hawkmoths, but also the frass of other larvae.
Modern family roles improve life satisfaction for parents
Increased equality has a positive effect on mothers and fathers.
Badger behavior inside the cull zone
A study led by researchers at international conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London) and Imperial College London has found that culling drives badgers to roam 61% further afield -- helping to explain why the practice, intended to reduce bovine TB transmission, can sometimes exacerbate the problem instead
WVU-led study reveals uptick in suicide and fatal drug overdoses among blacks, Hispanics, women
New research from Ian Rockett, professor emeritus of the WVU School of Public Health, shows that suicides among blacks, Hispanics and women are underreported.
Maternal obesity hastens offspring aging, increasing diabetes & heart disease likelihood
New research in The Journal of Physiology has shown that the effects of maternal obesity even pass across generations to offspring, accelerating the rate of aging of metabolic problems that occur in normal life.
Yale study examines shifts in fertility rates among Generation X women
A new, Yale-led study examines shifts in fertility behaviors among Generation X women in the United States -- those born between 1965-1982 -- compared to their Baby Boomer counterparts, and explores whether the fertility of college-educated women is increasing more quickly across cohorts in Generation X than the fertility of their less educated counterparts.
One in three young adults receive medication for opioid use disorder after overdose
A new study found that one in three young adults receive medication for opioid use disorder within 12 months of a non-fatal opioid overdose.
Craving junk food after a sleepless night?
When you're sleep deprived, you reach for doughnuts and pizza.
Flagging false Facebook posts as satire helps reduce belief
If you want to convince people not to trust an inaccurate political post on Facebook, labeling it as satire can help, a new study finds.
Research maps key signaling pathways linking calcium entry and exit in activated T cells
Like entrance and exit doors on a building, a cell's outer surface has doors -- channels, pumps, and transporters that selectively control what molecules enter or exit.
Pesticide companies leverage regulations for financial gains
Some pesticide companies may put profit ahead of protecting the public from potential harms.
Scientists identify molecule that could have helped cells thrive on early Earth
A new study, led by Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, PhD, of Scripps Research, and Sheref Mansy, PhD, of the University of Trento, offers an explanation for how ''protocells'' could have emerged on early Earth, eventually leading to the cells we know today.
New evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth
New evidence from a World Health Organization (WHO)-led study in four countries shows more than one-third of women experience mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities.
SwRI hypersonic research spotlights future flight challenges
Southwest Research Institute engineers are advancing what researchers know about hypersonic flight.
PET offers more precise screening method to select candidates for radionuclide therapy
PET scanning can offer more precise selection of patients for neuroendocrine tumor therapy, allowing some patients to qualify who would otherwise have been ineligible, according to an article featured in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Study recommends special protection of emperor penguins
In a new study published this week in the journal Biological Conservation, an international team of researchers recommends the need for additional measures to protect and conserve one of the most iconic Antarctic species -- the emperor penguin (Aptenodyptes forsteri).
Paclitaxel-coated devices are safe for unblocking arteries in lower limbs
A study in the European Heart Journal of nearly 65,000 people has shown that devices coated with a drug called paclitaxel that are used for widening blocked arteries in legs and feet are safe and not linked to an increase in deaths -- a finding that contradicts smaller studies that led to the FDA issuing a safety alert about the use of paclitaxel-coated stents and balloons for arterial revascularisation in the lower limbs in January 2019.
New study challenges our understanding of premature ageing
Disturbances in the function of mitochondrial DNA can accelerate the ageing process in ways that are different than previously thought, according to a new Finnish study published in Nature Metabolism.
Using machine learning to understand climate change
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas added to the atmosphere through both natural and human activities.
Who is telling the truth about their health?
When researchers or policymakers ask health related questions -- which they do a lot -- they often rely on self-reported rather than tested health data.
New approach for modern power grids that increases efficiency, reduces cost
SUTD worked with International Researchers to develop a novel approach to allow for a small, well-defined risk of constraint violation to overcome the challenges that come with conservative current approaches used in modern power grids.
Developing electrically active materials to repair damaged hearts
When a heart attack occurs, muscle in the heart tissue can be scarred, interfering with electrical activity necessary for healthy heart function.
Research supports expanding insurance coverage of non-invasive prenatal testing
Research conducted by the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences provides evidence to support expansion of insurance plan coverage of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), a simple maternal blood draw which screens for fetal chromosomal disorders including trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), and trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), to women under the age of 35.
Forward or backward? New pathways for protons in water or methanol
A collaborative ultrafast spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations study shows that proton vacancies in the form of hydroxide/methoxide ions are as relevant for proton transfer between acids and bases as hydrated excess protons, thus pointing for a clear demand for refinement of the microscopic picture for aqueous proton transport - in solution as well as in hydrogen fuel cells or transmembrane proteins - away from currently often assumed dominant role of hydrated excess protons.
Screening kindergarten readiness
University of Missouri College of Education researchers have found that a readiness test can predict kindergarteners' success in school after 18 months.
Creating a single phonon in ambient conditions
EPFL physicists have for the first time successfully observed a single quantum of vibrational energy at ambient conditions, involving the oscillation of more than 100 billion atoms.
Rice irrigation worsened landslides in deadliest earthquake of 2018 finds NTU study
Irrigation significantly exacerbated the earthquake-triggered landslides in Palu, on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in 2018, according to an international study led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) scientists.
Study of past California wildfire activity suggest climate change will worsen future fires
A new study finds that climate has been the dominant controller of wildfire activity in the Sierra Nevada region of the past 1,400 years, suggesting that future climate change is poised to make fires worse.
UMD discovers new mechanism in the liver that helps prevent invasive fungal infections
An expert in intravital microscopy, Meiqing Shi, University of Maryland, is making breakthroughs in invasive fungal infections.
Skin cancer prevention program may have reduced melanoma in Australians
A skin cancer prevention program called SunSmart may have contributed to a recent reduction in melanoma among younger residents of Melbourne, according to a study published Oct.
Children's language skills may be harmed by social hardship
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds are three times more likely to develop difficulties with language than those from more affluent areas, research suggests.
How can ultrasonic brain stimulation cure brain diseases?
IBS scientists found a calcium channel expressed in astrocytes in the brain to be a highly sensitive target for LILFU-induced neuronal activity in the motor cortex, such as tail movement.
Dog ownership associated with longer life, especially among heart attack and stroke survivors
Dog ownership was associated with a 33% lower risk of death for heart attack survivors living alone and 27% reduced risk of death for stroke survivors living alone, compared to people who did not own a dog.
Prenatal stress could affect baby's brain, say researchers
New research from King's College London has found that maternal stress before and during pregnancy could affect a baby's brain development.
Four Loko continues to wreak havoc among young drinkers
Supersized alcopops -- such as Four Loko -- are sugary high alcohol beverages containing up to 5.5 standard drinks of alcohol in one 23.5 oz. can.
Hormone therapy has a bigger impact than chemotherapy on women's quality of life in bc
Contrary to the commonly held view, 2 years after diagnosis, hormone therapy, a highly effective breast cancer treatment worsens quality of life to a greater extent and for a longer time, especially in menopausal patients.
Unlocking the secrets of gallstones
How gallstones are formed in the body was previously unknown, despite the fact that they are among the ten most common reasons for a stay in hospital.
Meet the 'mold pigs,' a new group of invertebrates from 30 million years ago
Fossils preserved in Dominican amber reveal a new family, genus and species of microinvertebrate from the mid-Tertiary period, a discovery that shows unique lineages of the tiny creatures were living 30 million years ago.
How to keep cool in a blackout during a heatwave
If there is no power for air-conditioning, and tap water is the only resource available, spreading it across the skin is the best way to prevent the body overheating irrespective of the climate, according to a new study from the University of Sydney.
Focus on employability boosts universities' success in the Teaching Excellence Framework
Universities' Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) grades -- designed to help students choose where to study -- are being boosted for the institutions that highlight employability post-university and student outcomes in their TEF submission reports, according to a new study published in Educational Review.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Rethinking Anger
Anger is universal and complex: it can be quiet, festering, justified, vengeful, and destructive. This hour, TED speakers explore the many sides of anger, why we need it, and who's allowed to feel it. Guests include psychologists Ryan Martin and Russell Kolts, writer Soraya Chemaly, former talk radio host Lisa Fritsch, and business professor Dan Moshavi.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.